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PSYCHE. 

A. JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY. 
[Established in 1S74.] 



VOLUME 6. 
1891-1893. 



Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

Cambridge Entomological Club. 

1S93. 

d?5) 



351915' 

I'BRARt 



W 



CONTENTS. 



Aldrich, J. M. A new genus and species of Tabanidae. Figures 

The dolichopodid genus Liancalus Loew ...... 

Ashmead, William Harris. Three new Pambolids from the United States 
On the species of the genus Mirax found in North America 

Banks, Nathan. A new American Lacinius 

Bean, Thomas E. Arctia yarrowii in Canada ...... 

Beutenmuller, William. Descriptions of the larva and pupa of Scotobates calca 
ratus Fabr. ........... 

Description of the preparatory stages of Callosamia promethea Drurj 
Blanchard, Frederick. On an important character, hitherto little noticed, in th 
family Buprestidae ......... 

Blatchley, W. S. An unusual appearance of Schistocerca americana 

Cholodkowsky, N. The morphology and phylogeny of insects. 
Clarke, Cora H. Caddis-worms of Stony Brook. Figures 
Cockerell, Thomas D. A. Brief notes on two Jamaica Papilionidae 

Early stages of two Jamaica Nymphalidae 

Two new forms of Diaspinae .... 



Doherty, W. Green butterflies. .... 
Dyar, Harrison G. Descriptions of the preparatory stage 
cinerea Walk 

Preparatory stages of Heterocampa unicolor Pack. 

Notes on Bombycid larvae .... 

A list of the Bombyces found in the electric-light globe: 

On the specific distinctness of Halisidota harrisii, with 
stages of the species of Halisidota inhabiting New Yo 

Preparatory stages of Pheosia dimidiata H. S. 

Choice of food ...... 

A correction ....... 

Life history of Orgyia cana Hy. Edw. 

Dryocampa riversii Behr .... 

The larva of Nola minuscula .... 

The larva of Sarrothripa reveyana . 

Notes on Cerura, with descriptions of new species 

Cerura modesta ...... 

Additional notes on Bombycid larvae 

The number of larval stages in the genus Nadata 



110-112 : 145-147 
at Poughkeepsie, N. V 
notes on the preparatory 
k . 



of two forms of C 



236-237 

509-57I 
2S9-290 

377-379 

402-403 

5-3-524 

• 13-H 
94 



53 
465-466 

404-405 

I53-IS8 

450 
481-482 

571-573 
68 

. 80-83 
• 95-96 
177-179 
126-129 

162-166 

194-196 

196 

197 

203-205 

222 

248-249 

259-260 

290-292 

2 93 
323-3 2 6 
337-340 



Dyar, H. G. (Cont.) Preparatory stages of Pheosia portlandia Hv. Edw. . . 35 I_ 353 

Preparatory stages of Clisiocampa erosa Stretch ....... 364-365 

Notes on the larval stages of Arotia blakei Grote ....... 379-3S1 

The larval stages of Ichthyura multnoma Dyar ....... 403-404 

Orgvia badia and other notes, with a table to separate the larvae of Orgy i a . 419-421 

Additions to the list of Bombyces at Poughkeepsie. Figures .... 479-4S0 

A description of the larva of a species of the lintneri group of Gluphisia . . 503-504 

On variation in the venation of an Arctian with notes on other allied genera. 

Plate iq . . . • 511-512 

Notes on Gluphisia ............. 5-9-530 

A correction ............... 556 

A note on the larva of Datana floridana Graef ........ 573 

Eliot, Ida M. and Soule, Caroline G. Smerinthus astylus 31 

Hemaris diffinis ............. 142-145 

Forbes, Stephen Alfred. Experiments with chinch-bugs. ...... 250 

Fox, William Joseph. Synopsis of the North American species of Megacilissa Smith 421-422 
Descriptions of new aculeate Hymenoptera ........ 553-556 

French, George Hazen. The partial preparatory stages of Heteropacha rileyana 

Harvey. ............... 30-31 

Garman, H. On the life history of Diabrotica 12-punctata Oliv. Figures . 2S-30 : 44-49 
Oebalus pugnax an enemy of grasses. . ........ 61 

A supplementary note on Diabrotica 12-punctata 78-S0 

On a singular gland possessed by the male Hadenoecus subterraneus. Figure . . 105 
American Phytoptocecidii. Plate 6 ......... 241-246 

Hampsox, G. F. The click of Ageronia. Figure 491 

Hamilton, John. The new catalogue of European Coleoptera .... 147-148 

Hamilton, John and Henshaw, Samuel. A list of some of the catalogues and local 

lists of North American Coleoptera 160-162: 1SS-193: 205-209 

Henshaw, Samuel. Bibliographical notes ..... 1S0: 293: 440-441: 5^7 

Hood, Lewis E. The Leptidae and Bombylidae of the White Mountains . . 2S3-284 
Heraclides cresphontes ..... ........ 372 

Holland, William Joseph. Descriptions of new West African Lycaenidae; Paper II. 50-53 

The life history of Spalgis s-signata Holl. Plate 4 201-203 

Notes upon the transformations of some African Lepidoptera. Plate 5 . . 213-216 

Descriptions of new species and genera of West African Lepidoptera. Plates 10, 

17, /S, 20, 21; Figures 373~3?6 : 393~ 

400: 411-418: 431-434: 451-454: 469-476: 4S7-490: 513-5^0:531-538: 549-552: 565-568 
Communal cocoons and the moths which weave them. Plate 9 . . . . 385-391 
Hyatt, ALPHEUsand Arms, Jennie Maria. A novel diagrammatic representation of 

the orders of insects. Plate 1 . Figures 11-41 

A general survey of the modes of development in insects, and their meaning . 37~43 

Jack, John George. Notes on three species of Hylotoma ..... 10-11 



Lugger, Otto. Two new lepidopterous borers. Plate 3 ..... 10S-109 

McNeill, Jerome. A list of the Orthoptera of Illinois . . 3-9: 21-27: 62-66: 73-78 

Merrifield, Frederic. Temperature experiments with moths .... 14S-149 

Temperature experiments ........... 106 

Morse, Albert Pitts. A melanistic locust 401-402 

A new species of Stenobothrus from Connecticut, with remarks on other New 

England species. Figures ........... 477~479 

Packard, Alpheus Spring. The Bombycine genus Lagoa, type of a new family. 2S1-2S2 

Notes on the nesting habits of certain bees ........ 340-341 

Notes on Gluphisia and other Notodontidae ...... 499-502: 521-522 

Patton, William Hampton. Synonymy of butterfly parasites .... 261 

S., S. H. Early appearance of Anosia plexippus ....... 491-492 

Scudder, Samuel Hubbard. More damage by white ants in New England . . 15-16 

Lestes eurinus Say ............. 66 

A decade of monstrous beetles. Plate 2 ....... S9-93 

Oeneis and its early stages ........... 99-100 

Some of the early stages of Zerene catenaria ....... 124-126 

Experiments with alpine butterflies ......... 129-130 

The early stages of three Coleoptera ......... 173—175 

The Orthopteran genus Hippiscus ... . . 265-274: 285-288: 301- 

3°4 : 3i7-3 2 o; 333-336: 347-35° : 359-363 
Some notes on the early stages, especially the chrysalis, of a few American 

Sphingidae 435"437 

Sharp, David. Mould in cabinets .......... 461 

Shipp, J. W. An undescribed species of Vespa ........ 450 

Slingerland, Mark Vernon. Some observations upon two species of Bruchus. 

Plate 16 .............. 445-449 

Snow, Francis H. Experiments for the destruction of chinch bugs by infection . 225-233 

Soule, Caroline G. The march of Hyperchiria io ...... . 15 

Harrisimemna trisignata ........... 53 - 54 

Full grown larva and pupa of Deidamia inscripta ...... 116-117 

On the food-habit of Telea polyphemus ... ..... 117 

A moulting habit of larvae of Platysamia ceanothi ...... 133 

Some abnormal larvae ............ 149 

Another Deidamia inscripta ........... 149-150 

Halisidota caryae 158-160 

Food plants ; choice of food ........... 166 

Heteropacha rileyana ............ 193-194 

Nadata gibbosa 197 

The early stages of Nerice bidentata ......... 276-277 

Tardy wing-expansion in Callosamia .......... 505 

Notes 530 

Tutt, J. W. Vanessa milberti, a correction ......... 441 



Townsend, Charles Henry Tyler. Two new Tachinids S3-85 

A new Simulium from southern New Mexico 106-107 

A parasite of the fall web-worm 176-177 

Note on Phorocera promiscua 177 

A tachinid parasite of the oak unicorn prominent 187-188 

Description of a Sarcophaga bred from Helix 220-221 

A new genus of Tachinidae 247 

Tachinid parasite of Eucaterva variaria Grote, and other notes .... 258-259 

An Aporia bred from Limacodes sp. 275-276 

Description of Oestrid larvae taken from the Jack-rabbit and Cotton-tail . . 298-300 
Introduction to Brauer and von Bergenstamm's Vorarbeiten zu einer Mono- 
graphic der Muscaria Schizometopa 313-316: 329-332 

Oviposition of a homopterous insect in Yucca 353 - 354 

An interesting blood-sucking gnat of the family Cironomidae. Plate 8 . . 369-371 
Description of a new and interesting Phasiid-like genus of Tachinidae, s. str. . 429-430 

Description of the pupa of Toxophora virgata O. S 455~457 

Note on Atropharistajurinoides • 461 

Hosts of North American Tachinidae, etc., I. 466-46S 

A cabbage-like cecidomviidous gall on Bigelovia 491 

Note on Dr. Williston's criticisms . 492 

A cock's-comb gall on Rhus microphylla 504-505 

On a fleshy leaf-gall on scrub-oak 523 

Note on a scutellerid on native tobacco in Arizona ...... 547-548 

Van Duzee, Edward P. The North American Jassidae allied to Thamnotetti 



(Pha 



Walsingham, Lord. Protection bv conspicuous colors .... 
Weed, Clarence Moores. A preliminary synopsis of the harvest-spiders 

langiidae) of Mississippi. Plates 11-13 • 

Wheeler, William Morton. Hemidiptera haeckelii .... 

The embryology of a common fly 

The germ band of insects ......... 

Concerning the blood-tissue of the Insecta. Plate 7. . . 216-220:233-236 

The primitive number of Malpighian vessels in insects. Figures. 457-460: 4S5- 

498: 509-510: 539-54i : 545-547 
Wickham, Henry Frederick. Notes on some myrmecophilous Coleoptera 

On the attraction of light for the two sexes of Coleoptera 

Williams, J. Lawton. Clouds of insects 

Williston, Samuel Wendell. A merited honor 

Notes on Tachinidae 

Atropharista jurinoides ............ 

Woodworth, Charles William. On the relation between scientific and econo- 
mic entomology ............. 



305-3 10 
67 

425-429 
. 66-67 

• 97-99 
1 12-1 15 

: 253-258 

486 : 497- 

•• 561-564 

321-323 

391-392 

1S0-181 

346 
409-410 

492 



12-19 



Unsigned Articles. 

A New Introduction to Entomology 14 

Recent English Publications (Buckton's British Cicadae; Moore's Lepidoptera 

Indica; Kirby's Catalogue of Odonata) ......... 14-15 

Entomological Notes (Novitates lepidopterologicae ; Vanessa milberti in Eng- 
land ; Dr. C. Berg, 16. Marine insects; Dr. Weed's appointment, 27. 
Kolbe's Introduction; the oldest phryganid ; eggs of Lycaenidae, 32-33. 
Mr. C P. Gillette; New England spiders; classification of Diptera; trans- 
formations of Coleoptera ; PAbeille, 54. Lowne's Anatomy of the blow-fly; 
reported death of Kiinckel d'Herculais ; distribution of Vanessa carditi, 100- 
101 ; Maynard's Manual of N. A. butterflies; a Cincinnati boy in the tropics; 
the reported death of Kiinckel, 133-134. Monograph of the Conocepha- 
linae ; larva of Micropteryx; hermaphroditic Arthropoda, 150. Announce- 
ments; Moore's Lepidoptera Indica, 166. Prize for essay on insect pests; 
insect appreciation of insect song, 181-182. Catalogue of Elateridae ; two 
interesting papers ; Moore's Lepidoptera Indica ; genera of Aeschnidae; new 
trap door spider; Macrolepidoptera of Buffalo; new works upon British 
insects; Kolbe's Introduction; October meeting of the Entomological society 
of London, 197-198. Reprint of vol. 1 of Psyche ; Labrador insects; Sharp 
eyes; amber insects; Gundlach's Entomologia cubana ; new list of American 
Lepidoptera, 209. Pieris rapae engaged in a new kind of sport; the gypsy 
moth; the amber museum of Stantien and Becker, 237-23S. The gypsy 
moth; biology of the Chalcididae ; Goniops, — a correction, 246. A study of 
California butterflies, 260. Henry Edwards's entomological collection ; cole- 
opterous fauna of the Ecuadorian Andes; formation of new colonies and nests 
by New Zealand ants, 261. Psyche; protective resemblance; new classifica- 
tion of the Acaroidea ; Kolbe's introduction to entomology; Schatz and 
Rober's Families and genera of butterflies ; visits of insects to flowers ; destroy- 
ing the chinch bug in the field; cecidomyian galls; insects of New York, 
277-278. Hudson's New Zealand entomology; Lowne's Blow-fly; Moore's 
Lepidoptera Indica ; a prize in economic entomology ; Heraclides crespkotites 
in Massachusetts, 294. Insects of Custer Co., Colo. ; Opomala brachyptera; 
Riley's Directions for preserving insects; Oenet's semidea; Memorial to H. 
W. Bates; Riley's recent papers ; Jasoniades glaucus ; Kirby's Catalogue of 
moths and Text book; Moore's Lepidoptera Indica; Gundlach's Cuban 
Orthoptera; a coirection, 341-342. A new catalogue of Hemiptera; the 
illness of Dr. Hagen ; enumeration of Iowa insects; the young of mole- 
crickets; Humbert's posthumous work on Myriapoda, 365-366. Development 
of the head of Chironomus; Edwards on Chionobas ; a catalogue of Hymen- 
optera ; strange egg of a Reduviid; Marx's American spiders; Latrodectus 
formidabilis ; a fragment of a manual of our butterflies; Casey on Rhyncho- 
phora ; a new index, 3S1-382. Moore's Lepidoptera Indica; Osten Sacken's 



classification of Diptera orthorrhapha ; Distant's Oriental Cicadidae ; Wash- 
ington entomology, 405-406. Brongniart succeeds Lucas; death of Speyer; 
Kolbe's Introduction, 410. Explanation of plate 10; mouth parts of Apio- 
ceridae; New York insect galls ; anatomy of Orthoptera, 422. Kolbe's Intro- 
duction ; defensive odor in a caterpillar; Alaskan Coleoptera; Gryllidae of 
Indiana; a blind cavernicolous cockroach; Comstock's classification of the 
Lepidoptera; new iconographs of Lepidoptera ; dates of issue of Psyche, 
441-442. Spiders of Indo-Malesia; North American Neuroptera ; phylogeny 
of butterflies, 460. Insect embryology ; revision of the system of Orthoptera ; 
list of Nebraska Orthoptera; exchange of places of Messrs. Townsend and 
Cockerell; the new catalogue of Hemiptera; two new works on butterflies; 
honors to entomologists; explanation of plates 17-18; correction, 492-493. 
Insect paratism ; stridulation in ants; West Virginia Scolytidae ; reissue of 
Hiibner's Exotic butterflies, 505. The seventeen-year locust; the "genuine 
oestrid larva" of the box turtle; Mr. J. M. Aldrich; recent publications, 524- 
525. Kolbe's Introduction ; Weismann on ants-, white ants in the Cambridge 
botanic garden \Cuterebra fontinella, 541). 
Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club (Election of officers ; 
exhibitions. 16. President's address; exhibitions; early stages of Odonata ; 
Ixodes; retractile organs in Craesus ; Atractocerus braziliensis ,' distribution 
of Odonata; early stages of Blepharocera ; various notes on Neuroptera; 
Typhlocybidae ; cutworms, 33-34. Subsegments of butterfly larvae; cocoon 
in Oeneis ; Sphingidae, 54. A?ithocharis genutia ; larva of Lagoa ; election 
of officers; leaf cutting ant; suspension in chrysalis of Thais; Pieris 
oleracea and P. nap i, 69-70. Exhibitions; Hypochilus, 86. Injury by Otio- 
rhynchus; Satumia io ; copulatory organs of Agalena; fossil insect locali- 
ties in the West; milk-weed butterfly; muscardine ; Ocneria dispar ; fossil 
butterflies, 101-102. Anax; fossil plant-lice ; election of officers, 118. Books 
for beginners; injury to wooden water-pipes, 134. Fossil insects; Neonym- 
p/ia canthus ; Platyblemmus ; Pteromalus, 150. Exhibitions, 166. Injury by 
white ants; insects in stomachs of woodpeckers, 182. Zopherus ; monstrosi- 
ties, 19S. Variation in Bryodema tuberculata ; New England Attidae ; 
Aphodius pumilus ; election of officers; young larvae of Oeneis, 210. Celia ; 
Amblycheila piccolominii, 238. Melanoplus minor; larval filaments in 
Anosia; development of Oeneis semidea ; exhibitions, 250. Election of 
officers; capture of Orthoptera ; exhibitions; ink from butterfly scales; the 
genus Hippiscus; red larvae on snow, 261-262. Corethra, 294. Origin of 
ant-fauna of Europe; Pelecinus polycerator; species of Colias; 300. Antho- 
master leonardus ; Callidryas eubule, 366. North American Phasmidae; 
earliest occunence of injurious beetles, 372. Embryonic and paleozoic 
Phasmidae compared; malformations in embryo Dissosteira; exhibition of 
specimens, 406. Officers for 1892, 410. Change of by-laws; Melanoplus 
atlanis ; Metrypa in the United States; illustrations of fossil insects; papers 
on Arctia and Stenobothrus, 461-462. Tropaeolum as food of Pieris rapae ; 
races of Schistocerca literosa on the Galapagos, 494. Mycetophaetus a Penthe- 
tria; lepidopterous fauna of the Bahamas ; stridulation of Lepidoptera ; exhibi- 
bitions; embryology of the sheep tick, 525). 



Brongniart on Prothoracic Wings in Carboniferous Insects 31 

A Hint from Embryology 32 

Some old Correspondence between Harris, Say and Pickering. Figures. 57-60: 121- 

124: 137-141 : 169-172 : 185-187 : 297-298: 345-346: 357-358 

Personal Notes 60,86,93, 118, 292 

forel on the habits of brachytrypus ......... 6s 

Bugnion on Alpine Faunas 68-69 

The Abbe Provancher's work in Canada 69 

Edwards's Butterflies of North America 85-86:221-222 

Packard's Forest-insects 86 

Bibliography (The proboscis of the blow-fly ; the foot of the same). . . . 115-116 

Recent Literature (Tutt's British Noctuae ; Bugnion's Postembryonal develop- 
ment, habits, and anatomy of Encyrtus ; Foerster's Insects of the middle oligo- 
cene of Brunstatt, 117. Transactions of the American entomological society; 
Insect life; the "jumping bean" ; Kolbe's Introduction. 132. Buckton's British 
Cicadae; succession of wing colors in chrysalids of butterflies: a cyclopean 
honey-bee, 222). 

Edward Burgess 131 

The London Insectary 131-132 

A Dipterous Parasite of the Toad 249 

Henry Walter Bates 249-250 

Dohrn and Burmeister ^oo 

John Witt Randall ojg 

A Lower Silurian Insect from Sweden ......... 365 



Ants Breeding in and in 



372 



A Monograph of North American Tachinidae 3S1 

Lepidopterological Notes (A. grant from the Bache Fund ; the Knyvett collection 

of Indian Lepidoptera at Pittsburg ; Indiana butterflies) ...... 302 



Westwood and Stainton 



405 



Hymenoptera of Madagascar 449 

Local Notes (Dr. Packard's insect types; Dr. J. W. Randall; the gypsy moth) . . 512 



For Brief Notes, Foreign Notes. General Notes, Literary Notes, Miscellaneous Notes, and 
Notes, see Entomological Notes. 



76 5 7^ 



PSYCH 




A. JCDTJJR,2<rJ±JL, OF ENTOMOLOGY. 
[Established in 1S74.] 

Vol. 6. No. 177. 

January, 1891. 

CONTENTS: 

A List of the O.^thoiter v of Illinois, — I. Gryllidae. — yerome McNeill . 3 

Notes on Three Species of Hylotoma. — J. G. Jack ...... 10 

A Novel Diagrammatic Representation of the Orders of Insects (Plate I.) 

— Alp he us Hyatt, J. M. Arms 11 

Descriptions of the Larva and Pupa of Scotobates calcaratus Fabr. — Wm. 

Bcntenmult '■*; ............. 13 

A New Introduction to Entomology ......... 14 

Recent English Publications (Buckton's British Cicadae: Moore's Lepidoptera 

Indica; Kirby's Catalogue of Odonata) ......... 14 

The March of Hyperchiria 10. — Caroline G. Soule ...... 15 

More Damage by White Ants r*r New England. — S. H. Scudder . . . 15 

Miscellaneous Notes . . . 16 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club ...... 16 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS, 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



PSYCHE. 



[January, 1S91 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

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The index will only be sent to subscribers to the 
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Twenty-five extra copies, without change of 
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Author's extras over twenty-five in number, 
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COLLECTION OF INSECTS FOR SALE. 



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Terms Cash — strictly in advance. 
' Only thoroughly respectable advertisements 
will be allowed in Psyche. The editors reserve the 
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Comprises 52 drawers (10 X 14 in-) butterflies 
taken by the undersigned in Mass. and N. H. 
spread, arranged, and labeled with name, locality 
and date — 88 species (over 2000 specimens) besides 
many larvae and pupae ; very complete and care- 
fully assorted series and many very rare species ; 20 
drawers unlabeled miscellaneous insects (1500 
species) collected in Mass. All nearly new and in 
first class condition. Drawers lined with cork, 
paper covered ; sliding glass covers. All in 3 closed 
cabinets. 

F. H. Sprague, 

Wollaston, Mass. 

BIBLIOTHECA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

Catalogue of second hand works on entomology, 
containing the library of the late W. Ehlers, Consul 
of the German Empire at Cartagena, Spain, and a 
large portion of the library of the late J. Ch. Puis, 
of Ghent, Belgium. 

Sent postpaid on application. 

Felix L. Dames, 
Natural History Bookseller, 

47 Tauben-Strasse, 
Berlin, W., Germany 

The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
by the Cambridge Entomological Club: 

Bulletin Brooklyn Entomological Club, Vol. 
I, 1878-1879 $2.00 

Burgess, E. Contributions to the anatomy 
of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archippus. 
Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . . 1.00 

Casey, Thomas L. Contributions to the descrip- 
tive and systematic Coleopterology of North 

America. Part I-II 1.00 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New England. 
Boston, 1858 1.50 

Schwarz, E. A. The Coleoptera of Florida .50 

Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged insects 
of America: a re-examination of the Devon- 
an insects of New Brunswick, in the light of 
criticisms and of new studies of other paleo- 
zoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Weber, F. Nomenclator entomologicus. 
Chilonii et Hamburgi, 1795, 171 p. . . .50 

Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 



PSYCHE. 



A LIST OF THE ORTHOPTERA OF ILLINOIS.— I. 



BY JEROME MCNEILL, FAYETTEVILLE, ARK. 



The following list is an enumeration 
of all the species of Orthoptera known 
to me to occur within the State, as well 
as those species reported by others but 
not identified by the writer. Names 
of the last mentioned class are preceded 
by an asterisk and accompanied by the 
name of the person upon whose author- 
ity they are inserted. If the species is 
uncommon, one or more localities in 
which it has been or is reported to have 
been captured will be given. The 
earliest date, known to me, of the ap- 
pearance of each species will be given 
and unless otherwise stated this date 
will be understood to be the recorded 
time of their appearance or capture 
at Rock Island, 111. 

Gryllidae. 

i. Tridactyhts apicalis Say. Urba- 
na, July 7. Quincy, Sept. 6. Found 
in abundance on a sand bar in the 
river at the List mentioned place by 
Mr. C. A. Hart of Illinois Univer- 
sity. 

*2. Tridactyhts terminal is Uhler. 
Southern Illinois (Thomas, Uhler). 

3. Tridactylus minutus Scudder. 
Champaign, Aug. 20. 

4. Gryllotalpa Columbia Scudder. 



This "long-winged" mole-cricket I 
have found in a single locality on Rock 
Island. This place is between Fort 
Armstrong and the Powder House on 
the southern side of the Island. Here 
the shore is flat and sandy and thickly 
strewn with fragments of bark and 
wood brought down by the river from 
the saw-mills at Moline and left on the 
low shores by the receding water. My 
attention was attracted the first time I 
had the good fortune to walk that way 
by observing that from many of these 
pieces of bark which were within a few 
feet of the water a number of little 
ridges radiated in crooked lines which, 
however, never seemed to intersect each 
other. An exploration of these tunnels 
revealed at the end of almost every one 
opened a cricket large or small. Au- 
gust. 

5. Gryllotalpa borcalis Burm. I 
have found this species as early as June 
25 in eastern Indiana. Its first appear- 
ance about Moline is early in August. 
At this season of the year at least it is 
solitary as all the specimens I have cap- 
tured have been the sole occupants of 
burrows. Mr. Scudder has compared 
its song to that of "the distant sound of 
frogs." I have been struck with the 



PSYCHE. 



January 1S91.] 



resemblance of its note to that of Oecan- 
thus nivcus. To my ear the only dis- 
cernable difference is that of pitch. 
This song is a simple chirp, very low 
in pitch for an orthopteron, repeated at 
intervals of about a second. This spe- 
cies can be made to eject from their 
cerci a grayish viscid substance and 
this substance can be thrown several 
inches. Of what use this faculty is to 
the insect I can only conjecture as I 
have seen the occurrence but twice. 
That it is protective in character is very 
probable as the phenomenon has only 
occurred in my experience when the 
insect has been very much maltreated. 
The ejected mass does not have any 
noticeably bad odor and if it is used to 
repel the attacks of enemies it is most 
probably efficient because it entangles 
the feet and perhaps covers the eyes of 
the unfriendly insect. 

6. Gryllus litctnosiis Serv. Very 
rare. I have captured a single specimen 
at the electric light and on one occasion 
I allowed a long winged black speci- 
men which could not be referred to any 
other species, to escape me in the long 
grass. I have seen another specimen 
taken by Mr. C. A. Hart at the electric 
light in Urbana, June 1 7. All the speci- 
mens I have seen from Illinois are de- 
cidedly smaller than specimens from 
Florida and than those whose dimensions 
are given by Saussure. 

7. Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burm. 
Moline, June 3. This species may be, 
as Mr. Saussure is inclined to believe, a 
short-winged form of the preceding 
species. Except for the shortened or 



abortive wings it is scarcely different 
from G. luctuosus, which is abundant 
southward and very rare in the northern 
States and Canada. From Maryland to 
Massachusetts and Northern Illinois 
G. pennsylvanicus is common but 
it is not reported from Canada and 
is probably not found as far north as 
Maine. The species of the genus are so 
extremely variable and consequently so 
difficult to separate that the whole sub- 
ject is in much doubt. This confusion 
has been so great that I am inclined to 
think that the habits of entirely different 
species have been confused so as to lead 
to serious misunderstanding and worse 
confusion. I advance my opinion on this 
point however with the greatest hesita- 
tion and I am free to acknowledge 
that I do not feel entirely sure in my 
own mind of my conclusions. 

In speaking of the habits of these 
Orthoptera a late writer, Mr. Lawrence 
Brunei", says : "Usually most of our 
North American Grylli live singly or in 
pairs in burrows which they dig for 
themselves. These are used as retreats 
during the daytime and serve as shelter 
from ordinary inclemencies of weather. 
These burrows are generally forsaken 
about mid-summer for some sort of above- 
ground shelter. From this time on, 
until fall, they appear to be more social 
and live in colonies under various sorts 
of rubbish. Grain-shocks are a favorite 
haunt for them, and since twine has 
been used for binding, the crickets have 
been quite troublesome by cutting the 
bands. During late summer and fall 
the females commence preparations for 



January 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



the continuance of their kind, by thrust- 
ing their long, slender ovipositors into 
the loose soil and dropping their eggs. 
These sometimes hatch the same year, 
but, as a rule, lie over until the follow- 
ing spring. The young generally live 
above ground, where they hide among 
fallen leaves, grasses, and other debris, 
though sometimes they also creep into 
chinks and crevices in the earth." 

My limited observation leads me to 
conclude that the description just quoted 
applies to no single species. The burrow 
making species is G. ■pennsylvanicus 
and, probably, G. luctuosus. The social 
crickets are G. abbreviatus and G. 
neglectus, which is probably a variety 
of the first. Briefly recounted, the life 
history of G. abbreviatus is as follows. 
The eggs hatch in this latitude in July, 
and the first adults appear as early as 
the second week in August. During 
every stage of life they are social, feed- 
ing together, seeking shelter in company 
and when egg laying time comes, in 
October, the females collect by hundreds 
in some suitable locality, an abandoned 
or little used roadway suits them well, 
and each lays several hundred eggs in 
an irregular mass. After this duty is 
performed their business on this planet 
seems to be finished and they succumb 
to the cold, none surviving the winter. 
The eggs do not hatch until the follow- 
ing July or if in rare cases they do they 
probably perish with cold. 

In Florida, Gryllus luctuosus attains 
its growth in December. G. pennsyl- 
vanicus, which is probably merely the 
short winged form of the former, is not 



found in the southern States and in the 
middle States it does not have time to 
complete its metamorphoses in the fall 
and consequently survives the winter in 
the larval and pupal stages. In the 
spring it soon completes its transforma- 
tions and by the first of June its note is 
heard. They dig burrows which they 
occupy probably as long as they live. 
During the months of June and July 
the meadows and pastures and especially 
open woods pastures are filled with the 
music of their song. Ordinarily in 
favorite haunts every square rod will 
contain at least one burrow and these 
burrows are, of course, sometimes much 
more abundant. The males never seem 
to stray away from their houses in the 
daytime and are frequently found within 
the entrance, while singing. Where 
their eggs are laid or when I have never 
been able to discover, but I have never 
seen the young before September, so 
that the eggs are probably laid about the 
time the young of G. abbreviatzis are 
hatching. 

G. pc7insylvanicus is so far as I have 
observed never a social species not even 
I think in the larval and pupal stages. 
G. abbreviatus on the other hand are 
always social and are never burrow 
inhabiting, although it is quite probable 
that on occasion they seek the burrows 
of their congeners for protection. Mr. 
Scudder says in his paper on The distri- 
bution of insects in New Hampshire, ''At 
Jefferson in 1867 no chirp of a Gryllus 
was heard until August 12, although 
thev often commence their song in 
Massachusetts in June." If I am right 



6 



PSTCHE. 



[January 1S91. 



this absence of the cricket serenade dur- 
ing the months of June and July and 
early August is accounted for by the 
fact that this locality is north of the 
range of G. pennsylvanicus. This 
species has not been, I think, reported 
from Canada and G. luctuosus as rare, 
so thar if I have not erred there should 
not be heard anything more than an 
occasional cricket chirp there before the 
middle of August. The only invariable 
and easily recognized difference between 
G. pennsylvanicus and G. abbreviatus 
is that in the females of the former the 
ovipositor is decidedly shorter than the 
body, in the latter this organ is nearly or 
quite as long as the body. 

8. Gryllus abbreviatus Serv. Mo- 
line, August 14. Very abundant. 

9. Gryllus domesticus Linn. Mo- 
line and Urbana. Very rare, a single 
specimen having been taken at each 
place at the electric light. 

10. Nemobius fasciatus De Geei\ 
Abundant everywhere, especially in 
blue grass meadows. It is very com- 
mon at the electric light about July 
27. The wingless form vittatus Harr. is 
at least in the northern part of the State 
more abundant than fasciatus. 

11. Anaxipha pulicaria Burm. 
Taken in a single locality on Rock 
River near Colona, Rock Island Co., 
about August 20. 

12. Phylloscirtus p?dchellus Uhler, 
A few specimens have been captured at 
Pine Hills, September 14, 1883. 

13. Oecanthus niveus De Gcer. 
Abundant throughout the State from 
the latter part of July to the late fall. 



There are five species of Oecanthus 
in Illinois which are very widely disti'i- 
buted in North America. Two of these, 
Oecanthus fasciatus Fitch and Oecan- 
thus angustipennis Fitch, have gener- 
ally been considered varieties of Oecan- 
thus niveus De Geer, but several years 
observation of this genus has led me to 
conclude that they are quite distinct in 
structure, habits, and song and they must 
therefore rank as species. 

The last named species can be distin- 
guished from the two former by its 
broader wing covers, the width of the 
dorsal field compared with the length 
being about one to two in latipennis 
and niveus, one to three in angusti- 
pennis and two to five in fasciatus. 
The average of these dimensions is in 
the first mentioned species .30 by .62 
inches ; in the second .26 by .54 inches ; 
in the third .16 by .44 inches; and in 
the last .iSby .46 inches. Niveus can 
usually be distinguished from all the 
other species by its color, which is ivory 
white with almost no perceptible infusion 
of green in the male but the elytra of the 
female may be quite decidedly green. 
In angustipennis the male as well as 
the female, probably, is deeply suffused 
with green. In fasciatus the greenish 
tint is also predominant in the wings 
and elytra but the other pails of the bodv 
vary in color from deep black to ivory 
white varied with fuscous. In typically 
colored specimens however the head and 
pronotum are whitish with three dis- 
tinct fuscous or black stripes, extending 
one over the top of the head and pro- 
notum and the other two on the lateral 



January 1891.] 



PSYCHE. 



lobes' of the pronotum and upon the 
sides of the head. Latipennis differs in 
coloration distinctly from the two last 
mentioned species but only slightly from 
niveus. Like the latter its general color 
is ivory white with the elytra perfectly 
transparent but it is distinct from niveus 
and the other two species in having the 
head and basal half of the antennae suf- 
fused with pink or light brown. It also 
lacks very generally if not always the 
small fuscous spots which are to be 
found always in the other species, 
except in the case of the black variety 
of fasciatus* on the lower face of the 
two basal joints of the antennae. 

Niveus is also distinguished from all 
other species by its proportionally longer 
maxillary palpi. This disproportion is 
most apparent in the ultimate joint, 
which is not onlv relatively but actually 
longer than the same joint in latipennis, 
a decidedly larger insect. These dimen- 
sions are for the two species respectively : 
fifth joint 1.5 mm and 1.4 mm; fourth 
joint 1.3 mm and 1.3 mm; third joint 
1.6 mm and 1.7 mm. Finally in niveus 
the outer or fourth curved oblique nerve 
at the base of the elytra is more angular 
than in any of the other species and con- 
sequently the distance between the third 
and fourth nerves which in the other 
species is about equal to that between 
the first and second, and the second and 
third nerves, is in itiveus much greater. 

In addition to the distinctions already 
mentioned fasciatus has longer antennae 
than the other species have, since these 
organs are rather more than two and one 
half times the total length of the bodv, 



and the larger spines at the tip of the 
posterior tibiae are unusually strong and 
acute. The ovipositor of the female is 
also plainly distinct from the perfectly 
straight ovipositor of niveus in being 
distinctly turned up at the tip. The 
maxillary palpi also offer distinct 
specific characters in the proportionally 
short fourth joint and in the subclavate 
fifth joint which in the other species 
is fusiform. Angustipennis differs 
from the other species in its small 
head and slender pronotum, which in the 
female especially is decidedly narrowed 
anteriorly instead of being of equal width 
throughout as in the females of niveus 
and latipennis. The hind legs are pro- 
portionally longer and more slender than 
they are in the allied species and the 
post-tibial apical spines are so weak as 
j-o be somewhat difficult to count with 
the unaided eye. 

These species differ from one another 
as markedly in song as in structure. 
That of niveus is the well known 
t-r-r — r-e-e: t-r-r — r-e-e, repeated with 
out pause or variation about seventy 
times in a minute. In the vicinity of 
Davenport, Iowa, this song is heard as 
early as the twenty-third of July and it 
continues until the persistent little song- 
sters are killed by the heavy frosts of the 
late fall. This song is heard only at 
night and occasionally on cloudy days 
but in the latter case it is only an isolated 
song and never the full chorus of the 
night song produced by many wings 
whose vibrations in exact unison produce 
that characteristic "rhythmic beat " — as 
Burroughs has happily phrased it. It 



PSYCHE. 



[January 1S91. 



is this effect of many united songs that 
has led the same author to speak of 
"purring" crickets. Thoreau calls it the 
"slumbrous breathing" and the "intenser 
dream" of crickets, but Hawthorne has 
given it a more spiritual interpretation 
than either Burroughs or Thoreau. He 
describes it as "audible stillness" and 
declares that "if moonlight could be 
heard it would sound like that." Prof. C. 
V. Riley says of the song of lati\ erinis 
that it "is continuous and recalls the 
trilling of a high pitched dog whistle in 
the distance." He also says "The com- 
mingled shrill of this species recalls also 
the distant croaking of frogs in the 
spring." The song of fasciatus is also a 
high trill continuing usually for several 
minutes with the intervals between the 
trills of very irregular length. It sings 
all day as well as all night apparently 
in the bright sunshine as well as on- 
cloudy days and in the dusk of evening. 
Angustipennis has a song which re 
sembles that of fasciatus in some degree, 
but it is very much fainter and lasts for 
about five seconds with an equal interval 
between the trills 

Mr. Scudder says* of the song of niv- 
eus : "The day song of this insect is ex- 
ceedingly shrill and may be represented 
by the following figure [which repre- 
sents a trill] though the notes vary in 
rapidity. When slowest they are about 
sixteen a second. The song is of varied 
length, sometimes lasting but two or 
three seconds, sometimes continuing a 
minute or two uninterruptedly; it is a 
nearly uniform, equally sustained trill, 

Rep. Geol. N. H., V. I. p. 365-366. 



but the insect often commences its note 
at a different pitch from the normal one 
as if it required a little practice to attain 
it. When singing the tegmina are 
raised at fully a right angle to the body. 
The night song consists of ^tkrrr' re- 
peated incessantly, three parts of song 
and one of rest in every three seconds." 
The "day song" descrihed by Mr. Scud- 
der seems to be the song of fasciatus, 
while the "night song" certainly resem- 
bles that of angustipennis more than 
the song of niveus. Walker's Oecan- 
thus nigricornis is, I think, nothing 
but a long-winged fasciatus. Speci- 
mens of the last-mentioned species with 
wings extending beyond the elytra as 
much as .16 of an inch are not uncom- 
mon. 

Finally, latipennis, according to Prof. 
Riley, generally chooses the tender 
shoots of the grape in which to lay its 
eggs, while niveus prefers the raspberry 
and blackberry, but is less particular than 
the first-mentioned species and lays its 
eggs in many other shrubs and trees. 
Both of these species with angustipen- 
nis prefer cultivated ground, but fascia- 
tus is comparatively rare in such locali- 
ties and is abundant along weedy road- 
sides and hedges and in weedy meadows. 
The females are abundant in late sum- 
mer and early fall on the various species 
of Helianthus and Solidago. 

14. Oecanthus angustipennis 
Fitch. Much less common in the north- 
ern part of the State than either niveus 
or fasciatus ; it has been taken at Mo- 
line Sept. 29. 

15. OecantJnis fasciattis Fitch. Its 



January 1891. ] 



PSYCHE. 



range seems to be coextensive with that 
of niveus and it is even more abundant. 
The earliest recorded date of its capture 
at Moline is August 23. 

16. Oecanthus latipen?iis Rilev. It 
is doubtful if this species is found as far 
north as Moline. There is a specimen 
in the Museum of the University of Illi- 
nois labelled Carmi, 111., Oct. 6, '82. 
Its song has been described as "a con- 
tinuous, high-keyed trill continued for 
fifteen minutes or more." This is ex- 
actly the song of fasciatus. Since 
there has been so much confusion in the 
species of this genus, there is a chance 
that the song described above is mistak- 
enly referred to latipcmiis. 

17. Oecant/ius bipmictatus De Geer. 
Apparently an uncommon species in 
Illinois. I have seen but two specimens 
captured at Rock Iskind in August. 

18. OrocJiaris uhleri^ n. sp. 

A single specimen in the Museum of the 
University of Illinois seems so distinct 
from described species that it deserves 
a name. It may be described as fol- 
lows : 

Female. Length, .40 in. ; post, fern., .36 
in.; elytra, .32 in.; ovipositor, .32 in. 

Dull brownish yellow with the head, pro- 
notum and posterior femora very obscurely 
spotted with fuscous. The body and limbs 
are pubescent with soft hairs, the color of the 
body. The pronotum is short, with the an- 
terior margin sinuate and the posterior con- 
vex. The elytra do not exceed the abdomen. 
The venation of the dorsal field is not promi- 



nent and the reticulation is not lozenge-shap- 
ed. The vein which separates the dorsal 
from the lateral field is unusually prominent, 
however, and as a consequence the angle 
formed by the two fields is very distinct- 
The mediastinal vein, the uppermost vein of 
the lateral field, is two-branched. Both fields 
are triangular, so that the elytra are acute at 
the apex. The wings are scarcely more than 
half the length of the elytra. The posterior 
femora are very long, exceeding the oviposi- 
tor and almost equalling the body in length. 
The posterior tibiae are as long as the fem- 
ora. They are very moderately pilose and are 
furnished with strong, spreading, acute, 
brown-tipped spines, seven on the inner and 
six on the outer margin of the lower face, 
besides the three at the apex on either side. 
The lower face of the metatarsus of the poste- 
rior legs is armed with similar spines, four 
on the outer and two on the inner margin. 
These spines increase regularly in size pos- 
teriorly, and the pair at the apex equal fully 
half the length of this, the metatarsal, joint. 
The ovipositor is straight with the apex very 
acute and armed with distinct though minute 
teeth. 

This species can be distinguished at 
a glance from O. saltatrix Uhler by its 
smaller size, much longer posterior legs, 
acutely tipped antennae and short wings. 
In addition to these distinctions, the 
spines of the posterior legs of uhleri 
are conspicuously large and strong, 
while those of saltatrix are weak and 
inconspicuous. The posterior tibiae 
are quite densely pilose in the latter 
species and only very moderately pilose 
in the former. 



10 



PSYCHE. 



[January 1S91. 



NOTES ON THREE SPECIES OF HYLOTOMA. 



BY JOHN GEORGE JACK, JAMAICA PLAIN. 



Among the papers of the late Benj. 
D. Walsh, published in the Transactions 
of the Saint Louis Academy of Science, 
(7 May 1873, v. 3, pp. 67-6S) is a des- 
cription of the male and female of 
Hylotoma dulciaria Say. His des- 
cription of the male appears to differ so 
much from some specimens which have 
come under my notice that I venture to 
give a note of the insect as it appears to 
me. 

After describing the female, Walsh 
gives the following description of the 
male : — 

"(J differs from $ only as follows: — 1. 
The antennae are g as long as the body, 
the usual hairs on the last joint nearly as 
long as wide. 2. The tegulae and the entire 
thorax above and below, except the cenchri 
which are whitish and the basal plates which 
are luteo-rufous, are blue black. 3. The 
abdomen is immaculate. 4. The wings are 
several shades paler, but there is an obvious 
darker cloud extending from the base of the 
stigma to the usual dark dot in the disk of 
the 2d submarginal, which cloud exists in 
j [$] also, but is not noticed from the rest 
of the wing being equally clouded. Length 
$ .27 inch. Front wing $ .27 inch." 

Mr. Walsh's description was from a 
single specimen and it differs so much, 
by its black thorax and '"immaculate" 
abdomen (the thorax and abdomen of 
the female being of a shining yellowish- 
red color) , from the specimens taken 



by me that it seems hardly possible 
that it can belong to this species. 

H. dulciaria Say, is a synonym of 
H. pectoralis Leach, in Cresson's last 
revision of the hymenoptera, and upon 
the male I offer the following note. 

Hylotoma pectoralis Leach (=H. dulcia- 
ria Say). — Male. Head shining black, 
antennae black and longer than those of 
female; ciliae beneath appearing either 
black or rusty colored. Thorax yellowish 
red above and around the collar; shining 
blue black beneath and with a yellowish 
red spot below the fore wings, on the pectus 
or breast on each side. Legs blue black, 
the anterior pair having the tarsi, tibiae and 
the extreme tips of the femora of a light 
reddish color. Abdomen shining bright 
blue black. Wings light smoky brown on 
inner and clear on outer or apical portion. 
An irregular smoky brown blotch extends 
from the basal end of the stigma to the 
third submarginal cell in the centre of 
which is a minute dot. Expanse of wings 
15 mm. Length of body 7 to 8 mm. 

Out of four specimens examined, two have 
four submarginal (or cubital) cells in the an- 
terior wings, corresponding to the characters 
of the genus. The other two specimens have 
only three submarginal cells, the second sub- 
marginal nervure being absent. Described 
from four specimens bred with a larger num- 
ber of females in July, 1SS9, from larvae 
found in the previous summer feeding on the 
foliage of Betula alba in the Arnold Arbore- 
tum at Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

The following observations have 
been made of the larvae of two species 
of Hylotoma. 



January 1891.] 



PS T CHE. 



11 



Hylototna scafularis Klug. — The full- 
grown larvae have a pretty general resem- 
blance to those of H. fectoralis Leach (=H. 
dulciaria Say),* and are about 18 mm. long. 
Head light orange yellow, body somewhat 
flattish and light yellowish green in color. 
There are six distinct rows of small closely 
adjoining black spots on the upper portion 
of the body extending from the head to the 
anal segment. On each of the fleshy projec- 
tions on the sides of the segments, except 
the last, there is an oblong dark spot; but 
these spots above the two posterior pair of 
true legs appear as two large somewhat tri- 
angular black blotches. Above the anal seg- 
ment there is a large oval shaped black spot. 
The legs are black on the outer side, and the 
prolegs are marked by a dark brown blotch 
on the outer side. The black legs and black 
blotch on the anal segment are the chief 
marks which distinguish this larva from that 
of H. fectoralis in which the legs and anal 
segment are yellowish. The cocoons are of 
a dirty white or light brown color and aver- 
age about 12 mm. in length. They are com- 
posed of two walls, the inner being closely, 
and the outer loosely spun. 

The eggs are deposited along the margins 
of the leaves of the common American elm 
(Ulmus Americana) upon which the larvae 
feed. Young larvae were found early in Au' 



gust and those observed attained full growth 
about the end of the month. Two males 
and many females were raised from these 
about the first of July following. 

Hylotoma McLeayi Leach. Full grown 
larva from 15 to 18 mm. long. Head black. 
Body flattish ; pale yellowish green, with 
four distinct lines of black spots along the 
back extending from the head to the anal seg- 
ment; and with some minute, less regularly 
arranged spots or dots along the sides above 
the fleshy projections which characterize lar- 
vae of this genus. Each fleshy projection 
bears a long narrow black spot. The anal 
segment is surmounted by a large irregular 
oval black blotch and is brown above the 
anus The legs are dark brown or black on the 
outer base and have a heavy black blotch at 
the base. The prolegs are marked on their 
outer side by a somewhat triangular, black 
or very dark brown spot. The cocoon is 
double walled, the outer wall being loosely 
woven and it is dull white or pale brown in 
color, and is from 12- 14 mm. in length. 

The larvae were found in considerable 
numbers in the month of August feeding 
upon the foliage of common choke-cherry 
(Primus Virginiana) at Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
From these larvae a number of female im- 
agos were bred in the latter part of the 
month of May following. 



A NOVEL DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE ORDERS 

OF INSECTS. t 

The difficulty of representing satis- i] shows by parallel bars rising above 

factorily by any linear arrangement the the circular plate, which represents the 

relations of the orders to each other surface of the earth, the sixteen orders of 

and to Thvsanura has compelled us to insects as they exist to-day, and below 

give diagrams I-III. Diagram II [pi. this plate the different orders are ar- 



* See T. W. Fyles in Canadian entomologist, v. 1S, t Reprinted from Guides for Science Teaching-. No. 

P.3S; v. 19, p. 59. VIII. Insecta. By Alpheus Hyatt and J. M. Anns. 



12 



PSYCHE. 



[January 1S91. 



ranged in converging bars according to 
their supposed relations during geologic 
times. This last is purely theoretical, 
since the present state of our knowledge 
of fossil insects is too fragmentary and 
unsatisfactory to afford sufficient evi- 
dences for the demonstration of such a 
classification. 

Diagram II [pi. I] represents the op- 
posite or farther side of Diagram I, 
the plate having been turned around 
so that the orders X-XVI can be more 
clearly seen both above and below the 
earth's surface. Diagram III is a view 
from above the circular plate giving in 




Diagram III. 



horizontal section the position of the 
orders. In Diagrams I, II, A repre- 
sents the wingless, primitive, or Thy- 
sanuran stock. The stems B, B'\ 
B'" * , Diagram I; B\ B 1V , Diagram 
II, represent the winged stocks which 
sprang from A. These may have been 
composed, so far as the facts now known 
are concerned, of a number of separate 
or branching lines leading up to the 
various orders as termini of more or 
less distinct stocks. f 

The line B' in Diagram II indicates 
the winged stock from which the true 
Neuroptera sprang, and so far as we 
know, this may have been the same 
common stock as that from 
which the Ephemeroptera and 
Odonata also arose (Diagram I, 
B) . In spite of the introduction 
of the quiescent pupal stage in 
the Neuroptera, their obvious 
resemblances to the Odonata, 
and the fact that they still retain 
the Thysanuroid form of larva 
should not be overlooked. Dia- 
gram I recognizes these simi- 
larities, and presents the least 
modified and most ancient 
branches of the genealogical 
tree of the Insecta as near to- 
gether as practicable. The 
placing of Thysanura near the 
centre, by means of a short 



* Bl ' I extends in the diagram to the orders Hemiptera and Thysanoptera instead of to the stem from which 
these orders sprang. It is placed here because the stem proper is out of sight, being farther down and behind B 
and B I I. 

t For example, as suggested by Packard in Third Rep. U. S. Ent. Com., p. 2S9, the Dermaptera may have been 
derived from a form similar to Japyx, a curious Thysanuran genus, and since it has characters allying it bolh to 
Orthoptera and Coleoptera, it may be the existing descendant of some common forms from which both of these 
orders originated. The Thysanura stand, according to Comstock, in a similar position with relation to the Hem- 
iptera. 



Psyche. 1891. vol. 6- 




January 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



13 



vertical line ,* indicates the essential- 
ly generalized and larval character 
of the order, and does not necessarily 
imply any nearer relationship to Neu- 
roptera, which stands on the right, 
than to Coleoptera on the extreme left. 
The height to which the vertical bars 
have been carried above the plate is a 
rough approximation to the specializa- 
tion attained by the adults, and also to 
the removal of the mode of development 
from the primitive Thysanuroid mode. 

The orders existing to-day are re- 
garded as pai - allel series differing from 
each other in structure, and not as yet 
connected by well-known intermediate 
forms. Where the probability exists 
that certain orders have had a common 
origin, they are placed on the same 
radiating lines, as seen in Diagram III, 
orders II-III ; also VI-VII, and VIII- 
IX ; and this rule has been departed 
from only where the data seemed to 
justify a more natural interpretation, as 



in the case of the orders from XII to 
XVI, inclusive. 

All of these graphic presentations 
are necessarily extremely rough approx 
imations to the actual facts, and present 
even the authors' views in a very im- 
perfect manner. Nevertheless, if con- 
scientiously studied, they will, it is 
hoped, help to give teachers some ideas 
of the principles upon which a classifi- 
cation is based, and prevent them from 
falling into the absurd but natural mis- 
takes often occasioned by the linear 
treatment of types in the text. 

LIST OF ORDERS. 



I. Thysanura. 


IX. 


Hemiptera. 


II. Ephemeroptera. 


X. ( 


Coleoptera. 


III. Odonata. 


XI. 


Neuroptera. 


IV. Plecoptera. 


XII. 


Mecoptera. 


V. Platyptera. 


XIII 


Trichoptera. 


VI. Dermaptera. 


XIV. 


Lepidoptera. 


VII. Orthoptera. 


XV. 


Hymenoptera 


VIII. Thysanoptera. 


XVI. 


Diptera. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LARVA AND PUPA OF SCOTOBATES 

CALCARATUS FABR. 



BY W1I. BEUTENMULLER, NEW YORK. 



Larva : — Head subquadrate, anterior angles 
obtusely rounded, sides moderately rounded, 
shining. Clypeus tranverse, about three 
times as broad as long, oblique. Labium 
smaller than the clypeus, anterior margin 
rounded and beset with a few bristle-like 
hairs. Antennae three jointed, first joint 
cylindrical, about twice as long as broad; 

*See also the diagram given by Packard in Third 
Rep. U. S. Ent. Com., 1SS3, p. 295. 



second joint considerably longer, clavate ; 
third joint minute, cylindrical, with a few 
hairs at the apex. Mandibles short, stout, 
arcuate externally, excavate internally, apex 
tridentate, base with a prominent elevation 
with two small teeth. Maxillae subcylindri- 
cal, stout, elongate, lobe somewhat truncate 
at the apex with a number of bristle-like 
hairs. Maxillary palpi three jointed, first 
joint stout, cylindrical, broader than long; 



14 



PSYCHE. 



[January 1891. 



second joint more slender and longer; third 
joint subcylindrical, thicker at the base 
than the apex, which is beset with minute 
points. Labium subquadrate, broader at the 
apex than the base. Labial palpi two- 
jointed; first joint thick, cylindrical ; second 
joint slender, rounded at apex. Body corne- 
ous, highly polished, minutely punctured, 
last segment terminating in two short pro- 
tuberances curved upward. Over the body 
are scattered a few light brown hairs. Color : 
head and body testaceous. Body beneath 
somewhat paler. Length about 25 mm. 
Width about 3.50 mm. 

. Pupa sordid white, elongated, with each of 
the abdominal segments at the sides pro- 
vided with a flat, quadrate process. Anal 
segment with two rather long processes at 
the extremity. Thorax subquadrate, sides 
rounded. Head bent downward; wings 
folded around the sides of the body. Length 
9 mm. Width 5 mm. 

Lives on wood of oak, chestnut, and hick- 
ory. Collected early in April. Pupated May 
18th. Imago emerged June 9th. 



A New Introduction to Entomology.* 
— We have here a novel and suggestive book, 
in which the interrelationships of insects 
are worked out on independent lines. Neither 
Professor Hyatt, a zoologist and paleon- 
tologist of the very highest repute, nor 
his associate Miss Arms, has ever before 
claimed a hearing in the entomological world, 
and they have approached the subject quite 
untrammelled by tradition or authority, but 
with experience as successful teachers and 
thoroughly imbued with the principles which 
guide modern science. It is not a text book 
for scholars, but precisely what its title indi- 
cates, a guide for teachers. It abounds with 
novel suggestions, and is interspersed with 
cautions of the utmost importance to teach- 

*Insecta (Guides for science-teaching, viii). By Al- 
pheus Hyatt and J. M. Arms. 161110, Boston," 1S90. 
Published for the Boston Society of Natural History 
by D. C. Heath & Co. pp. 23, 300, figs. 223. 



ers. We have room here for only one pas- 
sage, in which the limitations of the 
Darwinian theory are enforced : 

"It is very important that teachers should 
be cautious in allowing themselves the free 
use of explanations which the doctrine of 
Natural Selection seems to furnish. The 
danger lies in the fascination of the logical 
form presented by this doctrine, the ease 
with which it seems to explain even the most 
complicated relations of organic beings, and 
the general although unfounded belief that it 
is universally accepted and believed in by nat- 
uralists. They will find . . . that this doctrine 
is not used by any investigators in account- 
ing for the origin of structures and their 
modifications, and only to a limited extent 
by those quoted above and others of the 
same school [the so-called Neo-Lamarcki- 
ans], in explaining the preservation of struc- 
tures and modifications after they have been 
originated by the action of physical and other 
causes." 

A diagrammatic scheme for illustrating the 
authors' views of the ph ylogeny of insects is 
given on a preceding page of this number, 
and we hope to print at an early date their 
concluding general remarks, after a survey 
of the whole field. 



Recent English publications. — The 
fourth part of Buckton's Monograph of the 
British Cicadae or Tettigidae, just issued, 
completes the first of the two volumes of 
which the work will be composed. The first 
volume contains 41 plates and 211 pages of 
text, 78 of the latter given up to the Intro- 
duction. The remaining volume will treat 
of the Jassides, Deltocephalides and Typhlo- 
cybides of the classification adopted by him. 
The fourth part of Moore's Lepidoptera 
Indica is of less interest than the preceding. 
The plates are still concerned with the Eu- 
ploeinae but only with species of very sim- 
ilar appearance having a dull brown ground 
color, and of which the early stages are not 
known. The modification of the hind mar- 



January 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



15 



gin of the fore wings in the males of all 
these species to accommodate the sexual scale- 
pocket in the medio-submedian interspace is 
a striking feature. The text, which keeps 
excellent pace with the plates, has many 
points of interest and calls attention to some 
interesting cases of mimicry. 

Mr. W. F. Kirby has just published with 
Van Voorst's successors a synonymic cata- 
logue of dragon-flies living and fossil. It ex- 
tends to 202 pp. 8vo. They are arranged 
systematically under families, subfamilies and 
divisions, the further subdivisions by Selys 
and others, legions and groups, being ignored- 
So too all subgenera are regarded as genera. 
This has at least simplified the author's work, 
but can hardly be regarded as satisfactory. 
A number of new generic terms are employed 
for preoccupied names and in a few cases 
radical changes occur, as when Agrion is 
made to replace Calopteryx (because Latreille 
had fixed the type as the Libellula virgo of 
Linn^) and a new term Coenagrion employed 
for Agrion, carrying with it the subfamily 
name Coenagrioninae. Selys strenuously 
objects to this in the comptes-rendus of the 
Belgian entomological society. About 1S00 
nominal species are entered in 267 genera, 
besides a few in the appendix. 102 fossil 
species are catalogued separately. The work 
appears to be conscientiously done and will 
certainly be of as great an assistance to the stu- 
dents of Odonata as that of Lepidoptera, pre- 
pared by the same author, is to its votaries. 

The March of Hyperchiria 10. — I have 
carefully watched a brood of to larvae in their 
marching, and have found the secret of their 
regularity. The leader spins a fine thread 
as he moves, and the larva next in order 
follows the thread, and spins one himself. 
If he follows the thread by feeling it at 
one side, instead of following on it, the 
thread which is spun by No. 2 lies parallel 
with that spun by No. i,and usually each 
thread will be followed by a larva, when the 
wedge-shaped "order of march" will result — 



No. 1 ahead, No. 2 following just a trifle at 
one side, No. 3 and No. 4 side by side. No. 3 
following the thread of No. i,and No 4 that 
of No. 2 ; No. 5 will follow No. 3 ; No. 6 will 
often feel the two threads and march be- 
tween them, when No. 7 will follow No. 4, 
and so the ranks will widen. The thread 
can be seen plainly with a lens, and the pro- 
cess watched. If a larva loses his way he 
feels for the thread, and seems able to tell, 
by its surface, in which direction the proces- 
sion has gone, always following the right 
direction after a moment's careful feeling of 
the thread. Caroline G. Sotile. 



More damage by white ants in New 
England. — At a recent meeting of the 
Cambridge Entomological Club Mr. S. H. 
Scudder showed the work of white ants, 
Termes JJavipes, on the wooden tubs con- 
taining plants at the Botanic Garden. This 
and some of the culprits were brought 
to him by Frederick A. Quinn, one of the 
employes of the Garden, who stated that 
they had destroyed some of the tree-ferns 
growing in such tubs. This shows that 
the white ants are there increasing in num- 
bers and have become a real element of 
danger, for in 1885 Dr. Hagen reported in 
the Canadian entomologist (v. 17, 134-135) 
that "the earth in the hot-houses here in 
Cambridge is largely infested by white ants, 
but as far as I know no destruction of plants 
has been observed." Two jears later the 
speaker pointed out (ibid., v. 19, 21S) that 
geranium cuttings were attacked by white ants 
in the forcing houses attached to the Mt. Au- 
burn cemetery ; but here we find a more seri- 
ous damage. On visiting the Garden Mr. 
Scudder was shown by the head gardener, 
Mr. Cameron, a plant almost completely de- 
stroyed in which the traces of their work 
were very apparent. The plant was Cyathea 
insignis, four or five feet high. One of the 
same kind had been destroyed before and 
throvvii away. According to Mr. Cameron, 
the ants seemed to show a preference for the 



16 



PSYCHE. 



[January 1S91. 



long juicy stems of the fronds, to which the}' 
made their way through the trunk, while the 
latter was full of their droppings. The first 
outward sign of their attacks was seen in the 
drooping of the fronds. The inner sides of 
the wooden staves of the tubs were full of 
the irregular burrows of the white ants. Mr. 
Cameron also stated that a lot of cabbages in 
the vegetable garden attached to his house 
on the grounds were completely ruined by 
the attacks of these same white ants, as he 
found by inspection. Mr. Scudder recom- 
mended replacing all woodwork in contact 
with earth or stone by iron, and particularly 
the discarding of all wooden tubs; it would 
seem to be perfectly practicable to construct 
even the largest tubs of -staves made of gal- 
vanized iron or some such metal. 



A.MPELOPSIS veitchii has been good hunt- 
ing ground this year. I have found on one 
vine specimens of Deidamia inscrtpta, one; 
Thyreus Abbott'i, several ; Everyx myron, sev- 
eral ; Alypia octomaciilata, PyropJiila pyra- 
midoides, both very abundant ; Spilosoma vir- 
gi?iica , few ; Hypha?itria text or, few; Lopho- 
canipa caryae, many; L. tessellaris, several; 
and Cimbex ulmi, many. 

Caroline G. Soule. 



A new serial inconography is announced 
under the auspices of Mr. Paul Mabille and 
Vuillot of Paris, to be called Novitates Lepi- 
dopterologicae. These authors contemplate 
the issue of atleast one hundred monthly parts 
of lexicon octavo size, each with eight pages of 
text and one colored plate, illustrating new 
and little known Lepidoptera. Only 150 
copies are to be issued — a wrong to science 
— at the price of about three francs a part. 



A specimen of Vanessa milberti, said to 
have been taken at Polegate, Sussex, Eng- 
land, was exhibited at the South London en- 
tomological and natural history society on 
October 9th. 



the Museo publico of Buenos Aires under 
Burmeister, and well known for his notable 
contributions to the entomology of South 
America, has been appointed director of the 
Museo de Historia Natural of Montevideo, 
Uruguay, and is now removed to that city. 



Dr. Carlos Berg, formerly attached to 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

13 January, 1888. — The 134th meeting was 
held at 61 Sacramento St. Mr. S. H. Scud- 
der was chosen chairman. 

The annual report of Mr. R. Hay ward, the 
retiring secretary, was read and accepted. 
The report of Mr. B. Pickman Mann, the re- 
tiring treasurer, was also read and referred 
to the auditors. The retiring librarian, Dr. 
Geo. Dimmock, presented his report which 
was accepted. 

A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. B. P. 
Mann for the use of his office on Follen 
St. as a storage place for the library of the 
Club since its organization. 

A ballot for officers for iSSS then followed, 
which resulted in the election of the follow- 
ing gentlemen : President : William Trelease. 
Secretary: Roland Hayward. Treasurer: 
Samuel Henshaw. Librarian : George Dim- 
mock. Members at large of Executive Com- 
mittee : George Dimmock and Samuel H. 
Scudder. 

On motion the thanks of the Club were 
voted to Mr. B. P. Mann for his long and 
faithful services as treasurer of the Club. 

Mr. Scudder being obliged to leave, Mr. 
S. Henshaw was then chosen chairman. 

On account of the absence of the president, 
Mr. J. H. Emerton, the reading of the annual 
address was postponed till another meeting. 

Mr. C. W. Woodvvorth showed a new 
method for mounting small insects, which 
gave rise to some discussion; and Dr. G. 
Dimmock showed an apparatus for maintain- 
ing a constant temperature in raising in- 
sects. 






PSYCHE, 






Ji. JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY. 



[Established in 1S74.] 



Vol. 6. No. 178. 

February, 1891. 



CONTENTS: 

On the Relation between Scientific and Economic Entomology. — Charles W. 
Wood-worth ............ 

A list of the Othoptera of Illinois, — II. Locustidae. — Jerome McNeill 
Notes (Marine Insects ; Dr. Weed's appointment.) ..... 

On the Life History of Diabrotica 12-punctata Oliv. — H. Garman" . 

The Partial Preparatory Stages of Heteropacha rileyana Harvey. — G. H. 
French ............ 

Smerinthus astylus. — Ida M. Eliot, Caroline G. Soule .... 

Brongniart on Prothoracic Wings in Carboniferous Insects 

A Hint from Entomology .......... 

Notes (Kolbe's Introduction; The oldest phryganid ; Eggs of Lycaenidae.) 
Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club .... 



19 

21 

27 

28 

30 
3i 
3i 
32 
32 
33 



Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 



YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS, 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



18 



PSYCHE. 



[February, 1S91 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

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Comprises 52 drawers (10 X 14 in-) butterflies 
taken by the undersigned in Mass. and N. H. 
spread, arranged, and labeled with name, locality 
and date — 88 species (over 2000 specimens) besides 
many larvae and pupae ; very complete and care- 
fully assorted series and many very rare species; 20 
drawers unlabeled miscellaneous insects (1500 
species) collected in Mass. All nearly new and in 
first class condition. Drawers lined with cork, 
paper covered ; sliding glass covers. All in 3 closed 
cabinets. 

F. H. Sprague, 

Wollaston, Mass. 

The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
by the Cambridge Entomological Club : 

Bulletin Brooklyn Entomological Club, 
Vol. I, 1878-1879, . . . . . $2.00 

Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Casey, Thomas L. Contributions to the 
descriptive and systematic Coleopterology of 
North America. Part I— 1 1. . . . 1.00 

Entomology of the Wheeler Survey, 
(chaps. 7-16, v. 5, Zoology) Washington, 1875. 1.50 

Grote, A. R. Check list of the Noctuidae 
of America, north of Mexico. Buffalo, N. Y. 



1875- 



•25 



Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Packard, A. S. Synopsis of the Thysanura 
of Essex County, Mass. Descriptions of new 
American Phalaenidae. Notes on N.A. moths 
of the families Phalaenidae and Pyralidae in 
the British Museum. On the cave fauna of 
Indiana. Salem, 1873 .50 

Schwarz, E.A. The Coleoptera of Florida .50 

Scudder, S. H. The earliestwinged in- 
sects of America: a re-examination of the 
Devonian insects of New Brunswick, in the 
light of criticisms and of new studies of other 
paleozoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Weber. F. Nomenclator entomologicus. 
Chilonii et Hamburgi, 1795, 171 p. . . .50 

Samuel Henshavv, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 



PSYCHE. 



ON THE RELATION BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND ECONOMIC 

ENTOMOLOGY. 



BY CHARLES W. WOOD WORTH, FAYETTEVILLE, ARK. 



[Annual address of the retiring president of the 

The subject of this address is not of 
the kind usually chosen for similar occa- 
sions but is of none the less interest and 
importance. It is one also that is in full 
harmony with the genius of this society 
which is the recognition of the preemi- 
nence of what is called the philosophy 
of science. Another reason makes it of 
especial immediate importance to us. 
Economic entomology is upon the verge 
of an era of great advancement. The 
establishment of the agricultural ex- 
periment stations have added to its ranks 
more young men of scientific training 
and ability perhaps than have ever en- 
gaged in this line of investigation. If 
economic entomology is but a phase of 
scientific entomology then we want to 
put forth especial efforts to assimilate 
this young blood in our ranks ; if on the 
other hand they are different and distinct, 
the difference will become more and 
more apparent as economic entomology 
develops and we should define our posi- 
tion as on the side of pui - e science. 

I believe that the pure sciences are 
distinct from the economic sciences ; that 
this is the primary division of science. 
We seem to be prone in this utilitarian 



Cambridge Entomological Club, 9 January, 1S91.] 

age to try to find excuse for the pursuit 
of pure science by holding up the possi- 
bility of applying our discoveries for 
economic ends. Let us recognize and 
not act as though we were ashamed of 
the fact that the sole aim of the student 
of pure science is the discovery of truth, 
catering to human wants being entirely 
out of his province. 

It may be said that laying aside this 
matter of sentiment, the human wants 
are supplied through the discoveries of 
science and that this is simply the appli- 
cation of science for economic purposes, 
or, to put it a little stronger, that econom- 
ics are but applied sciences. Such a 
statement comes from the conception 
that facts are or in some way become the 
peculiar property of a science. This is 
not the case however. Perhaps if we 
could see all the intimate relations 
sciences have to each other we should 
say that every fact belongs to every 
science ; at any rate we could scarcely 
name a fact which when closely viewed 
has not more than one bearing. An ex- 
ample of the far reaching character of 
a fact is that of the origin of species 
through evolution. When Darwin es- 



20 



PSYCHE. 



[February 1S91. 



tablished the truth of this fact it soon 
came to be recognized that this basal 
fact of evolution was a fundamental 
principal of almost every other science 
which had occupied the attention of 
man. For economic purposes it is the 
facts which are appropriated, and in the 
same way that the biologist appropri- 
ates the facts discovered by the chemist. 
Economic sciences no more become 
departments or applications of other 
sciences by using some of the same facts 
than biology becomes a department or 
application of chemistry. 

It may be further contended that in 
the cases cited above we have to do with 
real sciences but that the so called eco- 
nomic sciences have no right to the title 
of science, that they are essentially dif- 
ferent. This will lead us to a consider- 
ation of what a science is. We have 
just seen that it does not consist of a body 
of facts peculiar to itself, but on the other 
hand it is evident that facts are closely 
connected with it, that it depends in- 
deed on a set of facts, and further that 
these facts have some definite relation to 
each other and are susceptible of a 
rational classification. This classifica- 
tion is not the science as it cannot ex- 
press nearly all the relationships, but 
these relationships do constitute the 
science. Any one science does not com- 
prehend all the bearings of any fact but 
only such as have a relation to that one 
subject. The science of entomology, for 
example, consists the of relationship of 
the facts to insects. The relation of the 
same facts to the subject of plant dis- 
eases belongs to another science. When 



the subject is economic, the production 
of honey, the feeding of stock, or the 
like, are there any grounds upon which 
we can refuse it the title of science? 

The economic sciences are all infan- 
tile, many perhaps not }et even con- 
ceived of by man. They are the only 
true foundation to the useful arts. Agri- 
culture is a science though hidden by a 
mass of misconception and empiricism. 
It must make its advances by the same 
methods that have made the pure sciences 
what they are. A clear conception of 
the object and structure of the science 
and experimentation with all the 
conditions under control are essential. 
Economic entomology as generally 
understood is chiefly a department of 
agriculture but includes much heteroge- 
neous material. To be a scientifically 
I'ational term, it must, like some of the 
genera of the older naturalists, be re- 
stricted. I can in no better way show 
the difierence between it and scientific 
entomology than to indicate the parts 
of economic entomology and show where 
they belong among the economic 
sciences. 

Insects of economic importance may 
be grouped into six categories. First, 
those directly injurious to man, which 
properly forms a department of medi- 
cine. Second, those attacking the do- 
mestic animals, a part of veterinary 
medicine. Third, those injuring culti- 
vated plants, which includes by far the 
major part of the injurious insects and 
to which the term economic entomology 
should be restricted ; it is only a part 
and perhaps not a natural part of the 



February 1891 .] 



PSYCHE. 



21 



science which deals with the diseases of 
cultivated plants. Fourth, those which 
destroy other property ; in this category 
are die insects attacking furs, woollen 
goods, etc., and the food stuffs, which 
belong to domestic economy and at the 
same time to commerce ; library insects 
belong to library economy and so on. 
Fifth, those directly beneficial to man, 
which includes the bee. the silk worm, 
etc., industries which form one of the 
primary divisions of agriculture. Sixth, 
those indirectly beneficial to man by de- 
stroying the injurious insects; these in- 



sects of course belong to the sciences 
that consider the insects which are their 
victims. 

Finally, to recapitulate, scientific en- 
tomology is a department of biology, 
economic entomology of agriculture. 
They have all the difference between 
them that there is between a pure sci- 
ence and an economic science. Can we 
as a society include them both ? I think 
we should not. On the other hand the 
economic entomologists are nearly all 
at the same time scientific entomolo- 
gists. These we can and do welcome. 



A LIST OF THE ORTHOPTERA OF ILLINOIS.— II. 



BY JEROME MCNEILL. FAYETTE VILLE, ARK. 



LOCUSTIDAE. 

19. Scudderia curvicauda De Geer. 
This is an abundant species in Illinois 
in suitable localities. Its favorite haunt 
is the wild meadows and prairies cov- 
ered with coarse grasses and weeds. It 
is the only one of the katydids that 
flies freely in the daytime. It is in fact 
crepuscular rather than nocturnal. It 
may be seen flying at any hour of the 
day, but its note is not generally heard 
until the middle of the afternoon. The 
note cannot be supposed to represent 
more than the first two syllables of the 
"Ka-ty-did" or "Ka-ty-did-n't" of its 
congeners. It is made but once and 
the rasping jerky sound has been very 
well represented by Mr. Scudder as 



bzrvii. It has been found at Moline as 
early as the 21st of July. 

20. Scudderia fuscata B runner. 
This species is more abundant than the 
last but it too must be looked for in the 
right place. It is even less domestic in 
its habits than curvicauda. The latter 
is sometimes found about houses and 
gardens in town but the former is almost 
never seen in town. It may be looked 
for in the shrubs and undershrubs of 
open woods and clearings and in weedy 
fields and meadows. Its note is indis- 
tinguishable from that of curvicauda 
but it is much less frequently heard. 
The earliest recorded date of its cap- 
ture at Moline is August 4th. 

21. Amblycoryplia obloiigifoliaY>Q. 



22 



PSYCHE. 



[February iSql. 



Geer. This species like the last is par- 
tial to shrubs but it is much more com- 
mon in the vicinity of houses in towns. 
Its note is a quick shuffling sound which 
resembles "Katy" or "Katy-did" very 
slightly. It sometimes flies in the eve- 
ning but much more rarely than S. cur- 
vicattda. It makes its appearance in 
the neighborhood of Moline about the 
first of August. 

22. A. rotundifolia Scudder. This 
species resembles the preceding in song 
and habits. In northern Illinois it 
makes its appearance about the tenth of 
August. 

23 . Microcentrum laurifolium Linn . 
I have never captured this species at 
Moline nor have I heard its note there? 
which may be represented by the sylla- 
ble "tic" repeated from eight to twenty 
times at the rate of about four to the sec- 
ond. It is a tree-loving species, very 
common in Missouri, according to Ri- 
ley, and therefore presumably common 
in southern Illinois. 

24. Cyrtopkylhts concavus Harr. 
This is the true "Katydid," common 
wherever there are trees. Its song is 
better known and the insect itself less 
known, because of its arboreal habits, 
than either of the other katydids. This 
sjDecies moves about so little that it is 
not unlikely that in many cases an indi- 
vidual spends its whole life upon a single 
tree. I have listened to the song of one 
katydid on a certain tree every even- 
ing for more than two months. I have 
noticed repeatedly that on any evening 
when they are singing there are the 
same number of individuals, as indicated 



by the number of songs. Of all the 
specimens I have collected on the ground 
or had presented to me, probably a 
dozen, only a single one was a male. 
I have collected in sweepings hundreds 
of specimens of the young of Scudderia 
and Amblycorypha but not one of Mi- 
crocentrum or Cyrtophyllus ; but if Mi- 
crocentrum does not leave the trees when 
in the larval and pupal stages it certainly 
does when it reaches maturity. It is 
then a great wanderer, coming frequently 
to the electric light. I have never 
known Cyrtophyllus to come to a light. 
So far as I know this is the only species 
of Orthoptera in which the male is not 
smaller and more active than the female. 
It is the only green, winged Locustid 
with which I am acquainted that does 
not have the wings longer than the ely- 
tra. These facts are not improbably 
mutually related. It may be surmised 
that, in the evolution of species, the katy- 
did that developed in the greatest degree 
its musical apparatus had the least need 
of hunting up his partner when the mat- 
ing season came round, and as it was 
so well protected by its form and color 
and arboreal habits as to have little need 
of wings, these organs have gradually 
degenerated into a musical and protec- 
tive apparatus. As the male was re- 
leased from the necessity of hunting up 
the female, he would naturally lose after 
a time his slighter but more active body : 
it is easy to see how arboreal habits 
once acquired may react upon the entire 
organization. If at first glance it seems 
strange that two species so much alike 
as Oecanthns niveiis and OecautJius 



[February 1S91. 



PSYCHE. 



23 



fasciatns should differ so much in sing- 
ing habits, the latter singing as con- 
stantly in daytime as at night, while the 
former is strictly nocturnal in its song, 
we have only to consider, in order to 
remove the difficulty, that fasciatus, 
being terrestrial, is not easily exposed 
by his song to the attack of birds, while 
nive?is would inevitably be discovered, 
should he venture to sing when his bird 
enemies were most active. This con- 
sideration will explain equally well, of 
course, why the arboreal katydids, 
Microcentrum, Amblycorypha and Cyr- 
tophyllus, are silent in the day time 
and why the only one of the group that 
sings in the day time is terrestrial rather 
than arboreal. The case of Conoceph- 
alus robnstns offers a still better illus- 
tration of the truth of this theory. This 
species lives both upon trees and in the 
grass ; but while its song may be heard 
in the grass while the sun is high, I 
have never heard it from trees until after 
dark. 

25. Conocephahis ensiger Harr. 
This species is common in Northern Il- 
linois from the first of August until 
frost. It occurs as frequently along the 
weedy roadsides and in the gardens of 
suburbs as in the country. Its song is 
a loud rasping zip-zip-zip repeated in- 
definitely. It does not begin to sing 
until dark. 

26. Conocephains nebrascensis Bru- 
nei'. Is a less common species than the 
preceding ; not reported farther east 
than Illinois, but occurring as far west 
as Nebraska. It is more shy in its hab- 
its than ensiger, never being found, so 



far as I am aware, about the streets of a 
town. Like both of the other species 
occurring here it seems to have a great 
liking for Johnston grass, a species of 
Andropogon ; but it is by no means par- 
ticular in its habitat, as it may be found 
in little colonies in weedy or grassy pla- 
ces throughout the locality it inhabits. 
If ensiger may be said to sing the first 
part of the song of Orchelimian vulgarc, 
the well-known zip-zip-zip-ze-e-e-e, ne- 
brascensis may be said with equal truth 
to sing the last part of the song, that rep- 
resented by the ze-e-e-e ; but the sound 
is much more resonant, being really 
in quality much more like the song of 
a Cicada, but not so loud and without 
a swell. It begins to sing earlier in 
the evening than ensiger. 

27. Conocephahis robttstus Scudd. 
My cabinet contains a single specimen 
of this species captured on the sand-hill 
referred to below. Its song is indistin- 
guishable from that of dissimilis. The 
specimen mentioned above was captured 
the 2Sth of August. 

All the species of Conocephahis seem 
to possess more intelligence than is 
usual in Orthoptera and they are about 
the most difficult of the order to ap- 
proach. In escaping they usually slip 
or fall into the grass instead of jumping 
or flying ; but they seem to fully under- 
stand that they are very well protected 
by their color and form. If approached 
very cautiously they often remain quite 
still upon the stem of grass upon which 
you have surprised them with the usu- 
ally well-founded expectation that you 
will not be able to distinguish them from 



24 



PSTCHE. 



[February 1S91 



the green herbage around. If they think 
it worth while to make some active 
movement to escape, they will frequently 
slip round on the other side of the stem 
and walk down to the ground or off 
upon another plant. Unlike most Or- 
thoptera they do not use their front legs 
in holding to the mouth the thing upon 
which they feed. Instead of biting they 
seem to wrench or tear away pieces from 
the stems or leaves. 

2S. Thyreonotus pachymerus Burm. 
This is the first Orthopteron hatched 
in the spring in northern states. It 
may be easily recognized by the gray 
top and shining black sides of its pro- 
notum and by its very long and slender 
antennae. Very little seems to be 
known of its habits, but in captivity it 
shows a decided taste for animal food, 
and it may be not unreasonable to sup- 
pose that it is at least partly carnivo- 
rous in the wild state. It is found usu- 
ally in shaded ravines, upon the bare 
ground or the trunks of trees or under 
rotten logs. First appearance, Aug. 9. 

29. Xiphidium fasciatum De Geer. 
Abundant everywhere, in blue-grass 
meadows especially. Its song is a faint 
echo of that of Orchelimum vulgarevi\\\\ 
the " zip-zip' 1 '' omitted. It is, I believe, 
the first of the green grasshoppers to 
reach maturity and its faint little quaver 
is the first note of the great chorus that 
sounds in all the meadows from the 
first of August until the first of October 
or until cold weather. I have captured 
this species as early as the first of July. 

30. Xiphidium brevipenne Scudd. 
This is a much less common species 



than the preceding but it is not rare in 
damp meadows. It first appears here 
about the middle of August. 

31. Xiphidium ensiferzun Scudd. I 
have obtained numerous specimens 
about Moline which I refer to this spe- 
cies with certainty, but in many cases I 
have the greatest difficulty in deciding 
whether others should be referred 
to this or the preceding or still other 
species. Both species apparently may 
have the under side of the posterior 
femora armed with spines and both 
seem to have forms in which there is a 
peculiar modification of the grasping 
organs of the male. Further study may 
enable me to tell certainly whether they 
are two or more or only one species. I 
have two forms which I place here that 
have wings and elytra extending much 
beyond the knees. 

32. Xiphidium sp. ? A single speci- 
men which is apparently deformed has 
the ovipositor growing out of the upper 
side of the apex of the abdomen with 
the convex side up. In shape and size 
it resembles the preceding species but 
the ovipositor is curved instead of 
straight and two and one half times as 
long as the body. 

33. Xiphidium strictum Scudd. Not 
rare in places similar to those frequented 
by brevipenne and ensiferum. It is 
found from the first of August to the 
middle of October or later. My cabinet 
contains a single specimen of this spe- 
cies with elytra extending to the knees 
and with the wings .25 of an inch 
longer. 

34. Xiphidium iicmorale Scudd. 



February 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



25 



This is a wood species. It is found most 
commonly on sparsely wooded and 
rather barren hillsides. It is almost 
equal in size to striatum. The elytra 
of the males are unusually ample al- 
though not longer than the abdomen 
and the veins of the stridulating appara- 
tus are conspicuously large. The song 
is louder than that of fasciatum; it con- 
sists of two parts, the first a short 
abrupt note which is very well repre- 
sented by the syllable zip. the second is 
the familiar ze-e-e which lasts about half 
a second and is made from one to five 
times ; the zip is not repeated. I have 
not found it at Moline earlier than Au- 
gust 20th. 

35. Orchelimum vulgare Hair. 
Abundant throughout the State. I have 
heard its note as early as the 21st of 
July. Its song is the familiar zip-zip- 
zip-zip, ze e-e-e-e. The staccato first 
part is repeated about four times, usu- 
ally about twice a second ; the ze-e-e-e 
continues from two or three to twenty 
or more seconds. 

36. Orchelimum glaberrimum Burm. 
This species is very like the last and is 
very probahh nothing more than a va- 
riety oft. vulgare. While it seems to be 
constantly larger and move robust it has 
the same form of pronotum. The wings 
are of the same length relative to the 
elytra, the posterior femora are similar 
in form, relatively of the same size, and 
destitute of spines on the under side. 
The two stripes on the disk of the pro- 
notum are not uncommon in vulgare. I 
have a single specimen from Effingham 
county, which is south of the center of 
the State. 



37. Orchelimum. longipome Scudd. 
This species, if I have correctly deter- 
mined it, is very like vulgare with long 
wings. It has, however, proportionally 
shorter legs, longer wings, with the 
elytra considerably shorter than the 
wings instead of equalling them as in 
vulgare. It is much less common than 
the last mentioned species but it is not 
rare and is found in similar situations at 
the same time. 

38. Orchelimum concinnum Scudd. 
I have a number of specimens which I 
refer to this species though the females 
with one or two exceptions differ in 
coloration in a marked manner from 
typical specimens. The specimens re- 
ferred to are almost completely infus- 
cated with the elytra lighter or even 
green apically and the tarsi distinctly 
green. Rut one specimen, a male, has 
the brown stripe extending down over 
the face. I have captured them as early 
as the second week in August. They 
are partial to low, damp or swampy 
meadows. 

39. Orchelimum nigripes Scudd. 
This handsome species is about as com- 
mon at Moline as vulgare. It is not at 
all shy but is likely to be found in the ; 
grass or shrubbery about the house. It 
even shows a preference, I have thought, 
for human society. During the past 
summer an instance came under my ob- 
servation of one keeping a place over 
the wooden finish of a doorway for 
more than a week. If he ate during 
that time he must have been obliged to 
leave his post to satisfy his hunger, and 
he probably returned many times to the 
place. The song is difficult to distin- 



26 



PS I CHE. 



[February 1S91. 



guish with certainty from that of vul- 
gar e but usually the zip-zip is repeated 
only once or twice very rapidly and the 
ze-e-e-e-e does not continue so long. The 
earliest recorded date for it here is the 
1st of August. 

40. Orchelimum silvaticum n. sp. A 
species occurs here not very rarely that 
I have thought until recently to be O. 
agile De Geer, but a careful compari- 
son with typical specimens of that spe- 
cies shows so many points of difference 
that I think they should be considered 
specifically distinct. 

Length of body $ 70 $ .70; length of 
elytra $ .60 to .70 °. .56 to .70; length of 
posterior femora $ .59 $ .59; length of an- 
tennae $ ? 22 ; length of ovipositor <j> .32. 
Very similar to agile but different in the fol- 
lowing particulars : The elytra and wings are 
shorter and in the male, at least, the latter 
do not exceed the former. The posterior 
femora are relatively shorter and less atten- 
uated apically though similarly armed with 
about three small spines on the under side 
of the apical half. The pronotum is con- 
spicuously larger and the lateral lobes are 
decidedly wider at the humeral sinus. The 
brownish stripes on the disk of the pronotum 
are more remote from each other. In the 
proportions of the body, pronotum, hind 
Temora, wings and elytra this species ap- 
proaches vulgare much more closely than 
agile but it can be separated at once from the 
former by the presence of the spines on the 
under side of the hind femora. 

I found this Orchelimum first on corn 
afterw rds more commonly in open 
places in woods. Its stridulation is quite 
distinct from th.it of vulgare. It con- 
sists of the same two elements but the 
zip is repeated many times very rapidly 



so as to make almost a continuous sound 
and the ze-e-e-e is comparatively short 
and very constant lasting about eight 
seconds. The first part of the song lasts 
from three to five seconds. I have not 
taken this species before the 7th of 
Sep ember. 

41. Orcheli?n?im volantum n. sp. A 
second species occurs here which I 
think has not been described unless I 
am mistaken in my identification of 
longipe?inis. In this case the supposed 
new species might be the latter. The 
specimens which I refer to longipennis 
agree in every, particular with the de- 
scription of that species and the new 
species does not agree in the characters 
given and it has so many characters 
strikingly different from any Orchel- 
imum that I know that I think there 
can be little risk in making a synonym 
if I describe it. 

Length of body, $ .72 5 1.04; length of 
elytra ^ 1 $ 140; length of wings $ 1.12 

§ 1.50; length of posterior femora $ .66 $ 
.SS; length of antennae $ 2.25 $ 2.50; 

length of ovipositor .44. The general col- 
or is green with the usual brown band on 
the head and pronotum very incomplete. 
On the disk of the pronotum it divides into 
two stripes which form almost a complete 
ellipse enclosing a short stripe on the 
front part of the disk while on the poste- 
rior part these stripes diverge but do not ex- 
tend beyond the principal sulcus. The pro- 
notum is of medium size, with the lateral 
lobes well rounded on their lower border and 
the humeral sinus deep. The vertex is de- 
cidedly turned up at the tip and the occiput 
is flat so that the top of the head is strongly 
concave. The elytra and wings are very 
long and narrower in proportion than in any 



February iSgi.] 



PSYCHE. 



27 



other Orchelimum. The elytra are so 
strongly reticulate that they look rough. In 
the female they are peculiar in having the 
anal field form a distinct angle (as in Scud- 
deria) with the rest of the elytra. In the 
male they are peculiar in that the posterior 
vein of the stridulating apparatus is trans- 
verse instead of oblique as in the other spe- 
cies and only half the length of the adjacent 
vein on the right instead of twice as long as 
it is usually. The posterior femora are 
slender and armed below on the posterior 
half with several small spines. The ovipos- 
itor of the female is long, slightly curved on 
its upper side and slenderly acute. 

This very marked and handsome spe- 
cies I found on the banks of Rock River 
near Cleveland in Henry County. The 
specimens upon which this description 
is based were found in a clump of rank 
growing Sagittaria variabilis which 
grew in the angle of an old wall that 
had once formed a part of the founda- 
tion of a mill. A peculiarity in the 
stridulation attracted my attention and 
led to the discovery of this as well as 
the preceding species. I was passing 
this forementioned clump of weeds in a 
canoe when the peculiar stridulation fell 
upon my ear and I at once proceded to 
investigate the cause. These specimens, 
unlike any Orchelimum with which I 



am acquainted, flew about from one 
broad leaf to another. The song has a 
new note in it. It may be represented 
as follows : zip-zip kr-ze-e-e kr-ze-e-e, 
the last part of the song not lasting 
more than a half to three quarters of a 
second and is always preceded by the 
sound which I represent imperfectly by 
kr. I have found this species in no 
other place and it must be very rare as 
its unusual note would have betrayed it 
to me if I had ever been near it. Two 
males and two females taken August 
19th. 

41. Udeopsy lla nigra Scudd. I have 
found this species not uncommon in 
woods from the first to the middle of 
June. 

42. Ceuthophilus vmculatus Say. A 
rare species at Moline, a few specimens 
taken in June. 

43. Ceuthophilus latens Scudd. Not 
uncommon in the latter part of June. 

44. Ceuthophilus niger (?) Scudd. 
I have a single immature specimen 
which I refer to this species. 

45. * Ceuthophilus gracilipes Scudd. 
Mr. S. H. Scudder gives Southern Illi- 
nois as a locality for this species. I 
have not identified it. 



Marine Insects. Those interested in 
this somewhat restricted field will find in last 
year's Revue biologique of Lille an interest- 
ing contribution to the subject by Prof. R. 
Moniez, entitled Acariens et insectes marins 
des c6tes du Boulonnais. Six species of 
Thysanura of four genera, one of Coleoptera 
(Micralymma) and one of Diptera (Chiron- 
omus) are recorded. 



The trustees of Dartmouth college 
have recently established in the agricultural 
department a chair of entomology and zo- 
ology, and filled it by the election of Dr. 
Clarence M. Weed, now in charge of the 
entomological department of the Ohio Ex- 
periment Station at Columbus. Professor 
Weed is also editor of the entomological de- 
partment of the American naturalist. 



28 



PSYCHE. 



[February 189:. 



ON THE LIFE-HISTORY OF DIABROTICA 12-PUNCTATA OL1V. 



BY H. GARMAN, LEXINGTON, KY. 



This insect is deserving of especial 
attention just now because it appears to 
be undergoing a change of habit similar 
to those undergone in the past by sev- 
eral other native American insects, and 
probably due to the destruction, by the 
cultivation of land and by grazing, of 
the wild plants upon which it has hith- 
erto subsisted. This explanation of its 
sudden appearance recently over a wide 
extent of territory as a corn-infesting 
insect seems to me the only one war- 
ranted by the published facts of its his- 
tory. 

Until iSSS Diabrotica 12-punctata 
did not appear in the literature of eco- 
nomic entomology as an important en- 
emy of any of our staple crops. Mr. 
B. D. Walsh, writing in 1S66 (Pract. 
ent., v. 1, no) and referring to the 
beetle, states that "it is very injurious to 
flowers especially to Dahlias," and in- 
fers that it is in part responsible for an 
injury to the leaves of melons, cucum- 
bers and other plants, of which one of 
his correspondents complains. 

In 1S68 Walsh and Riley (Am. ent. 
v. 1, 227) in reply to a correspondent in 
Bushberg, Missouri, wrote of the same 
beetle, "The yellow beetle with twelve 
black spots which we herewith illustrate 
(Fig. 168, twice natural size) and 
which has been so destructive to your 
water melons and Hubbard squashes, is 
the 12-spotted Diabrotica." In the same 



place in reply to R. D. Parker of Man- 
hattan, Kansas, these authors state that 
insects sent to them for determination 
are also D. 12-punctata. 

In 1S70 Prof. C. V. Riley (2d Mis- 
souri Report, 66) wrote that the beetle 
"may often be found embedded in the 
rind of both melons, cucumbers and 
squashes," a statement which is re- 
peated in 1S72 by Mr. E. B. Reed (Ent. 
soc. Ont., Report for 1S71, 91). 

Prof. S. A. Forbes somewhat extends 
the knowledge of the food-habits of the 
beetle by recording in his first report as 
State Entomologist of Illinois (p. 104) 
that it was observed Aug. 1, 1S82, feed- 
ing on the pollen of corn and on the 
blossoms of clover. 

One of the most notable cases of in- 
jury by the beetle is that reported in 1SS8 
by the editors of Insect life (v. 1, 58). 
In an orchard at Hernden, Virginia, 
planted chiefly in 1SS7, young apricot 
and plum trees are stated to have been 
badly injured in late April and early 
May by the beetles, which devoured 
the leaves as they unfolded. The land 
on which the trees were planted was 
mostly in corn in 1SS7, but a half acre 
had been in melons. In concluding 
their notice the authors use the follow- 
ing words : 

"It is safe to say, however, that this occur- 
rence is exceptional, and that it depended 
almost entirely upon the peculiar circum- 



[February 1S91. 



PSYCHE. 



29 



stance of a young orchard having been 
planted close to a last year's melon patch. 
which was not replanted this year. The bee- 
tles undoubtedly bred upon the melons last 
season and hibernated in large numbers. 
The present spring, finding no more appro- 
priate food at hand they took to the young 
plums and apricots merely as a substitute. 
We have little fear, therefore, that a new 
habit has been formed." 



What basis the authors had for the 
positive statement that the beetles bred 
upon the melons I am unable to say, 
but it is more than probable from what 
is now known of the life-history of the 
insect that many of the beetles had de- 
veloped instead on the roots of the corn. 

These references and quotations will 
serve my purpose of presenting the in- 
sect as it was known to entomologists 
during the time which they cover. It is 
to be noticed that no reference is made 
to the larva except that implied in the 
statement made by the editors of Insect 
life to the effect that the beetles breed 
upon melons. If these authors had 
known at the time their notice was writ- 
ten that larval Diabrotica 12-punctata 
feed on the roots of corn we may assume 
that they would have mentioned it in 
reporting a case in which the relation 
between the injury to the trees and the 
corn-infesting habit is so evident. 

During the years 1882 and 1883 Prof. 
S. A. Forbes made a thorough study of 
the related D. longicornis, which 
affects the roots of corn in Illinois and 
other middle states. In this region D. 
12-punctata is a very common species, 
occurring everywhere in gardens and 



fields on flowers. With the thorough 
examination of insects from the roots of 
corn which to my knowledge was made 
by him, it is altogether unlikely that it 
would have escaped notice if its larvae 
had then been present in any numbers 
in corn fields. 

In the report for 1SS7 (published in 
iSSS) of the Entomologist of the Na- 
tional Department of Agriculture, Mr. 
F. M. Webstei states in a brief notice 
that while in Louisiana in 1SS6 : 

"We frequently heard of fields of young 
corn being seriously injured, during some 
seasons, by a small white worm which at- 
tacked the roots, usually during April. From 
the description given us of the pest and its 
manner of attacking the plants, we first 
thought it might be the larva of D. longi- 
cornis, as the habitat of that species is known 
to extend southward to Central America. On 
April 12 of tne present year [1S87] we were 
enabled to solve the problem by finding con- 
siderable numbers of these larvae in a field of 
corn in Tensas Parish, La., where they were 
working considerable mischief by killing the 
young plants. As observed by us, their 
mode of attack differed from that of their 
northern congener in that they did not ap- 
pear to attack the fibrous roots or bury them- 
selves in longitudinal channels excavated in 
the larger roots. On the contrary, they bur- 
rowed directly into the plants at or near the 
upper whorl of roots, which almost invariably 
resulted in the death of the plant. . . . Both 
of these fields had produced cotton the pre- 
ceding year. The adult beetles were fre- 
quently seen before we observed the larvae, 
but they were not abundant about the plants 
in the corn fields, being usually on the yellow 
blossoms of a species of Aster which springs 
up in cultivated grounds early in the spring 
in great abundance. No pupae were found, 
although careful search was made for them." 



30 



PSYCHE. 



[February 1S9L 



The above is the earliest notice of D. 
12-punctata as a corn insect of import- 
ance which I have seen. Unfortunately 
the writer does not state whether his 
conclusion as to the author of the injury 
was the result of inference, or was ar- 
rived at by carrying the larvae through 
their transformations. From the fact 
that he had not found pupae up to the 
time of writing, it is proper to assume 
that the transformations were not ob- 
served. As a possible clue to one of the 
original food-plants of the larva atten- 
tion is directed to the fact that he found 
the beetles abundant on an Aster 
growing on cultivated ground. (From 
its yellow color the plant would appear 
to belong to some other genus. ) If, as is 
not unlikely from an observation made 
by Prof. Lugger and reported farther 
on, the plants observed by Mr. Webster 
are attacked by the larvae, the fact 
may have an important economic 
bearing-. 



During the years 1S89 and 1S90 the 
injury from larvae to corn attracted at- 
tention over a wide area of country. To 
my knowledge it has been witnessed in 
Virginia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louis- 
iana, Arkansas, Kentucky, Illinois, 
Indiana and Ohio. 

My own observations began July 15, 
1SS9, and have continued, as other work 
permitted, to the present time. A brief 
notice of the insect, its habits and stages, 
was printed in the Louisville Home and 
Farm, Sep. 1, 1889, and in November 
of the same year was followed by a more 
elaborate account of the transformations 
and descriptions of the stages, presented 
before a meeting of the Association of 
official economic entomologists at Wash- 
ington. (See Insect life, v. 2, 179.) 
The latter paper is embodied in what 
follows, with the addition of observa- 
tions made during the winter of 1SS9- 
90, and the spring of 1890. 

(To be continued.) 



THE PARTIAL PREPARATORY STAGES OF 

RILEYANA HARVEY. 



HETEROPACHA 



BY G. H. FRENCH, CAKBONDALE, ILL. 



In 1S87 I found larvae of this species 
feeding on the honey locust in two 
stages of their growth. At the time I 
was feeding quite a number of other 
larvae and did not make so full notes of 
these as could be desired, but what I 
did make are as follows : 

Length, .45 inch. The body flattened be- 
neath, the back rounded, head small, a fringe 
of white hairs on each side of the bodv. Color 



reddish brown with an indistinct dorsal stripe 
of a more distinct red, a stigmatal blackish 
stripe ; head black, with a longitudinal fulvous 
line each side of the middle and a transverse 
line of the same about the middle of the 
front. 

Next to last stage : — Length at moult .60 
inch. Shape as in the preceding. Brownish 
red on the dorsum , but joints S and 9 gray on 
the sides leaving only a narrow dorsal brown- 
ish red stripe; joint 6 gray but less distinct. 



February 1S91 .] 



PSYCHE. 



the whole side gray tinged and the borders 
of the dorsal stripe of clear color outlined by 
gray touches; a dorsal line of clearer color 
indicated on the anterior joints; between 
joints 3 and 4 and between 4 and 5 on the 
dorsum a yellow transverse stripe that is hid 
when the larva is at rest; the head is less 
distinctly marked than at the other stage; 
the lateral fringe pink tinted. The dorsal 
stripe is more of a distinct red than the gen- 
eral ground color. 

An interesting parasite was bred in 
this stage from one of these larvae, but 
at the time of writing it is misplaced 
so that I can not now say what it is. Its 
manner of pupation was as follows : 
When ready to spin its cocoon it burst 
open the under side of the host so that 
the skin of the dead Heteropacha larva 
formed a cover for the upper side of the 
cocoon. The ends of the dead larva 
were shrunken, but the middle where 
used as a cover for the cocoon was three 
times as broad across as the living larva 
had been. The pupal period of the para- 



site was 8 days, from May 20 to May 28. 

Last stage — Length, 1.05 inches. Striped 
with 7 yellow stripes, a dorsal, subdorsal, 
suprastigmatal, and substigmatal, the first 
two quite dark almost orange, the other two 
paler and much narrower. The space be- 
tween the dorsal and subdorsal black ; a white 
pateh between the joints breaks the subdorsal 
stripe and extends almost to the dorsal. 
Sides gray. Venter pale yellow, dull, a black 
patch to each joint. Head black, a short 
transverse buff streak in front ; top of joint 2 
black; short hair all over the body but not 
enough to very much obscure the colors, the 
hair on the upper part of the body mostly 
black but that along the sides above the legs 
gray- 

The pupal period of the moth was 15 
days, from May 22 to June 6. This 
was the period of the first one that 
pupated. Several others were raised 
but their periods were not noted. They 
continued to hatch to July 17, some 
being in the larva state when the first 
one emerged as an imago. 



Smerinthus astylus. — A brood of twen- 
ty-four raised this past season, showed some 
variations from those of last year. 

Eggs laid July 29th and 30th. 

Hatched— Aug. 8th. 

1 st moult — Aug 16th. 

2nd moult — Aug. 22d. 

3rd moult — Aug. 29th. 

4th moult — Sept. 5th. 

Most stopped eating Sept. 14th, and pupa- 
ted Sept. iSth to 30th, varying much in 
length of time required for this change. All 
these periods were shorter in 1S90 than in 
1889, except that between 2nd and 3rd 
moults. But three of the larvae kept on 
feeding till Oct. 15th — one dying just before 
that date. There was much greater variation 



in color in this brood. Twenty were much 
more marked with red than those of last year, 
while four had no red, even on the caudal 
horn! Three of these four were the three 
which continued feeding after the others had 
pupated. Every one lost the '-bifid tip" of 
the caudal horn so that, in the last stage, no 
one could imagine that it had ever been 
bifid. Ida M. Eliot, Caroline G. Soule. 

Prothoracic Wings. — M. Charles Brongn- 
iart of Paris has just published in the Bul- 
letin of the Societe philomathique two plates 
representing three insects, differing consid- 
erably in structure, found in the rich carbon- 
iferous beds of Commentry, France, two of 
which show, besides fully developed meso- 



'3-2 



PSYCHE. 



[February 1S91. 



thoracic and metathoracic wings, a pair of 
prothoracic wings, bearing much the same 
relation to the others as the mesothoracic 
te' j mina of tropical Phasmidae bear to their 
metathoracic wings. They are short subtri- 
angular lobes having a well defined basis 
which is narrower, sometimes much nar- 
rower, than the parts beyond, and from which 
course three or four radiating nervules. Al- 
though on these individuals these parts 
spread laterally like the wings behind them, 
and are sometimes so broad at base as to ap- 
pear at first sight rather as lateral iobes of 
the prothorax (especially in an English car- 
boniferous insect described by Woodward, 
which Brongniart also places here) M. 
Brongniart believes that they were movable 
and could be extended backward along the 
body, so as to cover the base of the mesotho- 
racic wings. As to the question which nat- 
urallv arises, whether these members are to 
be regarded as atrophied organs and therefore 
presuppose a progenitor equipped with three 
pairs of fully developed and similar thoracic 
wings, M. Brongniart prefers to wait for fur- 
ther paleontological facts. One recalls in 
this connection the discussion between Haase 
and Cholodkovsky in the Zoologischer an- 
zeiger, Nos. 235, 239 and 244. 

A Hint from Embryology. — Mr. Wm. 
M. Wheeler has enriched entomology by a 
very interesting and suggestive paper on 
the appendages of the first abdominal seg- 
ment in insect embryos (Trans. Wise. acad. 
sci.,v. 3, pp. S7-140, pi. 1-3). Besides his 
own observations on Phyllodromia, Peri- 
planeta, Mantis, Xiphidium, Cicada, Zaitha 
and Sialis, he gives a resume of the observa- 
tions of others and discusses the probable 
original function of these appendages among 
the ancestral insects when they must have 
extended to postembryonal life. Showing 
that in view of their origin from the ectoderm 
they must have been either respiratory or- 
gans, sense organs, or glands, he reviews the 
arguments for each hypothesis pro and con 



and concludes in favor of the last; he is fur- 
ther inclined to regard them as having 
probably been odoriferous glands and his 
ingenious arguments in favor of this view 
will be found of interest to all entomologists. 
He proposes for these organs, which he notes 
to have been found only in the Heterometab- 
ola, the name of Adenopodia, a name which 
demands the acceptance of the glandular hy- 
pothesis. Considering the variety that he 
shows has already been found in the nature 
of the adenopodia, a fruitful field of investi- 
gation is opened, in which there is plenty of 
room for many workers. 

Kolbe's introduction to the stud}' of 
insects is slow in publication. Begun early 
in 1SS9. it was to be completed in six or seven 
small monthly parts. The fifth part has just 
appeared and the second of the twelve divi- 
sions of the book is not half finished, so much 
more extensive is our author's performance 
than his promise. The present part (pp. 225- 
272) deals with the mouth-parts of the suck- 
ing insects and the structure 'of the wings. 
In the former, under the bibliography of the 
Lepidoptera, we miss reference of any kind 
to either of Edward Burgess's papers, the 
most important ever published. In the latter 
there is no reference to Saussure's paper 
on the folding of the wings of cockroaches, 
but there will be found a good account of 
Adolfs views. There are 23 wood-cuts in the 
text of this part, mostly original. 

Dr. Anton Fritsch of Prag, has recently 
described in Vesi/u'r, a popular Bohemian 
journal of natural history, the case of a caddis 
fly from the permian formation, and it may 
be regarded as the oldest indication of the 
Phryganidae yet brought to light. 

Eggs of Lycaenidae — Doherty of Cincin- 
nati has carried the study of the eggs of 
eastern Lycaeninae so far as to propose, in 
the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
for 1S89, four divisions to the Theclini, based 
principally upon characteristics drawn from 



[February 1S91 



PSYCHE. 



33 



the egg, though he points out several accom- 
panying features in the adult. They are as 
follows : — 
Egg large, tubercular, indentations obscurely 

hexagonal Aphnaeus group. 

Egg similar, not tubercular. -Loxura group. 
Egg small, tubercular, indentations sharply 

cut, usually trigonal Thecla group. 

Egg small, spiny, indentations sharply cut 

tetragonal Arhopala group. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

10 February, iSSS.— The 135th meeting 
•was held at 61 Sacramento St. Mr. S. Hen- 
shaw was chosen to preside, and Mr. G. 
Dimmock chosen secretary pro tern. 

Mr. Roland Thaxter of Cambridge, Mass., 
was elected to active membership. 

Mr. J. H. Emerton read his address as re- 
tiring president, having been unable to be 
present at the January meeting. The ad- 
dress was entitled "The study of species 
and the study of cells" (see Psyche, v. 5, p. 
77-7S). 

Mr. C. W. Woodworth exhibited his col- 
lection of North American Cicadidae, which 
contains all the described species. Numer- 
ous notes were given upon the distribution 
and other peculiarities of each species. 

Mr. J. H. Emerton showed mites taken 
from a lizard and made some remarks upon 
their peculiarities. 

Mr. Emerton also showed drawings of the 
cribellum and calamistrum of various species 
of Ciniflonidae. These organs are used by 
these spiders for curling their web to make 
it sticky. He also showed drawings of the 
feet of certain species of spiders. 

Mr. S. Henshaw showed a fine specimen 
of a vegetable parasite (Sphaeria) from a 



New Zealand species of Cossus or Hepialus. 
Dr. H. A. Hagen spoke of the early stages 
of the Odonata and especially of a pupa 
skin of a large Libellula from China that he 
had lately examined. In this species the 
palpi did not meet, but each had five or six 
teeth comparable to a comb. Otherwise the 
insect belongs near Macromia, and this pe- 
culiarity of an earlier stage furnished the 
text for a discussion of how far position in 
classification should be governed by the 
earlier stages of animals and how far by adult 
characters only. The discussion was partici- 
pated in by several members. 

9 March, iSSS.— The 136th meeting of the 
Club was held at 6r Sacramento St. Mr. 
J. H. Emerton was chosen chairman. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder invited the Club to hold 
its meetings hereafter at his laboratory, and 
offered shelf room for its library; both offers 
were accepted with thanks. 

Mr. J. H. Emerton spoke of Mr. McCook's 
observations on the habits of Mygale hentzii 
while kept in confinement (see Psyche, v. 

5> P- 55)- 

Dr. H. A. Hagen said that a specimen of 
Ixodes in his possession, taken from the ear 
of a man in July, 18S7, was still living, 
though it had been without food for a pe- 
riod of nearly eight months. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder showed a series ot 
maps giving the distribution of New Eng- 
land butterflies, and called attention to 
some curious points in the range of several 
species. 

Mr. C. W. Woodworth described retractile 
processes on the abdominal segments of the 
larva of Craesus latitarsus. and suggested 
that they were probably defensive in func- 
tion. Discussion on similar organs fol- 
lowed. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen spoke of the larva of 
Glyptus sulcatiis found in the nests of white 
ants in south Africa. 

13 April, iSSS. — The 137th meeting of the 
Club was held at 156 Brattle St. Mr. S. H. 
Scudder was chosen chairman. 



34 



FYS CHE. 



[February 1S91. 



Mr. C W- Woodworth recorded the cap- 
ture in the south-western states of Atracto- 
cerus braziliensis. The venation is peculiar, 
bearing a closer resemblance to that of the 
Meloidae than to that of the clavicorns. 
The species is distributed from Brazil to 
Mexico, and this specimen, if taken in the 
United States, is probably from Texas. 

Mr. S. Henshaw thought the label rather 
suspicious. He stated that Gorham says in 
the Biologia Centrali-Americana that the 
large size of the eyes and readiness with 
which this insect flies to the light indicate 
parasitism. 

Mr. Woodworth stated that on pres- 
sure being applied to Camponotus fensylvan- 
i'chs a drop of what was apparently water 
was exuded from the alimentary tract. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder read a paper on the 
distribution of Anosia plexifpus. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen stated that a species named 
by him as Libellula vacua was identical with 
Cordidia lintneri, and has occurred in Mani- 
toba and the northwest and at Centre, N. Y. 
He also said that Aeschna grandis which has 
been taken at Hoboken also occurs in Onta- 
rio. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder remarked on the analo- 
gy which the distribution of Cordidia liutne- 
ri bore to that of Rusticus scudderii, which 
occurs in Labrador, Manitoba, the Saschat- 
chawan up to Great Slave Lake, and also at 
Centre, N. Y. 

11 May, iSSS.— The Club met at 156 Brattle 
St. Mr Samuel Henshaw was chosen chair- 
man and Mr. S. H. Scudder, secretary. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen exhibited illustrations 
and specimens of the early stages of the 
species of Blepharocera which Fritz Muller 
has found living in rapid currents in southern 
Brazil, remarkable for the suckers attached 
to each segment of the abdomen, by which 
it is enabled to withstand the rapidity of the 
stream. Dr. Hagen also gave an account of 
our knowledge of the history of the several 
species and in the same connection exhibited 
the larvae of Blepharocera found by Mr. H 



G. Hubbard in the streams of Michigan. 

Dr. Hagen also announced the discovery 
of the larva of an unknown species of Sisyra 
in northern Illinois, and offered some re- 
marks on the peculiar structure of this larva. 

Mr. C. W. Woodworth mentioned finding 
a very interesting larva of Stratiomys which 
used its palpi as locomotory organs. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder called the attention of 
the Club to the completion of the Rev. Mr. 
Eaton's monographs of the Ephemeridae, 
the last part of which had been received 
within a few days. A discussion ensued, in 
which accounts were given of the immense 
numbers of single species of Ephemeridae 
sometimes seen. 

Mr. Scudder also exhibited a Hemerobius- 
taken in the house since the last meeting, 
in which, contrary to what is customary in 
the Hemerobidae, a cross vein united the 
subcosta and radius near the tip, though the 
neuration of the two wings of the spe- 
cimen did not agree. 

He also read from his forthcoming work 
on New England butterflies a chapter on the 
life-history of Anosia plexipp us, with special 
reference to the annual recolonization of New 
England from the south. 

Mr. Woodworth gave an account of species 
of the group Typhlocybidae ; five genera are 
known in the whole world, all of them found 
in North America, where we have about 
thirty species. 

Mr. Holmes Hinkley stated that he had ob- 
tained an immense number of cut worms 
from a greenhouse adjoining his residence, 
where they were now appearing upon the 
surface every night, attacking the pansies 
and geraniums, and were supplied to him in 
large numbers by the proprietor. 

The librarian announced that the Club's 
library was now stored and arranged on 
shelves in a room adjoining that in which 
the meeting was held, where they will be 
kept for the present, and be accessible to 
the members on every Tuesday evening as 
well as at the Club meetings. 



'" 



PSYCHE, 



^477n 



A. JOXJI^KTA.L OF- ENTOMOLOGY. 
[Established in 1874.] 

Vol. 6. No. 179. 

March, 1S91. 



CONTENTS: 

A General Survey of the Modes of Development in Insects, and their 

Meaning. — Alphetts Hyatt, Jennie M. Arms 37 

On the Life History of Diabrotica 12-punctata Oliv. {Concluded). — H. 

Garman (Illustrated) ............ 44 

Descriptions of new West African Lycaenidae ; Paper II. — W. J. Holland . 50 
On an Important Character, hitherto little noticed, in the Family Bu- 

prestidae. — Frederick Blanckard ......... 53 

Harrisimemna trisignata. — Caroline G. Soule ........ 53 

Miscellaneous Notes ; LAbeille .......... 54 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club 54 



Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS, 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



36 



PSYCHE. 



[March, 1S91 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

RATES OF SUBSCRIPTION, ETC. 

PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

^5©"" Subscriptions not discontinued are considered 
renewed. 

1^" Beginning with January, iSqi, the rate of 
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The index will only be sent to subscribers to the 
ivhole volume. 

Twenty-five extra copies, without change of 
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Author's extras over twenty-five in number, 
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ADVERTISING RATES, ETC. 
Terms Cash —strictly in advance. 
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Subscriptions also received in Europe by 
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CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meetings of the Club are now held at 
7.45 P.M. on the second Friday of each month, at 
No. 156 Brattle St. Entomologists temporarily in 
Boston or Cambridge or passing through either city 
on that day are invited to be present. 

The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
by the Cambridge Entomological Club: 

Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfl), Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880. 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Casey, Thomas L. Contributions to the 
descriptive and systematic Coleopterology of 
North America. Part I— II. . . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Check list of the Noctuidae 
of America, north of Mexico. Buffalo, N. Y. 



1875- 



•25 



Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Packard, A. S. Synopsis of the Thysanura 
of Essex County, Mass. Descriptions of new 
American Phalaenidae. Notes on N.A. moths 
of the families Phalaenidae and Pyralidae in 
the British Museum. On the cave fauna of 
Indiana. Salem, 1873 .50 

Schwarz, E. A. The Coleoptera of Florida .50 

Scudder, S. H. The earliestwinged in- 
sects of America: a re-examination of the 
Devonian insects of New Brunswick, in the 
light of criticisms and of new studies of other 
paleozoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875. 1.00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col. pi. Boston, 18S3. .25 

Weber. F. Nomenclator entomologicus. 
Chilonii et Hamburgi, 1795, 171 p. . . .50 

Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

EARLY STAGES OF BUTTERFLIES. 
The undersigned desires to obtain, from all parts 
of the world, eggs, caterpillars and chrysalids of 
diurnal Lepidoptera, and can offer similar speci- 
mens of many North American species in exchange. 
Dried specimens are preferred, especially of cat- 
erpillars, which should be prepared by inflation. 

Samuel H. Scudder, Cambridge, Mass. 



PSYCHE. 



A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE MODES OF DEVELOPMENT IN 
INSECTS AND THEIR MEANING.* 



The mode of development in all of 
the first series of orders from 1-1X [see 
Psyche v. 6, p. 13] is as a rule direct, 
and this necessarily unites the Thysanu- 
riform larva, when it is present, .more 
or less closely with the adult stages, 
and the adults are apt to show traces of 
this connection in the retention of cer- 
tain primitive characteristics. The ab- 
sence of a waist or deep constriction be- 
tween the thorax and the abdomen is due 
to the fact that the junction with the 
metathorax remains in most adults as it 
is in the larva and in Thysanura. The 
mouth parts also are for biting, except 
in the highly specialized Hemiptera, in 
which, although the suctorial character- 
istics of these parts are developed early, 
the larvae, with this exception, have 
what may be called a Thysanuriform 
stage. The highly specialized adults 
of groups having indirect development 
(Coccidae) are not exceptions to this 
rule, and retain to a recognizable de- 
gree the primitive form of the larvae. 

The second series of orders from X- 
XVI have, as a rule, more complicated 
modes of development, introducing va- 
rious intermediate and often extraordi- 
nary stages, such as grubs, caterpillars, 



*From Guides for Science Teaching, No. VIII. By 
Alpheus Hyatt and J. M. Arms. 



etc. Following Brauer and some other 
entomologists, we have regarded these 
as more or less degraded modifications 
of the primitive Thysanuriform larva, 
but have spoken of them collectively as 
the secondary larval stages. They ap- 
pear subsequently to the Thysanuriform 
stage, when that is present, or between 
the ovarian and pupal stages when that 
is absent. The pupal stage is similar 
to that of the first series of orders in all 
respects except that, as a rule, it is in- 
capable of motion, or is what is called 
quiescent, and is usually more or less 
protected. The complicated develop- 
ment of individuals in the second series 
of orders has led sevei - al authors to des- 
ignate the first series of orders as Ame- 
tabola, and the second series as 
Metabola. 

The use of the term "ametabola," as 
applied to the orders from I to IX, in- 
volves an exaggeration, since it implies 
that they have no metamorphoses ; 
whereas, as pointed out by Comstock 
and others, the Coccidae have a "com- 
plete" series of metamorphoses, or in- 
direct development, even including a 
quiescent pupal stage in the develop- 
ment of the only winged form, the 
male. The quiescence of the pupal 
stage loses much significance in view of 



38 



PSYCHE. 



[March 1S91. 



this exception, and also when it is noted 
that an extra quiescent larval stage may 
occur in the second sei'ies of orders, as 
in some beetles, whose extraordinary 
habits render two quiescent stages es- 
sential in their development. 

It is a remarkable fact that, as a rule, 
the larvae of the second or specialized 
series of orders have the habit of feeding 
voraciously. In this way the larvae 
store up fats and food matters in their 
own bodies in preparation for the qui- 
escent and helpless pupal stage, during 
which they live upon these accumula- 
tions, they being taken up by the cells 
of the tissues and used in building up 
the organs and parts of the adult. The 
pupal stage is passed, as a rule, in more 
or less sheltered situations, and it is 
either enclosed in a special covering, a 
cocoon, woven by the animal, or else 
protected by one acquired through the 
moulting and hardening of its own cut- 
icle. The difference between this last 
and the ordinary process of moulting 
consists in the retention of the moulted 
skin, the animal shrinking within it for 
shelter as its fatty parts are consumed, 
instead of casting it off altogether. 

Lubbock, in his Origin and meta- 
morphoses of insects, has shown that 
the inactivity of the pupa in the second 
series of orders is not a novel condi- 
tion, but a mere prolongation of the 
shorter periods of inactivity which ne- 
cessarily accompany every change of 
skin or moult. These facts and the ob- 
vious want of any common structural 
differences in the quiescent pupae, as 
compared with the similar stages of ac- 



tive pupae, show that quiescence must 
be reckoned as a habit of resting from 
active exertion during a more or less 
prolonged period of their growth which 
has been acquired by the more special- 
ized forms of insects, not only generally 
among the members of the second series 
of orders, but also by many among the 
first series. The degraded larvae of in- 
dividuals in these specialized forms are 
as a rule farther removed structurally 
from their own adults, than in forms 
having a direct mode of development, 
and the changes to be gone through be- 
fore reaching the adult stage are greater 
and more numerous. The habits of the 
animal during the pupal stage have con- 
sequently changed in proportion to 
these requirements from the active to 
the quiescent condition. 

There ai"e other series of facts equally 
important and significant. While the 
Thysanuriform stage is present more or 
less in Coleoptera and Neuroptera, 
which have the indirect mode of develop- 
ment, it is absent in the orders from 
XII to XVI inclusive, having been re- 
placed by the secondary larval stages in 
accordance with the law of acceleration 
in development. 

The tendency of the more specialized 
forms in the orders I to IX to accelerate 
the development of the earliest stages is 
shown in various ways. In the grass, 
hoppers,* Mantidae, etc., the inheri- 
tance of the adult peculiarities of the 
type affects the young at such early 



* Packard's illustrations on p. 60 of his Entomology 
for beginners give an excellent series of one species, 
Caloptenus femur- rubrum 



March 1891.] 



PSYCHE. 



39 



stages that, as has been described above, 
the primitive larval Thysanuriform stage 
is skipped or omitted from the develop- 
ment. 

In Coleoptera and in the highly spe- 
cialized orders of insects (XI to XVI) 
a novel and disturbing influence appears, 
due to the extraordinary importance of 
the functions of larval life. This period 
in the larger number of groups in other 
classes of animals is much less variable 
than the adult stage, and it is really very 
often a mere vehicle for the record and 
transmission of hereditary characters. 
In some of the orders of insects, how- 
ever, it is as efficient for the manifesta- 
tion of new modifications and adaptive 
characters as the adult, and often per- 
haps more variable. This is an excep- 
tional rather than the usual aspect of 
the larval stages, and makes the study 
of insects remarkably difficult and inter- 
esting. 

Sometimes in the orders I to IX (Coc- 
cidae, Cicada), as well as more gener- 
ally in X to XVI, the larvae carry the 
line of development and modification a 
long way outside of what can be termed 
the normal or direct course, but these 
deviations lead, as a rule, back again 
through similar pupae to the same goal 
in the imago, a typical adult insect. 
Epicauta, the blister-beetle, is a good 
example. Fig. 98 shows the active Thy- 
sanuriform larva, and Figs. 102, 106, 
107, the grub-like larva which passes 
through two stages before becom- 
ing the true pupa that transforms 
into the imago. These complica- 
tions were probably due originally in 



each type to the plastic nature of the 
organism, which enabled it to fit itself 
to different conditions and surroundings 
during its passage through the younger 
stages of growth. The history of para- 
sites, whose loss of parts and correlative 
modifications are plainly adaptations to 
the nature of the surroundings in all 
branches of the animal kingdom, shows 
this to be sound reasoning. Among some 
of these types there are all kinds of meta- 
morphoses ami very complicated modes 
of development, so that it is not difficult 
to surpass even those of insects. One 
can apply a similar nomenclature and 
the same laws in explanation of the 
often curious and sometimes extraordi- 
nary metamorphoses, and these changes 
are often, as in Taenia, accompanied 
by corresponding acceleration and loss 
of primitive stages. The curious trans- 
formations of Echinodermata are plainly 
adaptations of the larvae to a free life 
in the water before they become attached 
or sink to the bottom and begin their 
proper life as crawlers. In this class 
there are a number of examples of accel- 
eration (Comatula, Spatangoids, etc.). 
Such life-histories and those of Epi- 
cauta, Sitaris and Meloe among beetles 
which run out the gamut of changes 
from the simplest Thysanuriform larva 
through several grub stages to the qui- 
escent pupa, show that the most 
complicated metamorphoses, called hy- 
permetamorphoses by entomologists, 
must have arisen in response to the 
changes of the surroundings. No other 
hypothesis can account for the number, 
variety, and novelty of these metamor- 



40 



PSYCHE. 



[March 1S91. 



phoses and their suitability to the num- 
ber, variety, and novelty of the changes 
in the surrounding's and the correspond- 
ing changes in habits of the larvae at 
different stages of growth. 

The occupation of the larval stages 
by strange and curious forms, like cat- 
erpillars, grubs, etc., naturally attracts 
attention and at first makes one wonder 
at the apparent eccentricities of nature's 
ways. But in reality they serve to 
throw a strong side light upon the nor- 
mal mode of action of the laws of hered- 
ity, and show us that, in spite of its 
enormous conservative force, heredity 
is subservient to the effects of habit or 
use of parts. 

That these secondary larval forms are 
more reduced, although more special- 
ized organisms than the primitive Thy- 
sanuriform larvae, has already been 
stated. Among Coleoptera and Neu- 
roptera this is obvious whenever the 
Thysanuriform and secondary adaptive 
forms are present in the growth of the 
same individual. No one can compare 
the swollen, soft, round-bodied grubs 
with the active Thysanuriform larva, 
especially when occurring in the growth 
of the same beetle, without realizing 
that the former is due to specialization 
by reduction. That their structures, 
although degraded by this process, are 
suitable to the conditions under which 
they live has been pointed out by many 
writers ; notably, Graber, Riley, Lub- 
bock, and Packard. This reduction 
becomes still more apparent when we 
regard the larvae of Diptera and the 
grubs of the weevils among Coleoptera, 



the latter being generally without legs, 
and the former also deficient in these 
organs and in large part without a dif- 
ferentiated head. If these or the cater- 
pillars or other secondary larval forms 
similar to them were isolated, and their 
subsequent development into pupae 
and adults unknown, naturalists would 
no admit that they possessed close affin- 
ities with the adult insects of the same 
groups, and they would be considered 
as more rudimentary or simpler in 
structure than any Thysanuran or Thy • 
sanuriform larva. In the most special- 
ized forms of Coleoptera, the weevils, 
the early development of a footless grub, 
a reduced form similar to the maggot of 
the Diptera, replaces both the Thysa- 
nuriform larva and also the active six- 
footed grub of the normal groups of 
beetles. The Insecta furnish such ap- 
parently isolated examples, and, on ac- 
count of the absence of intermediate 
forms, it has been supposed that these 
could be put in evidence against the 
derivation of the orders of which they 
were members from Thysanura, as has 
been stated above with reference to the 
saltatorial Orthoptera, but the researches 
of Brauer, Packard, and Lubbock, de- 
monstrating that the secondary larval 
stages, grubs, maggots, etc., are modi- 
fications of the Thysanuriform larval 
stages, show that this- use of them can- 
not be admitted. If this be granted, it 
becomes possible to account for the phe- 
nomena as follows. The modified, and 
adaptive, larval characters of the grubs, 
caterpillars, etc., having become fixed 
in the organization of such groups as 



March 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



41 



the weevils among Coleoptera, and in 
some whole orders, as in the Lepidop- 
tera and Diptera, have been inherited 
at snch early stages in accordance with 
the law of acceleration in development 
that they have replaced the useless Thy- 
sanuriform stage. In other words, the 
absence of this primitive larval stage in 
the young of many specialized forms of 
insects now living is due to the tendency 
to earlier inheritance of the later ac- 
quired, adaptive characters of the secon- 
dary larval forms. 

It is very important for these consid- 
erations to notice that after the insects 
possessing the indirect modes of devel- 
opment have passed through their re- 
ductive secondary larval stages, they 
return to the more normal or direct 
mode of development in the pupa. In 
doing this, they clearly illustrate the 
exceptional and adaptive nature of their 
deviations from the direct mode during 
the larval stages, and show that this re- 
sumption of the older beaten path 
marked out by heredity is essential in 
order that a typical hexapod form may 
be evolved in the adult stage. The 
pupa is always a six-legged form, with 
the legs more or less developed, and 
being common to all insects, whether 
quiescent or active, is really a part of 
the direct mode of development wher- 
ever it occurs. It is as universal and 
essential as are the typical ovarian and 
adult stages. Indirect development is, 
therefore, composite. It is first a devia- 
tion in the larva from the direct mode, 
and then a return in the pupa of the 
direct mode, and this return necessarily 



brings the organism back again into the 
normal line of evolutionary changes, 
and the normal form of insect is the re- 
sult of this return and the resumption 
of progressive specialization. 

The reverse of this process, i. e. 
when direct development is not re- 
sumed, is shown in the case of parasites 
like the female of Stylops. 

If it be true that the stages of develop- 
ment in individuals are abbreviated rec- 
ords of the modifications undergone by 
the group during its evolution in time, 
and that as a rule the characteristics of 
adults of the more generalized or primi- 
tive forms of any order, or even of 
smaller divisions, in all groups of the 
animal kingdom, show a tendency to 
occur in the young of more specialized 
forms of the same group or division, it 
follows, that in each natural group the 
specialized forms have been evolved 
from the generalized forms. This ten- 
dency to accelerate and abbreviate the 
record preserved by heredity in the 
growth and development of each indi- 
vidual can be understood if one imagines 
a series of forms evolving in time. First, 
the representatives of the simple, primi- 
tive ancestor ; then one form after 
another coming into being successively 
would each introduce some novel modi- 
fications, according to its place in time 
and the structural series. These modi- 
fications being inherited at earlier stages 
in descendants than those in which they 
originated in the ancestral forms, would 
crowd upon the characteristics already 
fixed by heredity in the growth of the 
young. By and by, as characteristics 



42 



PSYCHE. 



[Match 1S91. 



accumulated, it would become not only 
inconvenient to repeat all the character- 
istics of its ancestors, but it would be a 
physical impossibility for ally individual 
to reproduce them all in the same suc- 
cession in which they had arisen ; life 
would not be long enough nor vital pow- 
ers strong enough to accomplish such a 
process. Nature provides for such 
emergencies by a law of replacement ; 
and as stated above, when a part or 
characteristic becomes useless, if it 
stand in the way of the development of 
other parts or other characteristics of the 
same part, it is replaced to a greater or 
less degree by the newer and more useful 
modifications. This is the rule so far 
as relates to an ordinary normal series 
of forms when such a series can be 
traced with abundant materials through 
a sufficiently long period of geologic 
time, as has been repeatedly shown by 
Cope and one of the authors. Made 
confident by such experiences we do 
not hesitate to apply it to the insects 
where positive evidence of this sort is 
not yet forthcoming. 

If this be con:ect, it is evident for ex- 
ample that the sucking-tube and other 
correlative internal modifications origi- 
nated in the pupal or adult stages of the 
primitive Hemipteron, then became 
fixed in the organization of the order, 
and are now inherited at an early age, 
having replaced or driven out the ances- 
tral, primitive, perhaps Thysanuriform 
mouth parts from the larval stage. The 
assumption that the sucking mouth parts 
originated in the pupal or adult stages 
is considered probable, because, al- 



though there are many exceptions, char- 
acteristics usually originate in the later 
stages in other branches of the animal 
kingdom. In Lepidoptera and Diptera, 
which resemble the Hemiptera in hav- 
ing the highly modified mouth parts 
with a tubular arrangement, these char- 
acteristic peculiarities are confined to 
the later stages of development, and are 
not found in their larvae. The larvae 
of Hemiptera are also decidedly Thy- 
sanuriform, and that they originated 
from a modified Thysanuroid form 
having biting mouth parts in the larvae 
and sucking mouth parts in the later 
stages, seems to be indicated by this 
fact. We have already seen in such ex- 
amples as the locusts, etc., that an earlier 
development in the inheritance of the 
characters of adults may effectually ob- 
literate the Thysanuriform larva, and 
in the Coleoptera, Neuroptera, etc., that 
it is the earlier inheritance of the sec- 
ondary larval characteristic which ac- 
complishes this result. In- no case do 
the pupal or adult characteristics become 
accelerated in development so as to re- 
place the larval stage in the second se- 
ries of orders except in parasites such 
as the parasitic Pupipara (ticks). The 
young are in some of these species born 
as pupae, and the ovarian and larval 
stages are passed within the mother.* 
As a rule, then, the orders having in- 

*Among tlie orders having the direct mode of develop- 
ment a similar case to the Pupipara is to be found in 
the plant-lice. These being viviparous, the young are 
born in an advanced stage, and are in reality, although 
wingless, comparable with active pupae. In the case 
of the sexually perfect forms which emerge from 
pseudova, they are, according to Comstock, in a still 
more advanced condition. 



March 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



43 



direct modes of development do not 
show to any marked extent acceleration 
in the inheritance of adult or adolescent 
(pupal) characters, but, on the contrary, 
the characteristics of these later stages re- 
main remarkably constant in the ages 
at which they are inherited. They do 
not encroach upon or replace the larval 
stage to any very marked extent, as in 
the examples cited above, among the 
Orthoptera or Hemiptera. This might 
be considered as fatal to the application 
of the law of acceleration, and this 
would be the case if that law were any- 
thing more than the expression for a 
general result of causes which underlie 
the action of heredity. One of these 
causes is what we have already expressed 
as a law of replacement. 

Two modifications cannot occupy the 
same space, and the secondary larval 
forms having become fixed in the organ- 
ization, they hold their own in the de- 
velopment of individuals against the en- 
croachment of the pupal and adult 
characters by virtue of their suitability 
and the conservative power of heredity. 
The few cases in which acceleration of 
the pupal stages at the expense of the 
larval stages does take place in the sec- 
ond series of orders seem to show this, 
since they occur not in the normal forms 
having the ordinary habitat, but in par- 
asites like the Pupipara. 

Teachers who read Sir John Lub- 
bock's interesting chapter on the Nature 
of metamorphoses will find opposite 
views expressed in regard to the rank 
of metamorphoses, and these may con- 
fuse them unless explained. He speaks, 



on page 41, of the maggots of flies as 
belonging "to a lower grade" of meta- 
morphoses than the grubs which have 
biting mouth parts and heads, and of 
the caterpillar as on a higher level than 
the vermiform larvae of Diptera and 
Hymenoptera. This, literally trans- 
lated, means that larvae, like those of 
the grubs of most Coleoptera and Lep- 
idoptera, have heads, mouth parts, and 
legs which have not yet suffered from 
reduction ; but in speaking of these as 
"lower grade," Lubbock makes a mis- 
take in systematic perspective. If, as 
he holds, the secondary larvae are all 
primarily the outcome of the Thysanu- 
ran form, they are all what he ought to 
call "higher grade," being more spe- 
cialized and farther removed from this 
primitive insect standard than the larvae 
of the more generalized or first series of 
orders. The same and, we think, more 
philosophical mode of dealing with the 
facts leads to the corollary that among 
themselves the larvae of the more spe- 
cialized orders are really "higher," if 
the use of this word is considered essen- 
tial, or more specialized in proportion 
to the extent of their structural devia- 
tion from the Thysanuran standard. 
Thus the larvae of Diptera are, as a 
rule, more specialized than any other, 
and have to be set on the extreme left 
in our table on this account. The words 
"higher and lower grade" are extremely 
confusing, since they embrace three dif- 
ferent classes of ideas, — anatomical and 
physiological facts and teleological no- 
tions. Nature leads us along lines of 
modification which sometimes rise 



44 



PSYCHE. 



March 1S91. 



through continuous progressive special- 
ization to more and more differentiated 
structure with correspondingly increased 
functional powers, or larger or different 
fields of work. At other times it may 
lead us in a wave line, which follows a 
devious course, rising part of the time 
through progressive specialization, and 
then falling for another period of time 
through specialization by reduction. 
If the animals under consideration be 
parasites, they may continue on this 
descending plane both in the growth of 
the individual and the evolution of the 
group. Nevertheless the resulting ad- 
ult is not necessarily of "low grade" in 
any scientific scheme of arrangement 
founded upon the principles of evolu- 



tion. It is, however, farther removed 
from the primitive type, and is extremely 
specialized. The use of the aesthetic 
terms "low" and "high" have come 
from a period in the history of our sci- 
ence when nature was made to assume 
a rigidly progressive aspect, each divi- 
sion of the animal kingdom representing 
a finger-post pointing towards the so- 
called perfect animal, man, each rising 
higher and higher in the scale of per- 
fection whose standard was the human 
organization. Such artificial ideas re- 
venge themselves, and words become 
their ready instruments, first to express 
what is false, and then to help in bind- 
ing the mind with the conservative fet- 
ters of habit. 



ON THE LIFE HISTORY OF DIABROTICA 12-PUNCTATA, OLIV. 



BY H. GARMAN, LEXINGTON, KY. 



{Co?icluded from p. JO.) 



THE INJURY TO CORN. 

The larva of this insect works much 
like its congener, D. longicoi-nis, com- 
monly destroying the roots, but often 
also working on the underground part 
of the stalk. The larva of D. longi- 
cornis often makes a longitudinal bur- 
row in a root leaving little outward trace 
of its presence. The larval D. 12-func- 
tata has not been observed to work in 
this manner, the roots being mined and 
channeled irregularly, often bored 



through from side to side, or even com- 
pletely devoured where the worms are 
abundant. Very few fields in Kentucky 
are entirely free from injury, and many 
are affected very injuriously, the damage 
being perceptible to casual observation 
in the retarded growth, and, as the sea- 
sons advance, in the prostration of in- 
fested corn by the winds. As a rule the 
injury is greatest on land that retains 
moisture longest. On high and well- 
drained land it is not so prevalent. In 



March 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



45 



all these respects it agrees with the re- 
lated corn root- worm of the North. 

I have not observed thus far that its 
abundance has any relation to the land 
having been previously in corn. The 
northern species, it will be remembered, 
is commonly most abundant on old corn 
land. Two of the worst infested fields 
examined in 1SS9 were, one in tobacco, 
and the other in oats, in iSSS. A third 
field, in corn in 1SS7 and iSSS, was in 
oats in the spring of 1SS9, these to be 
followed the same season by a late plant- 
ing of corn. This difference in the in- 
juries of the two corn root-worms is to 
be attributed to the fact that D. longi- 
comis hibernates in the egg state in the 
earth of corn fields, whereas D. 12- 
fifinctata hibernates, at least in great 
part, as an adult beetle which wanders 
actively about in fall and spring in 
search of food. Still, the observation 
reported in Insect life concerning injury 
to orchard trees planted on corn land 
renders it probable that in some cases 
beetles which develop in corn land 
hibernate there. This would certainly 
be the case at any rate if the corn was 
very late. 

D. 12-punctata seems to be the only 
corn root-worm of Kentucky, and cer- 
tainly is the only generally injurious one. 
During two seasons' collecting I have 
not found a single specimen of D. longi- 
cornis within the limits of the State. 

LIFE-HISTORY (FOR KENTUCKY). 

Young larvae noted on the 15th of 
Jul}', 1SS9, were mostly grown, and 
some had pupated in small cells in the 



earth by the 29th of the same month. 
Adult beetles dissected at this time con- 
tained numerous ova of relatively large 
size. On August 3 of that summer an 
examination of infested corn showed 
that most of the larvae had pupated or 
were ready to do so. No very young 
worms were seen. One adult was taken 
from an earthen cell where it had re- 
cently changed from a pupa. From the 
abundance of females with well devel- 
oped ova about fields at this time it 
seemed probable there was to be a sec- 
ond brood. Subsequent search in the 
fields did not reveal young larvae there, 
and towards the end of August the fe- 
males disappeared, and none were ob- 
served with developed eggs during the 
remainder of the season. 

The eggs of these females were cer- 
tainly not deposited freely among corn 
that was damaged by the early brood of 
larvae. What then became of them? 

Several larvae and pupae, perhaps 
from eggs laid by these females, were 
found among injured corn late in sum- 
mer, but thorough search at different 
times showed them to be rare, and I was 
for a time led to think the species might 
be single brooded like the related D. 
longicomis. But on the first of Novem- 
ber, 18S9, the discovery in a field of 
late-planted corn of numerous larvae to- 
gether with pupae and recently trans- 
formed adults, gave unquestionable 
proof of at least two annual broods of 
the insect for this locality. The exam- 
ples collected at this time were chiefly 
grown larvae, contracted and ready for 
pupation, with occasional individuals 



46 



PSYCHE. 



[March 1891. 



about three-fourths grown, and a few 
pupae and recently emerged adults. 

In my paper as read at the Washing- 
ton meeting of entomologists I stated 
that the above facts made it seem prob- 
able that the late brood of larvae fed in 
part on plants other than corn. In the 
discussion following, Prof. Otto Lugger 
of Minnesota showed the surmise to be 
well founded by stating that he had taken 
pupae at the roots of one of the native 
Compositae, — a species of Rudbeckia. 
At my request he has since kindly given 
me the following definite statement, 
quoted partly from his notes : 

'' Diabrotica 12-punctata. — Sep, 3, '89* 
found among roots of Rudbeckia sp. three 
pupae of a chrysomelid, nearly ready to issue 
the imago. Sep. 5, '89, ail three insects ap- 
peared above ground in breeding cage. At 
first white, they soon changed to the normal 
color, excepting that the black spots were 
only faintly visible. Sep. 7, '89, insects 
mature, and mounted. It is the above spe- 
cies. 

Many specimens occurred at this time upon 
the above plant and upon Solidago and this 
ties. The majority appeared quite fresh, as 
if hatched quite recently. The Rudbeckia 
grew in an old field cultivated some four years 
ago, but grown up into a wilderness of Soli- 
dago, Rudbeckia, thistles, etc. The nearest 
field of corn is fully one-fourth mile from 
this spot." 

Prof. Lugger's observation explains 
the whereabouts of most of the late 
brood. Very little corn is planted here 
as late as that in which the second brood 
occurred, so that ordinarily the beetles 
must resort to some other plant for ovi- 
position. Five Kentucky species of 



Rudbeckia are known, and in all prob- 
ability the beetles which emerged from 
the ground in this vicinity during Au- 
gust resorted to these. The observation 
also renders it almost certain that the 
insect is two brooded at latitudes much 
higher than this. 

The larvae and pupae in the field of 
late-planted corn were followed until 
all had completed their transformations. 
From an excess of larvae in November, 
the proportion was gradually changed 
to an excess of pupae in December. A 
short time spent digging about hills of 
corn on Dec. 5 resulted in finding seven 
pupae and two larvae. Subsequently 
we experienced a most exceptional 
period of spring-like weather, and 
urged apparently by its influence all the 
larvae and pupae completed their trans- 
formations. On January 16, a close 
search among the infested roots did not 
reveal the presence of a single example. 
Previous to December we had some 
weather during which the surface of the 
ground was frozen. If the winter sub- 
sequently had not been so mild it is safe 
to assume that the larvae and pupae in 
the frozen ground would not have 
changed to beetles until the spring of 
1S90. 

The adult beetle has been found 
abroad at all times when looked for 
from July 10, 1S89, until December, 
1S90. During the winter it is to be 
found among rubbish in strawberry 
beds, in gardens, and meadows. Dur- 
ing mild days it is often awake, and 
feeds at such times on almost any green 
vegetation within reach. It is one of 



March 1S91. 



PSYCHE. 



47 



the first insects to become active in 
spring, and at this time is to be found 
on grasses, clovers and other plants 
feeding on leaves, flowers or pollen. 
It is during this time, and before the 
corn is up, that the ova develops in the 
ovaries of the females. During the fall 
and winter those taken and dissected 
contained no developed eggs. In the 
latter part of May last spring when the 
corn was a few inches high, the females 
collected contained ova in an advanced 
stage of development. 

I was unfortunately unable to find the 
eggs after oviposition, but there can be 
no doubt but that they are placed like 
those of D. lojtgicornis in the ground at 
the roots of corn. A search in corn 
fields June 3, 1889, resulted in no lar- 
vae. On June 10, they began to ap- 
pear, and by the close of the month 
were mostly well grown. On July 5 
pupae were found in confinement from 
larvae brought in June 30. The pupae 
began to appear out of doors about the 
same time and the beetles came forth 
from them during the first two weeks 
of July, all apparently being out before 
the 2 1 st. The first brood was thus 
matured earlier than in 18S9, a result, 
doubtless, of the forwardness of the 
season of 1S90. 

Remedial Treatment. 

A complete remedy for the pest may 
prove hard to find. If the insect spent 
the winter in corn fields in the egg state, 
as has been determined by Prof. S. A. 
Forbes to be true of D. longicornis, 
we might hope to avoid injuries by 



rotation of crops. Since it hibernates 
in part at least as an adult, and is capa- 
ble of prolonged flight, rotation would 
not avail. The food habits, too, of 
larva and imago are such as to favor it 
in the struggle for existence. As a beetle 
it is a voracious and indiscriminate 
feeder, and nothing, seemingly, in the 
way of succulent vegetation comes 
amiss. Tomato leaves, clovers, potato 
leaves and tubers, turnips and cabbage 
have been used to feed beetles kept in 
confinement. During the latter part of 
August they are very common here in 
the ends of corn ears, eating out the 
silks. It is possible they may do some 
harm in this way, but I can not see 
that the affected corn fails to develop 
the usual number of grains. At times 
it is scarcely possible to find an ear of 
corn that does not harbor one or more 
beetles. 

Enemies. 

Some predaceous beetles and larvae 
have been found during summer and 
fall in the earth with young root worms, 
but not in any great numbers. Among 
birds I find only the brown thrush re- 
corded as eating the beetles. 

Several parasites occur in the fluids 
of the beetles, and can perhaps be ex- 
pected to check any extraordinary in- 
crease in the numbers of the root-worm. 
The most common of these is one of 
the protozoans, a large Gregarina. prob- 
ably the same species as that noted some 
yeai's ago in the fluids of D. longi- 
cornis. The fluids of examples occa- 
sionally swarm also with a small nema- 
tode worm, and in one instance a large 



48 



PTSCHE. 



[March 1891. 



thread worm with tapering caudal ap- 
pendage was noted. Occasional beetles 
have been found affected with an Em- 
pusa resembling E. grylli, a species 
commonly known as a parasite of grass- 
hoppers. An interesting bacterial dis- 
ease of the larva reported by Prof. S. A. 
Forbes at the Washington meeting of 
entomologists is also to be mentioned 
in this connection, though I have not 
detected it here in Kentucky. 

Descriptions. 

■Egg. — Matured ova from ovaries of fe- 
males are much like those of D. lotigicornis. 
They are white, oval, with the surface retic- 
ulated and sculptured so as to produce nu- 
merous hexagonal, pitted areas. Prof. Forbes 
gives the dimensions of the egg of D. longi- 
cornis as .025 inch, by .015 inch. Ova of the 
spotted species measure a trifle larger, being 
about .027 inch in length by .016 inch in 
greatest diameter. 



Fig. 1. Larva, enlarged. 

Larva. — Body cylindrical, tapering a 
trifle towards the extremities, composed of 
twelve segments behind the head. Skin 
wrinkled, papillose along the sides, white, 
sometimes becoming yellowish just before 
pupation. Head dark brown, nearly black 
in some examples, with a few rather strong 
hairs arising from the surface ; a narrow 
median longitudinal line of black above, and 
two pale lines which converge from the bases 
of the antennae, following sutures, to meet 
at the middle line on the posterior part of 
the head; ventral side of head pale medially. 
No eyes. Antennae of three segments, 
white. Labrum dark brown. Mandibles 
dark brown, black at tips, with four or more 
blunt denticles. Maxillae pale, armed with 



numerous strong spines within. Labium 
pale. Cervical shield pale brown, with a 
narrow median longitudinal white line, 
broadly triangular in shape. Jointed legs 
pale, each with a dark brown chitinous sup- 
porting frame work at base; each segment 
of legs provided with a number of strong 
hairs; a single brown tarsal claw, beside 
which arises a white, elliptical, striated plate 
slightly longer than the claw. Dorsal shield 
of posterior bod}' segment nearly circular in 
Outline, brown, with numerous minute black 
specks, slightly rimmed at posterior margin, 
and in young examples obscurely bitubercu- 
late; furnished with several strong marginal 
hairs, and with four minute, striate, cen- 
trally-placed, spatulate appendages. Spira- 
cles round, the two anterior pairs sometimes 
with brown rims, the rest pale. Posterior 
segment with a single fleshy proleg. 

Length about .56 inch, diameter about .06 
inch. Examples ready for pupation about 
.37 inch long. 




Fig. 2. Pupa, enlarged. 
Pupa. — Translucent white, with scattered 
brown hairs on dorsal side of body arranged 
as follows: one within, and a pair posterior 
to, the base of each antenna; a transverse, 
arched row near the anterior edge, a pair 
near the middle, one at the middle of each 
side, and one at each side near the posterior 
margin, of the prothorax; four each on the 
meso- and meta-thorax ; three at the extrem- 
ity of each femur; a pair at the middle and 
one at each side of each abdominal segment, 
except the posterior three; antepenultimate 
and penultimate segments of abdomen each 
with six, the four inner being in pairs and 



[March 1S91. 



PSYCHE. 



49 



posterior to the others; two within, and 
three without each of the large spines borne 
on the posterior segment. Caudal spines 
straight or curved, black-tipped. Wing-pads 
covering the posterior femora below. An- 
tennae curving around the femora of the two 
anterior pairs of legs and then extending 
inwards towards the ventral middle line. 
Length .22 — .25 inch. 




Fig. 3. Imago, enlarged. 
Imago. — Pale green, or greenish yellow, 
marked with black. Head and mouth-parts 
black, the former showing a brownish cast 
medially on ventral side. Three basal arti- 
cles of each antenna pale, sometimes with 
dusky dots on posterior side; remainder of 
antennae black. Prothorax uniformly green 
or yellow. Elytra green or yellow, with 
twelve large black spots, six on each, ar- 
ranged in three cross series; the first series 
at the base, the second at about the middle, 
and the third midway between the second 
and the tips of the elytra. Scutellum brown 
or black. Mesothorax beneath, the coxae, 
the basal third to half of femora, and the 
abdomen, yellow or green. Metathorax 
beneath, the distal portion of the femora, 
and the whole of the tibiae and tarsi, black. 

Head with a basal pit behind antennae. 
Prothorax above smooth and shining, obso- 
letely punctulate, with a pair of pits, one on 
each side of the middle line. Margin of 
prothorax sinuate at sides, no prominent 
angles. Elytra minutely, regularly punctu- 



late, each elytron with a humeral promi- 
nence. Antennae, metathorax beneath, ab- 
domen, and legs, clothed with a fine silken 
pubescence. 

Length .25 — .28 inch; antennae about .19 
inch. 

For the p ur P ose of making this 
record more nearly complete I may be 
allowed in conclusion to call attention 
to the most recent notice of D. 12- 
punctata known to me, printed in a 
recent number of Insect life (v. 3, 
150). The writer, Mr. Webster, here 
gives a brief description of the larva 
which agrees in the main with that 
given above. In several points, how- 
ever, we do not agree. I presume the 
statement that the posterior segment of 
the body is provided with a pair of 
prolegs is a slip of the pen ; certainly 
there is only one of these in both D. 
longicoriiis and D. 12-p/tnctata. The 
statement also that the brown phite on 
the hindmost segment is furnished with 
a ridge "bearing a long erect bristle" 
cannot be verified on the larvae collected 
in this State, and I respectfully suggest 
in explanation that in examples nearly 
grown some of the hairs on the plate 
are frequently worn or hroken off. The 
hairs are constant in position and num- 
ber in the examples I have studied, and 
none have been seen with a single erect 
hair arising from the ridge, if these 
differences in the descriptions are not 
thus to be explained away, then I sub- 
mit that we have examined different 
larvae, and am content to leave to others 
the decision as to who has described the 
larva of D. 12-puuctata. 



50 



PSYCHE. 



[M:irch 1891. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW WEST AFRICAN LYCAENIDAE ; 

PAPER II. * 



BY W. J. HOLLAND, PITTSBURGH, PA. 



The following descriptions have been 
lying in my portfolio for some time, and 
I have been intending to add to them 
descriptions of a dozen or more other 
species which are manifestly nonde- 
script, but finding no time at my com- 
mand in which to execute this purpose, 
I herewith present them as they are. 
The insects all come from the region of 
the upper waters of the Ogove River in 
West Tropical Africa, and were cap- 
tured by Mr. Good. 

Pittsburgh, Jan. 31, 1 Sy 1 . 

PSEUD ALETIS Druce. 

1. P. zebra, sp. nov. Upperside : — Head 
and thorax yellowish brown, abdomen white 
ringed with pale gray, and tufted at the anal 
extremity with fulvous. Anterior wings 
white, faintly laved near the base with stra- 
mineous, and narrowly bordered upon the 
costa and broadly bordered upon the outer 
margin with black, and further ornamented 
by three broad black bands, the first and 
shortest of which crosses the cell about the 
middle, the next is situated at the extremity 
of the cell, and a third, which runs from the 
costa about one-third of the distance from 
the apex, across the wing in the direction of 
the outer angle until it is fused with the 
broad black external margin. The posterior 
wings are white with a black border, narrow 
at the external angle and gradually increasing 
in width toward the anal angle. The tails 
are very small and black. Underside: — 
Thorax, abdomen and legs fulvous. Ground 

* For Paper I see Psyche, v. 5, p 423. 



color of the wings white. The anterior wing 
is marked as upon the upper surface except 
that the cell at the base is deeply black, the 
two outermost of the broad black bands are 
traversed in the middle by a narrow whitish 
line, while the white of the surface replaces 
the dark outer margin from the outer angle 
upwards for half of the distance to the apex. 
The fringe is black. The posterior wings 
are marked by a ray of dark brown running 
from the base along the submedian nervure 
about halfway to the anal angle. Two faint 
brown lines run transversely across the wing 
in a direction approximately parallel to the 
outer margin toward the anal angle, and two 
similar lines run parallel along the inner 
margin and all converge in the neighborhood 
of the anal angle, which is broadly laved 
with yellow and marked by two small black 
spots at the points where the tails are given 
off. The outer margin is fringed with black. 
The markings of the underside of the poste- 
rior wings re-appear to some extent upon 
the upper surface. Type, $ , in the collec- 
tion of the author. 

LYCAENESTHES Moore. 

2. L. scintillula, sp. nov. £. Upper- 
side : — Antennae, head, thorax, and abdomen 
black; wings lustrous orange-red with the' 
costa of the primaries at the base and near 
the apex somewhat broadly margined with 
black, and the costa and the inner margin of 
the secondaries very broadly margined with 
the same color. The fringes of both wings 
are black and near the anal angle of the sec- 
ondaries there are three small black spots, of 
which two are marginal, and the third is sit- 
uated above the one nearest the anal angle 
and is subhastate in form. Underside: — 



March iSqi.] 



PSYCHE. 



51 



Ground color pinkish white with the wings 
barred and mottled by spots of brown and 
black. Near the anal angle of the secondaries 
are two red marginal spots pupilled with 
black, irro rated with greenish-blue scales. 
Expanse of wings 25 mm. 

Types, four $ $ in collection of au- 
thor and one $ presented to the British 
Museum. (Lycaenesthes scintillans 
Holland, MS.) 

3. L. regillus, sp. nov. °- . Upperside 
dark fuscous with white spaces and black 
spots. The white spaces are located just be- 
yond the cell and between the median ner- 
vules upon the primaries, and are disposed 
in the form of a marginal band upon the sec- 
ondaries. Both wings have a conspicuous 
black spot at the end of the cell denned in- 
wardly by a narrow white line, and succeeded 
externally by a transverse series of similar 
spots. The primaries have in addition two 
subbasal spots of black. Both wings are bor- 
dered heavily with black and the posteriors 
have in addition geminate white marginal 
lines. Underside : — The ground color of the 
wings is white. The markings have a general 
likeness to those of the preceding species, but 
owing to the lighter ground color of the 
wings they are more conspicuous. Expanse 
of wings 25 mm. Type, $, in collection of 
the writer. 

It is barely possible that this is the 
female of L. scintillula, but I hes'tate 
to declare it such and name it provision- 
ally. 

4. L. lychnaptes, sp. nov. Allied to the 
two preceding species and to L. leptines 
Hew. 

$. Upperside: — Antennae, head, thorax, 
and abdomen black; wings shining orange- 
red, the anteriors with the costa broadly and 
evenly bordered with black and the outer 



margin bordered with the same color, the 
width of the border gradually diminishing 
from the apex to the outer angle. The pos- 
terior wings are broadly bordered with blacl 
upon the costal and inner margins, and nar- 
rowly upon the outer margin near the ana' 
angle. Underside: — The ground color o: 
the wings is black, both have black fringes 
both have narrow, geminate white marginal 
lines, and both are traversed by irregular se- 
ries of more or less broken narrow whiti 
lines. The posterior wings are adornec' 
with a small black spot at the extremity o! 
the first median nervule, crowned with ret 
and irrorated with blue scales, and with ; 
similar black spot, at the end of the subme 
dian nerve. This latter spot is not crownec 
with red. 

Expanse of wings 20 mm. Types in col- 
lection of the writer. 

There is a female which is upon the 
under surface almost the exact counter- 
part of the male just described, but the 
upperside of the wings is almost uni- 
formly blackish brown. Whether this 
is the female of L. lychnaptes, or not, 
it is impossible to tell at this time, 
though the presumption is that this sur- 
mise as to the relation of the two forms 
is correct. 

5. L. rubricinctus, sp. nov. Male: — Up- 
perside : — Head, thorax, and abdomen dark 
brown. Wings dark fuscous except upon 
the margin of the secondaries, which are 
adorned by a band of orange red extending 
from the upper radial to the anal angle. This 
band is marked at each of the intra-neural 
spaces by a marginal spot of black, of which 
that situated between the first and second 
median nervules is the largest. Underside : — 
The ground color is pale fawn color, grow- 
ing paler toward the outer margin, and be- 
coming almost white near the outer margin 
of the secondaries. Both wings have a short 



52 



PSTCHE. 



[March 1S91 



transverse bar at the end of the cell bordered 
outwardly by a fine paler line; both wings 
have an irregular transverse band of similar 
spots, and a submarginal line followed by a 
marginal series of triangular spots. The 
secondaries have two marginal spots of black 
crowned with red and irrorated with blue- 
green scales. 

Expanse of wings 27 mm. Type in the 
writer's collection. 

6. L. tisamentts, sp. nov. Allied to L. 
sylvanus, but less than half the size. 

Upperside : — The color of the upperside of 
the wings is uniformly dark violaceous. Un- 
derside : — The ground color of the underside 
of the wings is a light fawn. Primaries. — 
Just beyond the cell of the primaries there is 
a dark transverse band which is interrupted 
between the median nervules. and defined 
both externally and internally by lighter 
lines. This is followed toward the margin 
by a broader and darker transverse band, 
which runs from the costa to the first median 
nervule, and is followed by a narrow brown 
submarginal line. The fringes are dark 
brown. Secondaries. — There are two sub- 
triangular spots of dark brown, almost black, 
upon the middle of the secondaries near the 
costal margin, a similar spot at the end of 
the cell, and one upon the inner margin 
about its middle. These spots are followed 
upon the limbal area by darker shades, out- 
wardly edged by pale lines. The submar- 
ginal line of the primaries is continued upon 
the secondaries, enlarging at the first median 
nervule, and just before the anal angle into 
red marginal spots pupilled with black. The 
fringes are as on the primaries. The palpi 
and. the abdomen upon the lower side are 
white. 

Expanse of wings 20 mm. Type in the 
collection of the author. 

NACADUBA Moore. 

7. N. strafola, sp. nov. $ . Upperside: — 
Both the primaries and the secondaries are 
dark shining brown in certain lights reflect- 



ing very obscurely a greenish blue gloss. 
The cilia are lighter. Underside: — The 
ground color is a slaty gray, much paler than 
the upper surface. Both wings are adorned 
by a marginal row of small dark spots, suc- 
ceeded inwardly by a row of sagittate marks, 
defined inwardly and outwardly by fine light 
lines. The marginal spot at the anal angle 
and the one between the first and second me- 
dian nervule of the secondaries are deep black 
crowned with a fine line of bright blue. The 
discal and basal areas of both wings are 
adorned with dark spots arranged in bands 
and all defined on the inner and outer edges 
with lighter colored lines. The inner margin 
of the primaries is lighter than the rest of the 
wing. 

5 . The female does not differ materially 
from the male in color and size. 
Expanse of wings 26 mm. 

Described from numerous examples 
in the collection of the author. 

LYCAENA Fabr. 

8. L. faludicola, sp. nov. Upperside: — 
The prevalent color is dark gray, the poste- 
rior wings being ornamented with a very 
narrow marginal line, within which are lo- 
cated between the extremities of the nervules 
toward the anal angle six subtriangular black 
spots margined with pale blue. Underside : — 
The underside is paler in color than the up- 
perside. Both wings have a double dark line 
at the end of the cell, defined outwardly and 
inwardly with light lines. Succeeding this 
upon both wings are bands of darker mark- 
ings defined by lighter shades on either side, 
and succeeded by a submarginal row of lu- 
nules defined in the same way. The poste- 
rior wings are further ornamented by two 
subquadrate dark brown spots situated upon 
the costa, one near the middle, the other 
near the base; and by a circular spot of the 
same color upon the inner margin near the 
base. Of the black spots which are so con- 



March 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



53 



spicuous upon the margin of the posterior 
wings upon the upperside, Only those just at 
the anal angle and the two between the me- 
dian nervules reappear upon the underside. 
Of these the two at the anal angle are ob- 
scure, while those between the median ner- 
vules are large and very distinct. They 
are all crowned with red lines and have their 
black centres irrorated with shining green 
scales. 

Expanse of wings 28 mm. Type in the 
collection of the author. 

I have assigned this species in a gen- 



eral way to Lycaena Fabr., feeling un 
able to refer it to any of the recent 
subdivisions of the genus instituted by 
the Indian lepidopterists, without such 
an examination of the neuration as I do 
not feel justified in making with only 
one specimen at my disposal. It is very 
different in appearance from any othei 
species of the group known to me, and 
recalls Pseitdodipsas cephcnes Hew., 
so far as the coloration of the upperside 
of the secondaries is concerned. 



ON AN IMPORTANT CHARACTER, 

HITHERTO LITTLE NOTICED, IN THE 

FAMILY BUPRESTIDAE. 

BY FREDERICK BLANCHARD. 

In Comstock's Introduction to Entomology, 
part i, the many excellencies of which and its 
fresh treatment of the subject lead us to hope 
for the early appearance of the succeeding 
parts, on page 18, there i6 given a figure of the 
underside of Kuckroma gigantea Linn, in 
which is shown the antecoxal piece of the me- 
tasternum, separated by a short transverse su- 
ture, the ends arcuately bent towards and 
reaching the hind coxae. This appears to 
be the first distinct reference to this pecu- 
liarity of the Buprestidae so far as I can learn. 
Deyrolle, in his Buprestides de la Malasie, 
plate 4, figs. 3 and 4 exhibits the same thing, 
but in fig. 25, illustrating the underside of a 
species of Pachyscelis, the suture is not indi- 
cated. There is, however, no reference to the 
antecoxal piece in the text. 

From the examination of a considerable 
number of genera in this family during the 
last few years, both native and foreign, it ap- 
pears that this structure is always present and 
is of much greater importance in limiting the 
family than the connate first and second ven- 
trals chiefly depended upon heretofore. 



Although the members of the family Bu- 
prestidae are usually quite easily recognized, 
some early errors would have been avoided 
had this character been observed or appreci- 
ated ; in our own fauna, notably in the case 
of the genus Schizopus Lee, for the recep- 
tion of which a distinct family, the Schizo- 
podidae, was created although afterwards 
suppressed. 

It need hardly be said that the existence ot 
an antecoxal piece, seen elsewhere among Co- 
leoptera, so far as I know, only in the Ade- 
phaga, where the importance of its existence 
and of its modifications have been so skilfully 
demonstrated by Ur. Horn, does not necessa- 
rily imply any relationship of the Buprestidae 
to that series, but adds another, and a most 
impressive one, to the many known instances 
of the repetition of characters or structures 
in widely different families, which have been 
noticed by writers, and especially by Dr. 
Horn. 

Harrisimemna trisignata — I found two 
of these grotesque larvae on Spiraea tonie?i- 
tosa, Sept. 22nd, Northborough, Mass. The 
only food-plant given by Mr. Edwards is 
"Svri'nga." The larva bored into bits of 
rotten wood, and "backed out" with, the 
chips. These chips were rolled into neat 
pellets of almost uniform size, very round, 



54 



PSYCHE. 



[M;irch 1891. 



and evidently kept in shape by some gummy 
secretion applied by the larva. Each pellet 
was about one-sixteenth inch in diameter 
and all could be rolled about without crum- 
bling. When the burrow was finished the 
larva "backed in" and closed the opening with 
a thin, transparent, parchment-like door. 
It took over twenty-four hours to make the 
burrow and seal it. C. G. Soule. 

Miscellaneous Notes. — Mr. C. P. Gil- 
lette, formerly entomologist at the Experi- 
ment Station at Ames, Iowa, has removed to 
Colorado to take a similar position at Fort 
Collins. 

A continuation of Mr. J. H. Emerton's 
New England spiders appears in the last 
part of the Transactions of the Connecticut 
Academy. It concerns the Drassidae (33 
sp.), Agalenidae (n sp.), and Dyi-deridae 
(2 sp.), with six plates crowded with excel- 
lent figures; more than half the species are 
regarded as new. 

Baron Osten Sacken has suggested in the 
February number of the Entomologists' 
monthly magazine a new classification of the 
families of nemocerous Diptera. 

A timely and convenient catalogue of the 
described transformations of North American 
Coleoptera by W. Beutenmuller will be 
found in the January number of the journal 
of the New York microscopical society. 

L'Abeille, the journal of entomology 
founded by the late abbe Marseul, and by 
him carried through twenty-six volumes, is 
to be continued by the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Paris, to which he bequeathed it. Mr. 
L. Bedel has been chosen editor, and the 
twenty-seventh volume is now in press. The 
journal, as formerly, will be devoted mainly 
to Old World Coleoptera, and the frequency 
of its issue will depend upon subscriptions 
and sales. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

8 June, 1888. — The 139th meeting was held 
at 156 Brattle St. Mr. J. H. Emerton was 
chosen chairman. 

Mr. C. W. Woodworth exhibited speci- 



mens of a species of Tvphlocyba found on 
the rose, to which they are very injurious. 
He also showed a specimen of a species of 
Jassidae found on the apple. No jassids 
have before been found on that tree. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder remarked on the num- 
ber of subsegments in the larvae of butter- 
flies. Mr. Scudder has applied this to the 
position of Libythea, which has been vari- 
ously placed in the Pierinae, Nymphalidae, 
and Erycininae. 

Mr. Scudder stated that most of the changes 
in the larvae of the Lepidoptera, such as 
moults, etc., occur before ten o'clock in the 
morning. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder mentioned the finding 
of the larva of Oeneis semidea which had 
formed a very slight silken cocoon for pu- 
pating. It is now a pupa. 

9 November, 18S8. — The 140th meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St. Mr. 
J. H. Emerton was chosen chairman. 

Mr. J. H. Emerton exhibited some draw- 
ings of spiders made by himself and Mr. Ed- 
win Sheppard for Dr. H. C. McCook of 
Philadelphia. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder showed a collection of 
butterflies brought together to illustrate mim- 
icry in this country. Considerable discussion 
of the subject of protective mimicry followed. 
Prof. C. H. Fernald spoke of the work of 
the State experiment stations, established 
under the new act of Congress appropriating 
a sum of money to each state for the purpose, 
and especially of the Hatch Experiment Sta- 
tion of the Amherst Agricultural College, of 
which station he is entomologist. 

Mr. S. Henshaw read a paper for Miss 
Caroline G. Soule on a mode of preserving 
pupae of Sphingidae through the winter. 

Mr. H. Hinkley spoke of forcing the early 
emergence of Sphingidae by keeping the pu- 
pae at room temperature. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder described how Mr. S. 
L. Elliot kept his pupae through the winter, 
and mentioned the opportunity offered by a 
cold storage company in Boston for winter- 
ing hibernating insects. 

Mr. H. Hinkley described a double cocoon 
of Attacus promethea. 





i o i v_x n LLj 

l".AJL. OF EISTTO s ^" 

[Established in 1S74.] 

Vol. 6. No. 180. 

April, 1S91. 

CONTENTS: 

Some old Correspondence between Harris, Say and Pickering. — I . . 57 

Personal Notes 60 

Oebalus pugnax an Enemy of Grasses. — H. Garment ...... 61 

A list of the Orthoptera of Illinois, III. Acrididae (part). — Jerome 

McNeill .... 62 

Lestes eurinus Say. — Samuel H. Scudder , ... 66 

Hemidiptera haeckelii. — W. M. Wheeler 66 

Protection by Conspicuous Colors. — Lord Walsingham ..... 67 

Green Butterflies. — W. Doherty. ........... 68 

forel on the habits of brachytrypus ......... 68 

Bugnion on Alpine Faunas 68 

The Abbe Provancher's work in Canada 69 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club 69 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY XUMBERS, 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



56 



PSYCHE. 



[April, 1S91 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

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CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meetings of the Club are now held at 
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No. 156 Brattle St. Entomologists temporarily in 
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The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
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Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Casey, Thomas L. Contributions to the 
descriptive and systematic Coleopterology of 
North America. Part I-II. . . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Check list of the Noctuidae 
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England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Packard, A. S. Synopsisof the Thysanura 
of Essex County, Mass. Descriptions of new 
American Phalaenidae. Notes on N.A. moths 
of the families Phalaenidae and Pyralidae in 
the British Museum. On the cave fauna of 
Indiana. Salem, 1873. .... .50 

Schwarz, E.A. The Coleoptera of Florida .50 
Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged in- 
sects of America: a re-examination of the 
Devonian insects of New Brunswick, in the 
light of criticisms and of new studies of other 
paleozoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875. 1. 00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col. pi. Boston, 1883. .25 

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Weber. F. Nomenclator entomologicus. 
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Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 



PSYCHE. 



SOME OLD CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HARRIS, SAY, AXD 

PICKERING.— I. 



[Many years ago Dr. J. L. LeConte 
entrusted to me some letters of Dr. T. 
W. Harris and Dr Charles Pickering, 
for use if I wished it in the Entomolog- 
ical Correspondence of Dr. Harris, 
then preparing. Most of them were 
written in the earliest period of their 
entomological studies, from Milton and 
from Salem, and in the discrimination 
that had then to be made from the great 
volume of correspondence, only one of 
them was used, (loc. cit., 251), viz. 
one from Harris to Say, written from 
Milton in 1829. The others, however, 
are so interesting as showing the con- 
dition of entomology at a time when 
the numbers of its devotees in this coun- 
try could easily be counted on one's 
fingers, and as revealing in some slight 
degree the temperament and character 
of the different writers that I have 
thought it worth while to reproduce 
them in Psyche, one at a time, that 
others may share the pleasure I have 
had in their perusal. 

The letters proposed to be printed in 
this series are six from Dr. Harris and 
two from Dr. Pickering, all addressed 
to Say, together with the abbreviated 
di-aft of Say's replies, which, whenever 
such occur, were scribbled on the back 
of the writer's letters. They will be 
printed in chronological order, first five 
letters from Dr. Harris written between 
1823 and 1825 with Say's replies, then 



two from Dr. Pickering, both of 1825, 
and finally the last of Dr. Harris's, of 
somewhat later date, in 1S34, tne ^ ast 
from each of Say's correspondents bear- 
ing no reply. All are printed exactly 
as written, abbreviation, punctuation, 
and all, with an occasional memorandum 
of my own in brackets. The first of 
the series is given below with the reply. 
The others will follow under the above 
caption, from time to time as oppor- 
tunity offers. — Samuel H. Scudder.~\ 

[HARRIS TO SAY.] 

Milton, (Mass.) July 7, 1S23. 
To Thomas Say, Esqr. 
Sir, 

Though personally a stranger to 
you I have taken the liberty of address- 
ing you — and, in doing so, I have the 
permission of Mr. Nuttall to use his 
name as a password to admit me to 
your notice. An ardent love of Natu- 
ral Science has induced me, though en- 
gaged in an arduous profession, to de- 
vote some of my leisure moments to the 
study of Botany & Entomology ; but 
the want of books, time. & patience, 
has not permitted me to make any great 
proficiency. Permit me, Sir, respect- 
fully to request your aid in this pursuit, 
so far, at least, as to answer some que- 
ries which I would propose to you. In 
May 1822 I accompanied an invalid to 
Philadelphia, but was hurried away by 



58 



PSYCHE. 



[April 1S91. 



the nature of my patient's complaint, 
before I could obtain the honour of an 
introduction to you, a circumstance 
which I have greatly regretted ever 
since. I however saw Mr. Peale's mu- 
seum, & found that Mr. Titian Peale 
was making a collection of insects ; 
among these I observed that which per- 
forates the apple tree, known here as 
the apple-tree borer. This (which I 
presume to be of the Cerambyx family) 
I was informed had been described by 
you. Please inform me the name it has 
received, & where I shall find your ac- 
count of it. There is another insect 
very destructive to our Peach trees, 
boring around the trunk near the root, 
& which from the chrysalis (for I have 
not as yet obtained the perfect insect) 
must be the larva of a Cossus, or some 
other of the wood eating lepidopterous 
caterpillars. Length of the larva one 
& a quarter inch (legs 16.) colour 
white, with a reddish tinge. Do you 
know it ? The Locust tree is infested 
by a large species of this kind, which is 
described by Prof. Peck, in the Mass. 
Agricult. Papers, by the name of 
Cossus Robinice. This, as I have as- 
certained, also perforates the Black 
Oak (Quercus tinctoria Bart.). The 
Peach tree is subject to the attacks of 
a Buprestis, which perforates such 
branches as are old & incline much. 
The name of the species I do not know. 
Length rather less than \ inch. Colour 
of the elytra dull brassy brown, with 3 
or 4 irregular longitudinal lines. Abdo- 
men above green ; below brilliant cupre- 
ous. I am particularly desirous to ob- 
tain information respecting our native 



species of Lytta, or Meloe. In Boston 
Lytta atrata Fabr. is sold for Lytta 
vittata ; & some of our Physicians have 
confounded L. cinerea under the same 
name vittata. This is not important 
in practice ; but is so in nomenclature. 
Are not all three, together with Lytta 
marginata, of the genus Cantharis of 
De Geer, Geoftr., Oliv., Lamark, & 
Latr., as defined by Leach in Brewster's 
Encyclopaedia? What species have 
you in Pennsylvania? Are any kept by 
apothecaries for the purpose of vesica- 
tion? By what names are they sold? 
On what plants are they principally 
found? At what times? And are they 
easily procured ? Lytta atrata and 
cinerea are very common here : vittata 
and marginata I have seen in collec- 
tions only : none others have I yet found. 
Do you know the oeconomy of these in- 
sects ? Do the larvae live and metamor- 
phose in the earth ? Any information, 
or reference to authors on the subject 
will be gratefully received. Illiger's 
Magazin 1.256 has been quoted; but I 
have not the work to consult ; if you 
have access to it, pray give me the sub- 
stance of his account. It is my intention 
to draw up a description of these species, 
for some of our medical journals, in 
order to correct the mistakes in the 
names of the species, and your observa- 
tions, if you will favour me with them, 
shall be duly acknowledged. 

Has the moth from the apple-worm 
been described ? and by what name ? 
The gregarious caterpillar, which infests 
some trees in autumn, enclosing whole 
branches in a web, and devouring all 
but one membrane of the leaf, giving it 



April 1S91. J 



PSYCHE. 



59 



the appearance of having been scorched 
by fire, is produced by a small white 
moth (genus Artica?) immaculate, and 
but little more than half an inch in 
length. What is the species? Can you 
give me the history of the common rose- 
bug, Melolontha subspinosa} Fabr., 
or of the striped cucumber-bug ? Chry- 

somela ? 

My collection of insects is small, con- 
taining but few more than 500 species, 
& my professional avocations will not 
permit me to increase it much. If I 
have any species which could be accept- 
able to you, they are at your service. I 
have fine spec, of Pap. Troilus, Asterias, 
Plexippus, Idalia, &c, Bombyx Cecro- 
pia, Polyphemus, Prometheus, with 
their cocoons, that of the latter being 
very curious. I have also Hemerobius 
cornutus, Pectini[c]ornis, &c ; many 
Hymenoptera, among which Leucospis 
dorsigera, Ichneumon pennator, the gall 
insect of the black oak &c. Also sev- 
eral insects interesting as having been 
described by the late Prof. Peck. Such 
as Stcuocorus putator Peckii, which 
prunes the branches of the oak ; Ryn- 
chcemis strobl Peckii, perforating the 
leading shoot of the white pine ; Ryn- 
chcenus ccrasi Peckii, inhabiting the 
cherry and plum ; Teitthredo cerasi, 
the cherry tree slug. I have hitherto 
pursued the study of Entomology with- 
out any other systematic work than 
Samouelle's little compendium ; and, 
having very recently procured Fabricius, 
have not ascertained more than one 
tenth of the species in my collection. 
How deplorably ignorant I am you will 
therefore easilv imagine — indeed it must 



be sufficiently apparent from this letter. 

Accompanying this, is a little memoir, 
which was printed in the Agricultural 
Journal. The species described I have 
since found to answer tolerably to Bom- 
byx acrla Fabr. ; the colour of the 
wings of the male however is not so 
dark, & the ash-coloured female is not 
mentioned by Fabricius; & though it 
may possibly prove to be the same in- 
sect, yet I think its identity could hardly 
have escaped the observation of Prof 'r 
Peck. I confess that I am much more 
interested in the history of such insects 
as appear to be injurious, or promise to 
be useful, than in the mere collection of 
such as are curious only. 

A correspondence with you would be 
esteemed a great gratification & honour. 
I must rest my claim to your notice, 
principally, on the similarity of our pur- 
suits, on my desire for information, & on 
your ability to give it. Which if you do, 
it will greatly oblige, Sir, 

Your humble serv't 

T. Wm. Harris. 

Please address your reply to Thaddeus 
William Harris, M. D., Milton, Mass. 

[DRAFT OF REPLY BY THOMAS SAY.] 

The beginning of my reply was a copy 
of the answer to . 

I shall endeavour to reply to y'r in- 
quiries as well as time & memory will 
permit. The apple borer I've desc'd 
under name Saperda 2-fasciata Melsh. 
The name however is a very bad one, 
inasmuch as the ins. is not banded, but 
ornamented w. 2 wh't long'l broad lines ; 
notwith'sr this as the name has b'n given 



60 



PSYCHE. 



[April 1S91. 



and to my knowledge, I cannot stoop 
to the knavery of changing it. * The 
publ'n of the paper will soon take place 
in the Journal, it was in fact in the press 
before I ret'd from N. W. [the North- 
west]. The fact of the Peach tree being 
subject to the attacks of a Buprestis is 
altogether new to me. We have 2 sp. 
at least wh. agree w. y'r desc'n viz. 
femorata & characteristica. The latter 
being rather larger than y'r mensuration 
& the thorax having elevated lines as 
well as the elytra I think it probable y'r 
depred'r is femorata wh. is orn'd w. 2 
dull brassy irregulat spots on ea. elytron 
more or less indistinct, but somet. obso- 
lete. 

The g's Lytta F. is certainly same w. 
Cantharis Oliv. &c. The larva? of the 
Cantharids live & metam'e in the earth 
feeding on roots &c, but for more in- 
form'n I must refer you to Sonnini's Buf- 
fon Vol. 54, p. 395 ; also Olivier, Vol. 
t ) . The no. of sp. already disc'd in the 
U. S. is 1 6, viz. segmenta f, vittata X? 
marginata X, atrata X, Nuttalliif, al- 
loidaf, articularist, immaculataf , aenea 
X,polita, sphaericollist, maculataj, fer- 
ruginae|, cinerea X) Afzeliana, reticu- 
lataf ; of these those marked w. a X in- 
hab. this state, those marked w. a | have 
been desc'd by myself and will appear in 
the Journal . It is prob'e that nearly if not 
all of these sp. might be used w. effect 



Personal Notes. — Mr. P. R. Uhler,one 
of the leading American entomologists, has 
recently been elected provost of the Peabody 
institute in Baltimore. Mr. Uhler will still 
retain the position of librarian which he has 
held for the past twenty-five years. It is not 

*[He changed his mind, describing it in this very 
paper under the name of bivittala. It is the S. Candida 
r>T Fabricius.] 



in vessication. By far the finest sp. is 
the Nuttallii, wh., as well as 2 or 3 of 
the other sp. is somew't larger than 
vesicatoria & more brilliant. On one oc- 
casion near Rocky M's. I saw this sp. 
in such nos. that I c'd have gathered a 
couple of quarts in % an hour, but few 
were seen elsewhere, & but one occurred 
on last exped'n. Have not Illiger, nor 
moth of apple worm. Do not know wh. 
species of greg's caterp's you mean. 
Rose-bug is Mel. subspinosa F. and 
cucumber bug is Crioceris vittata F., 
but I know no more of their history 
than is familiar to every farmer. It w'd 
give me g't pleasure to see those ins. 
you mention desc'd by Peck. I have 
not met w. his desc'n. 

The Peach Insect I desc'd sev'l months 
since for a paper by Mr. Worth on this 
ins. under name of AL. exitiosa. W'n 
this essay will be publ'd I do not know, 
it was read to the A. N. S. 6 or 8 months 
ago. The sexes are very diff't. I have 
b'n desc'g shells of U. S. & w'd be 
much obliged to you for any sp's you 
may pick up on y'r coast. Land and 
fresh water shells also highly accept'e. 
I will be happy to send you the names 
should you wish it. Your salt marsh 
caterpillar is cert'y the B. acria F. and 
it is fig'd by Drury and also by Cramer 
under the name of B. caprotina. 



a little curious how many entomologists have 
held the position of librarian in the public 
institutions of this country. 

We deeply regret to announce the death, 
on February 25, of Mr. Holmes Hinkley of 
Cambridge, one of the active members of the 
Club and an ardent student of our Lepidop- 
tera. 



April 1S01 



PSYCHE. 



61 



OEBALUS PUGNAX AN ENEMY OF GRASSES. 



BY II. GARMAN, LEXINGTON, KV. 



This is one of the commonest of the 
Pentatomidae in Kentucky, occurring 
everywhere in July and August on 
grasses. Its constant presence and abun- 
dance on millet attracted my attention 
in 1SS9, Dut with Podisus spinosus 
and other predaceous members of the 
family in mind, it was assumed to be 
there after other insects, and was not 
given special attention. In the summer 
of 1S90 it was again found to be 
common on several species of Setaria 
and Panicum, — so common that as 
many as twenty adult bugs could be 
taken from a single stool of grass. This 
time the incongruity of a predaceous 
insect congregating on particular species 
of grasses, where there was no evident 
animal food, made its impression, and 
a brief examination was sufficient to 
show that the bugs were attracted by 
the grasses themselves, which they were 
puncturing, and from which they were 
extracting the sap. They seemed espec- 
ially fond of the young spikelets, and 
where the bugs were abundant large 
numbers of the spikelets were found 
to be dried up, having been emptied 
of their contents. 

On July 16 a number of the bugs 
were collected from Setaria glanca and 
Panicum sangtii?tale, and confined 
with a bunch of grass in a breeding cage, 
where they were observed to continue 



their work of puncturing the spikelets. 
Some individuals were coupled when 
taken, and on the 19th of July the eggs 
were found to have been placed in scat- 
tered clusters of about a dozen eggs each, 
on the stems of grass, and on the sides 
of the cage. Each cluster consisted of 
two series, the eggs being in contact, 
but those of one series alternating in 
position with those of the other. This 
arrangement of the eggs accommodates 
them to the stems of grasses. The habit 
ofso arranging them appeals to be fixed, 
for no matter where placed the double 
lines were always adhered to. The eggs 
are pale green, and measure .7 mm. in 
length by .6 mm. across, the diameter 
being maintained to the extremities. 
The attached end is perceptibly convex. 
The free end is so little convex as to ap- 
pear flat; it is rimmed, and provided 
with a marginal series of capitate ap- 
pendages which are so small as not 
to be easily made out even with a good 
lens. 

From my own observations I should 
have supposed Oe. pitgnax to be exclu • 
sively a vegetable feeder, but in the 
fourth report of the United States Ento- 
mological Commission, p. 97, I find it 
stated that the species has been observed 
attacking the cotton worm. Of course 
there is nothing improbable in its taking 
both vegetable and animal food. 



62 



rsrcHE. 



[April 1S91. 



A LIST OF THE ORTHOPTERA OF ILLINOIS.— III.* 



BY JEROME MCNEILL, FAYETTKVILLE, ARK. 



ACRIDIDAE (OED1PODINI, TrUXALINI.) 

46. Arphia sulphiirea Fab. This 
is a common species throughout the 
state. In the northern part of the state 
there is but one brood a year and the 
individuals pass the winter as larvae or 
pupae, being found in exactly the same 
localities as Chortophaga viridifasciata 
De Geer and Hippiscus tuberculatus 
Pal. de Beauv. They become full fledged 
as early as the 14th of May and disappear 
about the first of July. 

*47. Arphia xanthoptera Burm. 
This species is said by Thomas to in- 
habit Illinois, but I have seen no speci- 
mens that could be referred with cer- 
tainty to this species unless indeeed A. 
carinata Scudd. is a synonym. I have 
been inclined to this opinion but Saus- 
sure still continues to separate them and 
it is probable that he has been able to 
compare carinata Scudd. with Bur- 
meister's type. 

48. Arphia carinata Scudd. This 
is a very common species throughout 
the state, formerly thought to be a 
variety of sulphurea Fab., but it seems 
to be quite distinct and the two species 
are now placed in different divisions of 
the genus. In practice they may be 
distinguished by the facial costa which 

* In the first two parts of tins paper, in almost every 
case where I have accredited specimens to the Museum 
of tlie University of Illinois, I should have said the 
Museum of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural 
History. 



is acuminate towards the vertex in 
sulphurea, while in carinata Scudd. 
the sides of the facial costa are nearly 
parallel from the median ocellus to the 
vertex. The carina of the pronotum of 
the latter is very high and strongly 
arched while in the former it is but little 
elevated and nearly straight. The 
earliest appearance of this species in 
northern Illinois is the 20th of August. 

49. Arphia tenebrosa Scudd. Mr. 
Thomas says this species is occasionally 
seen in the extreme northwestern part 
of the state. 

50. Chortophaga viridifasciata 
De Geer. Common throughout the 
state, though never very abundant. 
The larvae and pupae winter in the same 
situations with Arphia 'sulphurea and 
complete their transformations only a 
few days sooner than the last mentioned 
species. This species is the first of the 
order to reach maturity in the spring 
and the note of the male is the beginning 
of the grasshopper chorus -which con- 
tinues for six months or more. It is a 
very variable species, but all of the 
varieties may be referred to two forms, 
the green and the brown, which is a 
seasonal form apparently and therefore 
worthy of a name according to the rules 
of systematic zoology. It should there- 
fore be called Chortophaga viridifas- 
ciata infuscata Harris. This form as 
has frequently been remarked is the com- 



April 1S91.] 



PSTCHE. 



63 



mon one in the early spring and while 
green males are very rare at this season 
green females are common ; later the 
green form predominates and the brown 
form is the one of exceptional occui'rence, 
but the males are less uncommon than the 
females. In the northern part of the 
state there is but one brood that hatched 
from eggs in the late summer and ma- 
tured the following spring, so that the 
form infuscata is the common one 
always. In Moline I have captured 
full grown specimens ;is early as the 
twenty- second of April and as late as 
the seventh of July. 

51. EncoptolopJi7is sordidus Bur- 
meister. Common throughout the State 
but more abundant northward. While 
the males of many species and the females 
of some species occasionally fly with a 
crackling noise, the males of this species 
seem not to be able to fly at all without 
making this noise. This is a fortunate 
circumstance for the collector since the 
dark color and the short and exceedingly 
quick flight of the male make it very 
difficult to follow. I captured speci- 
mens from August twenty-first to the 
thirtieth of October. 

*52. Cammula pcllucida Scudd. 
This species undoubtedly occurs in the 
northern part of the state although I 
have never seen a specimen taken within 
its borders. I have specimens from 
Wisconsin and Mr. Thomas includes 
the species in his List of the Orthoptera 
of Illinois on the authority of Mr. Scud- 
der. 

53. Hipplscus tuberculatus Pal. de 
Beauv. This a rather common species 



in the early spring. Larvae and pupae 
pass the winter under the shelter of 
leaves and grass and mature very early 
in the spring, about the first of May. It 
shows a decided preference for certain 
localities, being found year after year in 
the same field or on the same hillside. 
From these favorite haunts it never 
seems to wander far although appar- 
ently well able to fly across the state. 
There are two places each a few rods 
square on Rock Island where 1 have 
never failed to find them summer or 
winter and these are the only places 
where they are to be found on the Isl- 
and, which is three-fourths of a mile 
wide and three miles long. 

54. Hipplscus rugosus Scudd. This 
species is also rather common at Moline 
and probably throughout the state. The 
red and the yellow winged forms are 
found in about equal numbers in Rock 
Island Co. except on the "Sand Hill" 
where thev are quite common and all 
apparently yellow-winged. I have taken 
them on Rock Island as early as the 20th 
of August. A specimen in the Illinois 
state laboratory of natural .history bears 
the date of Aug. 14, taken at Pekin. 

^ s; . Hippisczis phoenicopterus Burm . 
This is the species formerly known as 
H. discoideus Serv. while the species 
that used to bear the name phocuicop- 
ierus is now known to be H. tubercu- 
latus Pal. de Beauv. I have taken a 
a single species at Moline. It is prob- 
ably a rare species throughout the state. 
Taken the 5th of September. 

*56. Xauthippus neglectus Thos. 
Thomas says he captured it in the 



64 



PSYCHE. 



[April 1S91 



southern part of the state but thinks it 
is rarely found there. I do not know of 
its occurrence elsewhere. 

^y. Dissosteira Carolina Linn. 
Abundant everywhere along roadsides 
and railroads especially. Taken as early 
as the 25th of June. 

*5S. Spharagemon aequale Say. It 
is not certain that this species occurs 
in the state although Thomas says it is 
found "throughout the greater part of 
the state." It is in no collections that I 
have seen while the species next named 
is abundant wherever I have collected 
in Illinois or Iowa or Indiana ; but as its 
occurrence here is not improbable I 
have not excluded it from the list. 

59. Spharagemon bolli Scudd. Com- 
mon on dry hillsides. It makes its ap- 
pearance as early as the 21st of June. 
This is the only species with which I 
am acquainted, except Dissosteira car- 
olina Linn., that remains stationary a. 
few feet above the ground and in some 
manner produces a dry rustling note. I 
have known this species to go through 
the pei'formance in but one instance 
although it was repeated several times 
by different individuals. As four out of 
the five individuals that I captured on 
the spot were males, the thought sug- 
gested itself that it might be a part of 
the courtship of the species. 

60. Spharagemon collare Scudd. 
This species occurs rarely on the tops of 
high sandy hills, in Rock Island Co. 
and doubtless throughout the state as I 
have found it as far south as Pine Bluff, 
Ark., where individuals were found 
abundant along the sandy shore of the 



Arkansas River. They are abundant 
however on the "Sand Hill." They have 
been taken at Moline as early as the 2Sth 
of August. 

61. Psinidia jfenestralis Serv. This 
has been found, so far as I know, in but 
a single locality in the state, the sand 
hill at Moline Bridge. It is abundant 
here on the bare sand. Its crimson 
wings make it conspicuous but when 
on the ground it is so small and colored 
so nearly like the sand that it is not easy 
to see it and its flights are so short and 
quick that it is not very easy to capture. 
Aug. 28th is the earliest recorded date 
of its capture. 

*62. Mestobregma cincta Thos. Said 
by Thomas to occur sparingly in south- 
ern Illinois. 

63. (?) Philobostroma parva Scudd. 
I think I am not mistaken in referring to 
this species a considerable number of 
individuals found on the sand hill, Sept. 
2, and at Cordova Sept. 28. They are 
very variable in size and color but as the 
lateral foveolae are always very distinct 
they are easily distinguished from 
Philobostroma quadrimaculata Thos. 

*6^. Trimerotropis maritima Harr. 
Said by Thomas to occur in the north- 
ern part of the state. 

65. Circotettix verruculattis Kirby. 
The collection of the State laboratory 
of natural history contains two speci- 
mens, one from Henry, 111., and the 
other from Birds Point, Mo. 

66. Chloealtis viridis Scudder. 
Seems to be common throughout the 
state, but it is never abundant. Speci- 
mens of both the brown and srreen varie- 



April 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



65 



ties will be found in any locality, but so far 
as my experience goes the green speci- 
mens far outnumber the brown every- 
where and at all seasons. It is a grass lov- 
ing species as indeed are the group 
Truxalini generally, being in this re- 
spect strongly contrasted with the Oedip- 
odini, which very generally prefer barren 
hillsides or other localities characterized 
by somewhat scanty vegetation. The 
short wings as in allied species are quite 
variable. 1 have one in my cabinet with 
elytra and wings quite as long as the ab- 
domen. Specimens have been taken at 
Moline as early as the ninth of July, and 
as late as the fifteenth of October. 

67. Chloealtls conspersa Scudder. 
Probably found throughout the state, 
though never abundant and perhaps not 
everywhere common. The females are 
very likely to be confused with the 
brown females of the preceding species 
from which they may always easily be 
separated by the slight median carina 
of the vertex. The wings and elytra as 
in the preceding species are quite vari- 
able, one specimen in my collection hav- 
ing elytra which extend one fourth 
their length beyond the tip of the abdo- 
men. The species is noted for the ex- 
hibition of a habit not possessed by any 
other member of the family so far as is 
now known. This peculiarity is its 
habit of depositing its eggs in holes 
bored in slightly decayed wood. This 
fact was first reported by Mr. S. I. 
Smith in his List of the Orthoptera of 
Maine. It has since been corroborated 
by the observations of Mr. C. A. Hart 
of Champaign.* This species makes its 

*See also Scudder. Rep. Geol. N. Hampshire 
v - '. 37I-37 2 - 



appearance in spring even earlier than 
C. viridis; indeed I know of but one 
other, Pezotettix viridulus Walsh, that 
is developed earlier from eggs hatched 
in the spring. It has been found in Mo- 
line as early as the twenty-first of June 
and as late as the twenty-fourth of Sep- 
tember. 

6S. Stenobothrus curtipennis Har- 
ris. Quite common throughout the 
state and generally more abundant than 
either of the two preceding species. It 
has a decided preference for thick blue 
grass growing in partially shaded situa- 
tions. Like its allies it can scarcely be 
said to either fly or jump, but it sutlers 
little or nothing in lacking these accom- 
plishments as its astonishing facility as a 
tumbler and contortionist generally dis- 
courage all but the most determined ef- 
forts for its capture. It appears almost 
as early in the spring as the preceding 
species, its first recorded appearance at 
Moline being the twenty-third of June, 
and its latest appearance the twenty- 
fourth of September. 

69. Stenobothrus niaculipcunis 
Scudd. This very variable species is 
common in a few localities. It occurs 
on the ''Sand Hill" several times re- 
ferred to and described in this paper. 
It is found too on the barren or sandy 
tops of the highest hills along the bluffs 
of the Mississippi and Rock Rivers. It 
is full-fledged about the first of August. 

70. Syrbula admirabilis Uhler. 
Widely distributed but rare or uncom- 
mon. Thomas described the brown 
form of the male and did not know of 
the existence of the green form. I have 
raised from pupae several males which 



GG 



PS T CHE. 



[April 1S91. 



show the usual green color and mark- 
ings of the females. The earliest ap- 
pearance at Moline is August 22. 

*7i. Mermiria bivittata Serville. 
Very rare if it occurs at all in the state. 
Mr. Thomas thinks he has seen one 
specimen taken within this limit. It 
has been taken at Omaha, Nebraska, by 
Mr. Lawrence Brunei- so that its occur- 
rence here is very probable. 

72. Traxalis brevicomis Linn. This 
is a southern species but it extends as 
as far north as Urbana, Illinois, where I 
am told by Mr. C. A. Hart it has been 
frequently taken .at the electric light, 
as many as seven or eight having been 
taken in one e ening, August sixteenth 



Lestes eurinus Say. — This species ap- 
pears never to have been taken since Harris's 
day, who obtained his specimens on the bor- 
ders of ponds in Milton, Mass., in 1826. The 
only notices which have been published since 
the description by Say, in 1839, nave been 
based solely on his text. The accompanying 
description is from the type (a J 1 ) in the 
Harris collection of the Boston Society of 
Natural History. It is a true Lestes. 

Greenish blue above, yellowish beneath. 
Head bronze blue above, yellow beneath ; 
apex .of clypeus, labrum, sides of mandibles, 
and front of face very pale greenish blue, 
glistening. Thorax bright blue above with 
violaceous reflections and with dorsal and 
lateral sutures yellowish brown; sides of 
thorax blue, the side of mesothorax with a 
biserrate lemon yellow spot occupying lower 
posterior third, that of metathorax yel- 
low with an oblique triangular fuscous stripe ; 
base of all the legs, and under surface of 
femora (especially of posterior pair) yellow; 
upper surface of femora, lower surface of 
tibiae and tarsi brownish green; upper sur- 
face of tibiae fuscous; wings subhjaline or 
very slightly flavescent, pterostigma black; 



iSSS. The frequent occurrence of a rare 
species at the electric light is more 
remarkable since it is of very rare occur- 
rence for the commonest species of 
Acrididae to visit a light. 

73. Arcyptera llneata Scudder. A 
very rare form in the northern part 
of the state. I have taken a few speci- 
mens on the Iowa side of the Mississippi 
opposite Watertown. This is pretty 
certainly the species from the northern 
part of the state, which Thomas says 
he saw for too short a time to certainly 
identify. In his list it is given as 
Stctheophyma {Arcyptera) gracilis? 
Scudd. The single specimen in my 
collection was captured August 9. 



abdominal segments 1-5, above blue, 6-10 
blackish green ; beneath very pale fuscous, 
more dusky posteriorly, their apices black- 
ish; superior appendages forcipated, beneath 
bidentate interiorly; the first tooth at the 
extremity of the basal fourth sharply pointed, 
directed posteriorly ; the second, just beyond 
the middle, depressed, laminate, denticulate, 
directed toward that of the opposite appen- 
dage (inferior appendages lost) ; thirteen 
postcubital cross nervules on right, fifteen 
on left fore wing. 

Length (inc. forceps) 46 mm. ; alar ex- 
panse, 59 mm.; length of pterostigma, 2.5 
mm. Samuel H. Scudder. 



Hemidiptera haeckelii. — Entomologists 
who would derive the Diptera from the Hemi- 
ptera, if any such exist, will be delighted to 
find in the last number of the Jenaische 
zeitschrift fur naturwissenschaft (bd. 25, 
heft. 1 & 2, 1890, p. 13-15) a description of 
what purports to be a "zwischenform" con- 
necting these two widely separated orders.' 
Dr. N. Leon figures and gives a brief-de- 
scription of an insect taken by Prof. Ernst 
Ilaeckel in Ceylon together with species of 



April 1S91.J 



PSTCHE. 



67 



Halobates. The insect, of winch Dr. Ldon 
had only a single specimen, is 4 mm. long. 
Its mouth "is constructed exactly like that of 
the Hemiptera," it has typical hemipteran 
antennae, a pair of prominent compound 
eyes, three stemmata, and the head is not 
freely attached to the thorax. The wings, of 
which only the mesothoracic pair is present, 
appear to be hyaline, with a venation which by 
no stretch of the imagination can be regarded 
as dipteran. The legs are hairy and adap- 
ted to swimming; there are three tarsal 
joints, the last of which terminates in a sin- 
gle claw. When we come to look for dipte- 
ran characters the only one that can be found 
is the lack of metathoracic wings; as if this 
character were sufficient to elevate a hemip- 
ter to the rank of a dipter! Has Dr. Leon 
ever heard of the two-winged male Coccidae, 
which no tyro in entomology would think of 
placing among the Diptera? The stemmata 
furnish Dr. Leon with another reason for re- 
garding his insect as allied to the Diptera, 
because, forsooth, the Hydrocorisa have no 
stemmata! We are informed that at the 
very beginning of his examination of this 
insect, Dr.. L^on saw that he was not dealing 
with a Halobates but with a form which re- 
sembles a dipter more than a hemipter. He 
further states that Dr. Arnold Lang, to whom 
he communicated his observations was of the 
same opinion. We cannot believe that so 
eminent a phylogenist as Dr. Lang could 
have examined the specimen. The insect is 
not a hemidipter but a genuine hemipter 
albeit with only one pair of wings. It will 
hardly be necessary to study its ontogeny 
for the sake of ascertaining that it does not 
hatch as a maggot and does not pass through 
a quiescent pupa stage. W. M. Wheeler. 



Protection by conspicuous colors. — 
The following passages in Lord Walsing- 
ham's last presidential address to the Ento- 
mological society of London are sugges- 
tive : — 

•My attention was lately drawn to a pas- 
sage in Herbert Spencer's 'Essay on the 



Morals of Trade.' He writes : — 'As when 
tasting different foods or wines the palate is 
disabled by something strongly flavoured 
from appreciating the more delicate flavour 
of another thing afterwards taken, so with the 
other organs of sense, a temporary disability 
follows an excessive stimulation. This holds 
not only with the eyes in judging of colours, 
but also with the fingers in judging of tex- 
tures. ' " 

"Here, I think, we have an explanation of 
the principle on which protection is undoubt- 
edly afforded to certain insects by the pos- 
session of bright colouring on such parts of 
their wings or bodies as can be instantly cov- 
ered and concealed at will. It is an un- 
doubted fact, and one which must have been 
observed by nearly all collectors of insects 
abroad, and perhaps also in our own country, 
that it is more easy to follow with the eye 
the rapid movements of a more conspicuous 
insect soberly and uniformly coloured than 
those of an insect capable of changing in an 
instant the appearance it presents. The eye, 
having once fixed itself upon an object of a 
certain form and colour, conveys to the mind 
a corresponding impression, and if that im- 
pression is suddenly found to be unreliable 
the instruction which the mind conveys to 
the eye becomes also unreliable, and the ra- 
pidity with which the impression and conse- 
quent instruction can be changed will not 
always compete successfully with the rapid 
transformation effected by the insect in its 
efforts to escape. . . . 

"If this protective effect of the partial and 
intermittent display of brilliant colouring is 
so obvious in relation to the human eye, 
must it not be at least equally so in relation 
to the eyes of its more natural enemies, such 
as birds, and have we not here indicated a 
new and distinct line of investigation as re- 
gards the use and advantage of brilliant 
colours in many cases which cannot be ac- 
counted for by the theory that they are de- 
veloped for the purpose of warning, or 
through their aesthetic relation to court- 
ship ? " 



68 



PSYCHE. 



[April iSgi. 



Green butterflies. — -"Grant Allen shows 
that, while greenish flowers are among the 
oldest, really green flowers are the most re- 
cently developed of all and among the most 
conspicuous. Very much the same thing is 
true of Lepidoptera. Pale green moths, like 
Actias. Geometra, and Pachyarches, are pro- 
tected by their colouring, which is common 
to both sexes, and are quite hidden when 
nestling among the leaves. Such seems also 
to be the case with Lehera eryx, a lycaenid 
which is greenish on the underside, and may 
possibly be the case with some Catopsilias. 
But bright metallic-green is, I think, the lat- 
est developed colour among butterflies, and 
decidedly the most conspicuous. No one who 
has not seen it can imagine the brilliancy of 
Arhopala farqukarii.'ox Ornithoptera brook- 
eana in the greenest jungle. The brightest 
of the metallic-blue butterflies look dim be- 
side them. It may be confidently asserted of 
all such butterflies that, unless the species is 
protected, only the male is green. The pro- 
tected Ornithopteras have sometimes assumed 
green colours as well as golden and orange, 
and the female shares in this useful ornamen- 
tation to some extent. In non-protected but- 
terflies the green is confined to the upperside 
and is quite invisible except during flight. 
In the Lycaenidae it is found in many Zep- 
hyri, in some Poritias and Massagas, in a 
few Arhopalas, and in Lampides marakata 
a rare butterfly [ discovered in the Malay 
Peninsula and named after its emerald tint 
above. Among all these, whenever the fe- 
male is known, it is blue, orange, black, vio- 
let, or any other colour but green. The con- 
servative and, in butterflies, unadorned sex, 
has not yet acquired the latest development 
in colours. It is also remarkable that the 
green colours seem to occur where the genus 
is most dominant. The Malay Peninsula and 
Borneo form the great centre of development 
of the genera Arhopala and Lampides, and 
it is there that most of the green species 
occur. The outlying Arhopalas, those of the 
North-West Himalayas, and the Timorian 
islands, are all blue. In Zephyrus, the green 



species are found only where the genus is 
best represented and most vigorous. Zephy- 
rus fiavo, a species found in the Bhutan and 
Assam hill-ranges, remote from the regular 
habitat of the genus, has, I discovered, the 
male blue and greatly resembling allied fe- 
males from the Western Himalayas. The 
green and orange Ornithopteras also occur 
only in the heart of the Ornithoptera region. 
These remarks on green butterflies also ap- 
ply in some degree to certain other unusual 
colours of great brilliancy, such as the shin- 
ing coppery gold of Ilerda brahma., and the 
fiery red of Thamala marciana. It ought to 
be borne in mind that such colours must 
never be ascribed to a female without careful 
examination." IV. Dokerty (Journ. Asiatic 
soc. Bengal, v. 58, pp. 416-417). 



The habits of Brachytrypus, the huge 
desert cricket of the Mediterranean region, 
have only recently been studied by A. Forel, 
although, excepting the mole crickets, it is 
the largest known European form. The rea- 
son appears in the fact that it is a nocturnal 
insect, remaining in its burrows by day and 
even closing the entrance to the same (al- 
though it is three or four centimetres in di- 
ameter) to an extent of several centimetres, 
leaving only a little sand heap to mark its 
place. Dr. Forel discovered them by mark- 
ii g the spot where he saw and heard them 
chirping lustily in the dusk, and the next 
morning detected the heaps, carefully remov- 
ing which the burrows were found. These 
extended for over a metre in length and half 
as much in depth, and digging the creature 
out was a thankless task; Dr. Forel obtained 
some by drowning them out and others in a 
way characteristic of a myrmecologist : he 
secured a bag of ants, a species of Acantho- 
lepis, and setting them loose before the 
burrow, they entered it and soon ousted the 
occupant. 



Alpine faunas. — An interesting general 
statement of the characteristic features of the 
entomological, and especially coleopterolog- 



April 1891.] 



PSYCHE. 



69 



ical, fauna of the canton of Valais, compris- 
ing the upper valley of the Rhone will be 
found in Prof. Ed. Bugnion's Introduction to 
Favre's Faune des col^opteres du Valais, now- 
publishing in quarto form in the memoirs of 
the Swiss society of natural sciences (vol. 
31). Mr. Bugnion divides the district into 
three regions or zones, the lower, the sub- 
alpine or forest, and the alpine, their highest 
levels respectively at 800, 2,000, and 2,700 
metres; the subalpine he further subdivides 
into a lower forest, whose upper limit 
reaches 1,350 metres, and an upper forest 
region, the latter characterized by the preva- 
lence of conifers and rhododendrons. These 
divisions, as he points out in a note, differ 
from those of preceding authors, though not 
very greatly from the latest authority. Heer 
in 1837, writing for the whole of Switzerland, 
made out seven zones, each 450 metres in 
height after the field (campestre) which ter- 
minated at 300 metres; the succeeding were 
the hill or colline with an upper limit at 750, 
the mountain (1,200), subalpine (1,650), al- 
pine (2,100), subnivale (2,550), and nivale 
(3,000). Rion in 1852 made four divisions 
as follows : — 

1. Zone of cultivation, 375-1,263 m. 

2. " " conifers, 1,263-2,050 m. 

3 " " alpine pasturage, 2,050-2,760 m. 
4. " " eternal snow, 2,769 m. upward. 
Christ in 1883 also made four divisions: — 

1. Lower zone up to 550 r». (700 in south 
Switzerland). 

2. Zone of deciduous trees, 550 (or 700)- 
1,350 metres. 

3. Zone of conifers, 1,350-2,100 m. (2,300 
in central Alps). 

4. Alpine zone, 2,100 (or 2,30o)-3,ooo m. 
(perpetual snow). 

Professor Bugnion gives a large number of 
groups of specific forms, mostly Coleoptera, 
inhabiting two districts, or living under dif- 
ferent conditions, etc., in illustration of their 
geographical distribution, and after discuss- 
ing at some length the geological antiquity 
of insects endeavors to show from what 
sources the different elements of the entomo- 



logical fauna of Valais were directly derived. 



The Abbe Provancher has completed the 
third volume of the Faune entomologique du 
Canada which has been appearing from time 
to time as a supplement to his journal, Le 
naturaliste Canadien. It is entirely devoted 
to the Hemiptera, and makes a volume of 354 
pages and five plates. A large number of 
new species are described, principally from 
the Province of Quebec ; systematic tables 
of the groups lead to an easy determination 
of the species. It can be obtained of the au- 
thor at Cap Rouge. 

The volume on the Hemiptera was to be 
followed by a serial work on the Canadian 
Lepidoptera in the same journal by the 
abbe Provancher; but the editor has been 
obliged to forego his intentions as his jour- 
nal is no longer to receive a subvention from 
the Quebec government without which its 
publication is impossible, and it will accord- 
ingly cease with the end of the present vol- 
ume in June. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

14 December, 18S8. — The 141st meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St. Dr. G. 
Dimmock was chosen chairman. 

Mr. Andrew G. Weeks was elected to ac- 
tive membership. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen remarked on swellings 
along the midrib of the leaves of the young 
shoots of white oaks found by him which 
contained hymenopterous larvae. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder showed caterpillars col- 
lected this year, among them the adult and 
immature larvae of Terias lisa. 

Mr. Scudder, in reply to a question in 
regard to Anthocaris genutia, said that it 
was only found in New England along a line 
of trap-rock in the Connecticut valley. 

Mr. Scudder then showed plates of eggs, 
larvae, and pupae of butterflies, from his 
work on New England Butterflies now in 
press, and remarked somewhat at length on 
certain species. 



70 



PS r CHE. 



[April 1S91 



Mr. H. Hinkley showed specimens of Lagoa 
crispata which he had raised. It is interest- 
ing in that in hatching, it pushes the pupa 
skin from the chrysalis. The legs, anten- 
nae, etc., have separate coverings. There is 
also a sort of double lid to the cocoon. 

11 January, 1889. The i42d meeting of the 
Club was held at 156 Brattle St. Mr. S. H. 
Scudder was chosen chairman. 

The annual reports of the secretary and 
librarian were read and accepted. The an- 
nual report of the treasurer was read and ac- 
cepted subject to the approval of the auditors. 

The club then proceeded to ballot for offi- 
cers for the ensuing year. The following 
were chosen: President: S. H. Scudder. 
Secretary: R. Hayward. Treasurer: S. 
Henshaw. Librarian : G. Dimmock. Mem- 
bers at large of Executive Committee : G. 
Dimmock, and H. Hinkley. Editors of 
Psyche : G. Dimmock and S. Henshaw. 

The annual address of the retiring presi- 
dent, Prof. Wm. Trelease, was on Myrme- 
cophilism (See Psyche v. 5, p. 171-180). 

Remarks were made by Mr. Albert E.Smith 
on a leaf-cutting ant which is very injurious 
to the coffee plant in South America. These 
ants cut off the leaves and carry them away ; 
thev are supposed to use them to cover up 
their subterranean passages. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder showed some of the 
late Dr. Asa Fitch's manuscripts and read 
a note of his in which he recorded as early 
as 1855 the occurrence of Feniseca tarqni- 
nius with plant lice. 

Mr. Scudder next called the attention of 
the Club to the remarkable mode of suspen- 
sion in the chrysalis of the genus Thais, ex- 
hibiting specimens of the chrysalis of T. 
rumina. In all the three species of this genus 
found in Europe the anterior extremity of the 
chrysalis is furnished with a double tubercle, 
bristling with short curving hooks, and the 
chrysalis, besides being attached in the normal 
way of the Papilionidae by the hinder extrem- 
ity and the girth around the middle, has also 
an additional support by the entanglement of 
these anterior hooks in a loop of silk spun by 



the caterpillar in preparing for pupation, and 
which seems to spring from about the same 
points as the transverse loop of the thorax. 
There seems to be very little reference to this 
peculiar mode of transformation by those 
who have treated of this genus, although it 
was distinctly mentioned by Rambur as long 
ago as 1840 in his Faune entomologique 
d'Andalusie ; Boisduval, Rambur, and Gras- 
lin in their work on European caterpillars 
describe and figure two species and Duponchel 
gives an independent description and figure 
of one of them, — all without reference to this 
peculiar mode of suspension, or to the unique 
structure of the anterior extremity, to which 
there seems to be no parallel irr the Lepidop- 
tera. Rambur in the work referred to says 
(p. 243) : "The anterior extremity which is 
pointed and bifid is also furnished with little 
short hooks which hook themselves in two 
bundles of thick silk; it is thus supported 
by the two extremities besides the slight 
band of silk which embraces it. " Yet Doub- 
Ieday in 1846 says that "according to Dr. 
Rambur, when about to undergo their meta- 
morphosis, they not only fasten themselves 
by a transverse thread like the Parnassii, but 
also surround themselves by a very slight 
silken web," which Rambur nowhere asserts 
and which is an entire mistake. 

He then showed some living pupae of Pie- 
ris napae and called attention to the differ- 
ences between them and those of P. oleracea. 
The frontal spine is straight in P. napae, 
short and hooked upward in P. oleracea- 
The pupae of P. napae are also more heavily 
marked. The larvae differ in the amount of 
pile and in the prominence of the larger 
wartlets. He stated that the specimens of P. 
oleracea from the temperate regions of Amer- 
ica and of P. napae from those of Europe are 
easily distinguishable in their earlier stages 
and also by the abdominal appendages of 
the male imago. 

Mr. A. E. Smith showed a part of his col- 
lection of Orthoptera from Brazil, and re- 
marked at some length on his collecting in 
South America 



PSYCHE 









el 















A. JOTJiR.2Sr^I_. OF ENTOMOLOGY."' 



[Established in 1S74.] 

Vol. 6. No. 181. 

May, 1S91. 



CONTENTS: 

A list of the Orthoptera of Illinois, — IV. (concluded) — Jerome McNeill. . 73 

A SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE ON DlABROTICA I2-PUNCTATA. — H. Garmo.ll ... 78 

Descriptions of the preparatory stages of two forms of Cerura cinerea 

Walk. — Harrison G. Dyar .......... So 

Two new Tachinids. — C. H. Tyler Toix'nsend ........ 83 

Edwards's Butterflies of North America ........ 85 

Packard's Forest-insects ............ 86 

Personal Notes .............. 86 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Clcb ...... S6 



Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 



YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS, 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



72 



PS 2 CHE. 



[May, 1S91. 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

RATES OF SUBSCRIPTION, ETC. 

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The index will only be sent to subscribers to the 
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Twenty-five extra copies, without change of 
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CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meetings of the Club are now held at 
7.45 P.M. on the second Friday of each month, at 
No. 156 Brattle St. Entomologists temporarily in 
Boston or Cambridge or passing through either city 
on that day are invited to be present. 

A very fezu complete sets of the first five volumes 
of Psyche remain to be sold for $25. Vol. I will 
not be sold separately. 

Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
by the Cambridge Entomological Club: 
Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged in- 
sects of America : a re-examination of the 
Devonian insects of New Brunswick, in the 
light of criticisms and of new studies of other 
paleozoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875. 1. 00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col. pi. Boston, 1883. .25 

Scudder, S. H. The fossil butterflies of 
Florissant, Col., Washington, 1889 . . 1.00 

Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Jahrg. 
42-46. Stettin, 1881-1885. . . . 5.00 

U. S. Entomological Commission. Fourth 
Report. Washington, 1885. . . . 2.00 
Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

PHALANGIDAE. 



1 am preparing a monograph of the Phalan- 
GIDAE of North America and will be glad to get 
specimens from any locality. Will identify and re- 
turn any sent. Specimens from the Northwest, 
Southwest, and the Pacific coast especially desired 
Clrence M. Weed, 

Hanover, N. H. 



PSYCHE. 



A LIST OF THE ORTHOPTERA OF ILLINOIS.— IV. 



BY JEROME MCNEILL, FAYETTEVILLE, ARK. 



ACRIDIDAE (ACRIDIINI, TETTIGINAE). 

74. Schistocerca americana Drury. 
Of rare occurrence north of the center 
of the state but common southward. I 
have taken a few specimens in Rock 
Island County, the earliest recorded 
appearance being Sept. 20th. 

75. Acridium alutaceumHa.tr. The 
only species of this genus found in Rock 
Island County. It is found sparingly 
along rail-roads and in waste ground, 
but there is a very small district where 
it is extremely abundant. This is a 
little strip of ground a few hundred 
feet in length along the C. B. & Q R. 
R. about one mile and a half southwest 
of Colona, Henry Co. Prof. Garman 
with a party from Illinois University first 
stumbled upon this locality a few years 
ago, and I visited it in r SS9. This 
colony has established itself in a patch 
of Johnson grass, a species of Androp- 
ogon, which seems to have furnished it 
with the conditions exactly fitted for its 
development. These specimens have 
the dorsal stripe almost always distinct. 
Colona, Aug. 12th. 

*j6. Acridium emctrgiiicitum Scudd. 
Reported by Mr. Thomas as having 
been taken a few times in the state. 

*77- Acridium rubiginosum Scudd. 
Said by Mr. Thomas to be a rather 



rare species found only in the neigh- 
borhood of oak groves. 

*jS. Melctnoplus spretus Thomas. 
Stray specimens have been identified by 
Mr. Thomas, but it cannot be consid- 
ered a resident species, as Illinois is out- 
side of even the "Temporary region" 
as determined by the U. S. entomologi- 
cal commission. 

79. Melcinoplus citlanis Riley. This 
wide spread species occurs throughout 
the state. It seems however to be very 
unequally distributed. In some local- 
ities it is about as common as M.fe?nur- 
rubrum while in others it may be very 
rare. In Rock Island County it is usu- 
ally rare or at least uncommon but on a 
sand hill an eighth of a mile south of 
Moline bridge on Rock River it is very 
abundant. As this sand hill shelters a 
number of species which occur not at 
all or rarely elsewhere in the neighbor- 
hood it may be well to say a few words 
as to its character. It consists entirely 
of fine clean sand which is in places 
covered with a thin soil which supports 
a scanty vegetation of willows and sand- 
burr but which is for the most part 
wholly barren. This hill rises gradu- 
ally on every side from the Rock Rive r 
bottom. It is about a half mile in 
length and only a few hundred yards in 
width at the widest. At the highest 



74 



PSYCHE. 



[May 1S91 



point it is not much lower than the hills 
on either side of the river valley. Its 
size and isolated position make it a 
conspicuous object from the river bluffs 
for several miles above and below the 
bridge. It is in fact a small island or 
"tow head" in the old Mississippi chan- 
nel. This river as is well known 
once flowed through the Meridosia 
swamps, which are situated about four 
miles above Cordova , into the Rock 
River valley, which it occupied to the 
present mouth of this river. A consid- 
erable part of this hill is fenced out from 
stock and here the natural features have 
been preserved for a long time so that 
many species retain a foothold or even 
flourish here which do not seem to occur 
elsewhere in the county. Atlanis seems 
to be at least imperfectly two brooded 
in the northern part of the state f.s I 
have taken a few specimens as early as 
the middle of June while the great ma- 
jority attain the adult stage after the 
middle of August. It was formerly 
thought to be not easy to separate this 
species from M. femur-rubrum^ the 
common Red-legged Locust of our mead- 
ows, and indeed this difficulty still exists 
in the case of the females, but it is now 
known that the males at least can be 
very readily distinguished from those of 
the allied species. This distinction 
consists mainly in the scoop-shaped 
ultimate abdominal segment, which is 
obscurely notched at the tip in attains 
and in the rounded ultimate segment of 
femur- rub rum which is squarely trun- 
cate at the apex. 

So. Melanoplus femur rubrum De 



Geer. This well known species is 
abundant everywhere in meadows and 
along wood sides. It has been taken at 
Moline as early as the twenty-third of 
June. 

Si. M^elanoplus collinus Scudder. 
This rather common species is pretty 
closely restricted to the tops of hills and 
the sides of ravines which are almost 
too barren for pasturage. It is never, 
so far as I am aware found in rich bot- 
tom lands. 

52. Melanoplus punct?dat?is Uhler. 
The museum of the State laboratory ot 
natural history of Illinois contains two 
specimens a male and a female from 
Galesburg and Urbana. These are the 
only specimens from the state that I 
have seen. 

53. Mela?ioplus tfihzor Scudd. This 
species is included in the list because 
its occurrence in Indiana renders its oc- 
currence here almost certain. It has 
been captured at Bloomington, Indiana. 

54. Melanoplus different I alls Thos. 
This species is common along road- 
sides. Its earliest appearance at Moline 
is August 8th. 

55. Jfelanoplus bivittatus Say. This 
is an uncommon species in the northern 
part of the state at least. In eastern In- 
diana it is not unfrequently so numerous 
as to do considerable injury to hay and 
grain crops. It matures at least a month 
earlier than the last mentioned species, 
according to my observation, as I have 
taken it at Dublin, Ind. as early as June 
zSth and at Moline as early as the 7th 
of July. 

56. Melanoplus cenchri n. sp. 



May 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



75 



Male : Length to tip of abdomen .So to .90 
in. ; length of elytra .70 to .74 in. 

General color dull brown varying through 
testaceous to bright yellow, but in the light- 
est specimens the sternum is dull olive or 
brown. In the most common form the head, 
disk and sides of the pronotum are light 
brown or testaceous or at least lighter in 
color than the middle region of the body. 
The black band of the pronotum, common in 
species of this genus, is entirely obsolete or 
rarely represented by a faint dusky line or 
narrow band extending along the sides of the 
head and the lateral carinae of the pronotum 
to the base of the elytra. The elytra are 
testaceous, unspotted or sometimes very ob- 
scurely spotted with faint small or medium 
dusky flecks. The posterior femora have the 
upper half of both the inner and the outer 
faces infuscated or at least darker than the 
lower part with upper margin marked with 
three lighter spots. The posterior tibiae are 
bright blue with white spines tipped with 
black. The whole body is hairy, but this fea- 
ture is more marked upon the disk of the pro- 
notum, the upper face of the posterior tibiae 
and at the end of the abdomen. The facial 
costa is sulcate, and the median carina of 
the pronotum is distinct upon the metazone, 
more or less distinct upon the prozone and 
cut by three incisions. The elytra are nar- 
row and usually extend much beyond the 
abdomen. The posterior femora extend more 
or less beyond the tip of the abdomen. The 
anal cerci are broad at the base but are sud- 
denly contracted on the upper side to half or 
less than half the width at their origin; the 
lower margin is straight and oblique, so that 
the apical two-thirds of the cerci is directed 
upwards but of equal width to the apex which 
is rounded. The last ventral segment i.s ele- 
vated and narrowed above at the sides with 
the upper outline, seen from behind forming 
a distinct but very obtuse angle. 

Female : Length to tip of ovipositor .go to 
1.08 in.; length of elytra .75 to .S5 in. 

Similar to the male in color but somewhat 



stouter and larger. The elytra extend to or 
considerably beyond the tip of the abdomen. 
The posterior femora do not generally reach 
to the tip of the abdomen. The upper plates 
of the ovipositor are much exsertcd, 
strongly upcurved and very acute while the 
lower plates are long and slender with a 
small or minute lateral tooth at the base. 
Moline, III. August 27. 3 <J's, 12 $'s. 

The species just described belongs to 
the femur-rubrum group of the genus 
but it is very distinct from this species 
and all others apparently. It was found 
in large numbers on the sand bill be- 
fore referred to and afterwards a few 
specimens were found at widely scattered 
points in Rock Island and adjoining 
counties. It seems to inhabit only high 
sandy ground. The specimens found 
upon the sand hill were confined to 
that portion where the only vegetation 
was sand-burr (Cenchrus) . They were 
colored so nearly like the yellow sand 
that they were difficult to see when only 
two or three feet away. The specimens 
I afterwards found were generally darker 
in color but they were invariably in the 
neighborhood of sand-burrs. In the 
lighter specimens the apical half or two- 
thirds of the elytra were almost perfectly 
transparent. 

S7- Pezotettix viridiilus. This very 
pretty species was described from speci- 
mens obtained in this locality. It is by 
no means common however, being re- 
stricted to a few localities. It shows a 
decided preference for the sides of open 
grassy ravines. It is I think the first 
orthopteron to become mature from eggs 
hatched in the spring. I have found 



76 



PSYCHE. 



[May 1891. 



full grown specimens as early as the 5th 
of June. The museum of the State lab- 
ratory of natural history contains a few 
specimens from Normal and Blooming- 
ton, 111. My collection contains speci- 
mens from Bloomington, Indiana. 

SS. Pezotettix occidentalis Brunei - . 
A very common species which makes 
its appearance as early as the middle of 
July and is abundant through August 
and September. 

89. Pezotettix scudderi Uhlev . This 
is probably as common as the last men- 
tioned species and probably more evenly 
distributed throughout the territory 
which it occupies. Occidentalis cer- 
tainly prefers grassy hillsides and tops, 
but scudderi is very frequently found 
along roadsides or in pastures. It 
reaches maturity about the first of Au- 
gust. It is tolerably certain that unicolor 
Thos. is but a synonym of this species. 
Mr. Uhler's specimens were from Balti- 
more and Rock Island, and it is not 
probable that I overlooked the species 
during four years collecting in the 
neighborhood of the last mentioned 
place. Mr. Thomas distinctly states 
that he was unacquainted with sczidderi. 
So it is scarcely to be doubted that he 
redescribed this species as zuticolor. 

90. Pezotettix gracilis Brunei - . This 
is P. minzitipennis Thos. It is very 
rare in the north-western part of the 
state, but seems to be widely distributed, 
as specimens have been found at Moline, 
Bloomington, Urbana and Normal. It 
is a wood loving species. It has been 
taken as early as the first of July. 

91. Pezotettix autumnalis Dodge. 



The occurrence of this species was some- 
thing of a surprise as it was thought to 
be a local Nebraska form. Its peculiar 
distribution here however leads me to 
think that it may be a widely spread 
species and explain perhaps why it has 
been supposed to be so restricted in its 
range. It occurs in abundance at one 
place near Colona, Henry Co., 111., ac- 
cording to Professor Garman, who gave 
me specimens obtained at that point and 
saw nothing of it anywhere else, but sev- 
eral days search for the species was en- 
tirely fruitless, and I was almost inclined 
to think some mistake had been made in 
referring the specimens to that part of 
Illinois, when I stumbled upon the spe- 
cies at Cordova, Rock Island Co. There 
I found it abundant in a large orchard 
on the east side of a high hill. Careful 
search in that neighborhood did not en- 
able me to find it any where else, and 
I have never found it in any other 
part of the state. The Colona speci- 
mens were captured Aug. 20th, 1S85. 
Those captured at Cordova were taken 
the zSth of September, 1889. 

92. Pezotettix viola Thos. This is a 
south-western form not generally dis- 
tributed throughout the state. Said by 
Thomas to inhabit central and southern 
Illinois, but the museum of the State 
laboratory of natural history contains 
but two specimens captured at Running 
Lake July 15, and in September. Mr. C. 
W. Woodworth of Fayetteville, Ark., 
has repeatedly observed females of this 
species ovipositing in crannies of wood 
and stone frequently three or four feet 
from the ground. 



May lSgi.J 



PSYCHE. 



11 



93. Pezotettix manca Smith. This 
species is put in the list of Illinois Or- 
thoptera on the strength of a single pair 
of specimens taken at Running Lake 
July 15, 1SS3. 

94. Tettix cristatus Harr. Accord- 
ing to Bolivar x Batrachidea carinata 
Scudd. is a synonym of B. cristata Harr. 
and the latter is transferred to the genus 
Tettix. I have a single specimen from 
Bloomington. 

95. Tettix triangularis Scudd. I 
have seen but two specimens from this 
state ; both are in my collection, one 
from Rock Island and the other from 
Bloomington. 

96. Tettix granulatus Kirby. I 
have a specimen from Brookeville, Ind., 
and one from Moline, which I refer to 
this species. 

97- Tettix ornatus Say. There is a 
single specimen in the museum of the 
State laboratory of natural history from 
Bloomington, 111. which belongs to this 
species. I have a specimen from Bloom- 
ington, Indiana, which I place here. 
While these four species are all found in 
the state it is pretty evident that they are 
all rare, since out of all the hundreds of 
Tettiginae examined by me these seven 
individuals are all that I have seen of 
these species from Illinois or Indiana. 

9S. Tettix arenosus Burm. I refer to 
this species a large number of Tettix 
collected at various times by Mr. C. A. 
Hart of Illinois University and a lim- 
ited number of specimens that I have 
collected in the north-western part of the 
state. I have formerly been accustomed to 

1 Essai sur les Acridicns de la Tribu des tettigidae, 
par Ign. Bolivar. Gand, 1SS7. 



consider this form as T rugosus Scudd. 
but these specimens seem to be indistin- 
guishable from T. arenosus Burm. as 
Mr. Scudder understands this species, 
and they do not seem to belong to the 
new genus Paratettix in which Bolivar 
places T rugosus Scudd. Besides 
this species is too nearly allied to T. cu- 
culatus Burm to allow of its being put 
in a different genus. I am tempted to 
risk the opinion that T arenosus and 
7. rugosus are too much alike to re- 
main in different genera, if they are 
really different species. I have mature 
specimens that have been taken in every 
month from March to September inclu- 
sive, a fact which would seem to indicate 
that there are two or more broods of this 
species in a year, or that their breeding 
time is so irregular that they can not be 
divided into broods at all. 

99. Tettix cuculatus Burm. This 
species is represented by numerous spec- 
imens taken in Rock Island and neigh- 
boring counties and by a few in Mr. 
Hart's collection. They were taken 
during the months of May, June, July, 
and August; I have three pupae taken 
at Hampton on May 5th and four taken 
at Moline, one on the 5th and three on 
the 8th. These pupae taken at about the 
same time in different localities are all 
ready to moult for the last time. This 
regularity would indicate that the)- have 
developed from eggs hatched in the 
spring, and if this is the case the title of 
Pezotettix viridulus Walsh to be the 
first grasshopper to be developed from 
eggs hatched in the spring will be in 
some danger. 



78 



PSYCHE. 



[May 189T. 



100. Tettigidea lateralis Say. This 
form is not uncommon at Moline but it 
is apparently much more common south- 
ward. I have a number of specimens 
collected from Aug. 9th to 16th; some 
of them are full grown but the majority 
are pupae in the last stage. 

101. Tettigidea polymorpha Burm. 
I have not found this species in the 
neighborhood of Moline, but I have a 
number of specimens collected by Mr. 
Hart in the central part of the State. 

Phasmidae. 

102. Diapheromera sayi Gray. 
This species is not uncommon in Rock 
Island county and probably it is not less 
common throughout the State, though 
its form and habits render it too incon- 
spicuous to be known by many. July 
nth is the earliest date I have for its 
capture at Moline. 

*ro3. Diapheromera velii Walsh, 
Proc. ent. soc. Philad., v. 3, 410. 

104. Anisomorpha buprestoides 
Stoll. A single specimen in the mu- 



seum of the State laboratory of natural 
history is labeled $ Saratoga, Union 
Co., 111., July 1S77. 

Mantidae. 

105. Stagmo mantis Carolina Linn. 
This species occurs not rarely in the 
southern part of the state. 

Blattidae. 

*io6. Blatta germanica Fab. Given 
on the authority of Thomas. 

*io f ]. Periplaneta americana\Jvnx\. 
Is in no collection of Illinois Orthoptera 
that I have seen, but I include it on the 
authority of Thomas. 

108. Periplaneta orientalis Linn. 
Too abundant in old houses. 

109. Ischnoptera pennsylvanica De 
Geer. Not found in Rock Island county, 
but it is common in the southern part 
of the state, where it is common under 
old logs. 

*iio. Ischnoptera unicolor Scudd. 
Given on the authority of Thomas. 



A SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE ON DIABROTICA 12-PUNCTATA. 



BY H. GARMAN, LEXINGTON, KY. 



After the first part of my paper on 
this insect was published (Psyche, v. 6, 
p. 29) and the second part was nearly 
all in print, I received from Prof. C. V. 
Riley a copy of his notes on the habits 
and life-history of the species with per- 



mission to use them in what I might 
subsequently write. It is not now possi- 
ble for me to take advantage of this 
courtesy further than to add here some 
of the more important observations 
which his notes contain. 



May 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



79 



In an introductory paragraph he 
says: "Prof. H. Garman justly calls 
in question (Psyche, v. 6, p. 29; Feb. 
1S91) a statement made in Insect Life 
(v. 1, p. 59) where, by a typographical 
oversight, the Twelve-spotted Diabro- 
tica is stated to have 'bred upon' in- 
stead of 'fed upon' melons. The error 
is self-evident from the language and 
from the tenor of the article which does 
not treat of larval habits at all but of 
the food-habits of the beetle." 

"My knowledge of the corn-feeding habit 
of the larvae of this insect dates from April 
30, 1SS3, when Judge Lawrence Johnson for- 
warded to me from Allenton. Wilcox Co., 
Ala., a number of larvae of which he wrote 
as follows : 'I sent you last week from Allen- 
ton specimens of the same destructive 'bud- 
worm' that I once mentioned as heard of but 
not seen. This is about the right time, for 
they are now going into the pupa stage and 
in the sand you will find one of the pupae. 
The worm leaves the corn after doing its 
mischief and the pupa referred to was found 
immediately under the stalk among the roots. 
I have never met with this worm except in 
the prairie regions of southern Alabama, but 
have heard of it in Mississippi.' " 

From these larvae Professor Riley ob- 
tained adults May 21, 1SS3. He ob- 
tained larvae and beetles from Missis- 
sippi in 1SS4 where they are said to 
abound in corn fields from March to the 
middle of May. In June, rSS6, they 
were reported to him as injuring corn 
at Mt. Vernon, Va., the result being a 
withering and drooping of the central 
parts, while in some cases the plants 
were killed as soon as sprouted. 

The eggs were obtained by Professor 



Riley from females confined with earth, 
and were placed in the soil as in the 
case of D. longicornis. Larvae col- 
lected June iS from infested corn at 
Mt. Vernon, Va., changed to pupae 
June 22, and beetles emerged July 6, 
and produced eggs on the following 
day. Larvae from these eggs were first 
observed July 15. In this connection 
Professor Riley continues: 

''The above indicates that this insect is at 
least double-brooded, in which respect it dif- 
fers in habit from the closely allied D. longi- 
cornis which is single-brooded and winters 
usually in the egg, though occasionally in 
the adult state. The second brood of Dia- 
brotica 12-punctata doubtless winters over, 
and deposits eggs about the young corn or 
other plants in the spring. Eggs of the last 
brood are also doubtless deposited in the fall, 
and winter over, as is usually the case with 
D. longicornis." 

I am not at present prepared to be- 
lieve that the female D. iz-ptuictata 
produces eggs in the fall of the year. 
Careful examination of examples taken 
whenever possible has failed to show 
ova in the ovaries at any time except 
in the early spring just before the first 
brood of larvae appear, and again when 
these larvae become beetles. After 
these adults have deposited their eggs, 
no gravid females occur again until the 
following spring. The search for them 
has been especially thorough in the fall 
and winter, and among all the exam- 
ples dissected during these periods not 
a single one showed any signs of de- 
veloped ova. 

"The early stages of D. u-punctata are 
scarcely different from those of D. longi- 



80 



PSYCHE. 



[May 1 891. 



cornis. The egg is larger, being .03X. 02 of 
an inch as against .025X.015 in the case of 
longicortiis. In color, instead of being dirty 
white it is dull yellowish. The hexagonal 
pits are exactly like those on the egg of 
longicomis, but are perhaps smaller, as there 
are 30-35 in its entire length as against 20 
only in the smaller egg of longicomis " 

The larva is said to differ from that of 



D. longicornis in being larger and in 
the presence of the two small tubercles 
at the posterior edge of the caudal plate. 
The pupae of the two species are said to 
differ only in size. 

Two dipterous parasites of D. 1 2- 
punctata are known to Professor Riley, 
one a Tachinid obtained from the larva, 
the other coming- from the adult. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THE PREPARATORY STAGES OF TWO FORMS 
OF CERURA CINEREA Walk. 



BY HARRISOX G. DYAR, NEW YORK. 



I have discussed the differences be- 
tween the Eastern and Western forms 
of the imago in the Canadian ento- 
mologist 1 and in the present article 
consider the larval stages. The larvae 
of the two forms are much alike ; the 
differences, after eliminating certain ap- 
parent ones clue to individual variation, 
narrow to the greater prominence of 
crimson in cinereoidcs and its some- 
what shorter caudal filaments or stema- 
poda, to use Dr. Packard's term. My 
examples of cinerea were nearly without 
crimson spots in the dorsal patches, but 
Professor Lintner has allowed me to see 
some notes by Professor Riley on this 
species in which they are described as 
present, and doubtless the character is 
variable. In the following some allow- 
ance should be made for individual 
variation. 

1 Can. ent., v. 22, p. 253. 



Cerura cinerea Walker. (Eastern 
form.) 

Egg. Slightly more than hemispherical, 
the base flat. Color, dead black; diameter 
1.2 mm. 

Laid singly ; the larva hatches by eat- 
ing a hole in the side but does not de- 
vour the rest of the shell. 

Larva : Second stage. Head rounded, the 
sutures deep, blackish brown; width 1 mm. 
Cervical horns brown, spinose as are the 
caudal filaments, the latter twice annulated 
with pale yellow. Body green, a blackish 
brown subdorsal line on each side, the space 
between them over the dorsum filled in with 
the same color except in three patches (1) on 
joint 3 posteriorly, joints 4 and 5 quadrate, (2) 
on joints S-10 pointed anteriorly, and (3) a 
rounded one on joint 12. These are of a more 
yellowish green than the body color. Exten- 
sile threads black, once annulated with white. 
Length of larva 7 mm; of tails 5 mm. 

Third stage. Head subquadrate, rounded, 



May 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



81 



flat in front, dead brownish black, the lower 
part paler and mottled centrally in front with 
a paler color. Antennae white ; labrum and 
ocelli brown; width of head 1.3 mm. Cervi- 
cal horns thick, heavily spinose, brownish 
black; several rows of minute piliferous 
tubercles on the body ; tails spinose, dark 
red-brown, twice broadly annulated with 
yellowish and tipped with the same color. 
Body green, a purple-brown subdorsal line 
on each side which passes to the spiracles on 
joints 7 and S, a little interrupted, especially 
on joint 5. The space between them is filled 
in with purple-brown on joints 2 and 3, on 
joints 6-9 and on joints 11 and 13, though 
not completely on joints 8 and 9, but with a 
trace of a dorsal line on the other joints. 
Venter whitish. 

Fourth stage. Head higher than wide, 
rounded, a little flattened in front; a minute 
tubercle before the apex of each lobe ; pur- 
plish black, finely mottled with yellow, green 
at the sides posteriorly; antennae white, 
ocelli black; width 2.2 mm. Cervical horns 
thick, covered by piliferous tubercles with 
about six rows of similar tubercles on each 
side of the body, only the upper two distinct. 
Color yellowish green. A triangular dorsal 
patch on joints 2 and 3 covering the cervical 
horns purplish black, mottled with little yel- 
low spots ; a larger patch on joints 4-9 ellipti- 
cal, retracted at the segmental incisures, reach- 
ing the spiracle on joint 8, replaced centrally 
irregularly by yellow and broadly connected 
with a small patch on joints 10 and 11 which 
widens on 11 and is narrowly connected with 
the last patch on joint 13, replaced by green- 
ish on the anal plate. Tails purple-brown, 
twice annulated with yellow. 

Fifth stage. Head purplish black, green 
at the sides posteriorly, reticulated where the 
colors meet; mottled with yellowish in front 
rather broadly but more narrowly to vertex. 
Clypeus and mouth purplish, jaws black, an- 
tennae white; width of head 3.2 mm. Cervi- 
cal shield large, smooth, with angulations at 
the corners, representing the "horns" of the 



previous stage. Body slightly elevated dor- 
sally at joint 3 posteriorly, but without a pro- 
cess on either joints 3 or 4. Tails spined, pur- 
plish black, twice annulated with greenish 
yellow. Body j-ellow-green speckled on the 
sides with j-ellow and with small brown pili- 
ferous spots. The dorsal patches are much as 
before, the first triangular on joints 2 and 3 
covering the top part of the smooth punctured 
corners of the cervical shield, ending on joint 
3 posteriorly, covered with little yellow spots 
and narrowly bisected by a pale dorsal line. 
The other patches are confluent; beginning 
in a point on joint 4 the second patch widens, 
contracted at each suture to below the spiracle 
on joint 8 and over the subventral space, just 
enclosing the spiracles on joints 7 and 9; it 
narrows on joints S and 9 joining the third 
patch on joints 10 or 11 (in different ex- 
amples). The third widens a little on joint 
11 and narrows on joints 11 and 12 where it 
joins narrowly the last patch, which widens 
on joints 12 and 13 and contracts a little at 
the anal plate. The patch on joints 6-8 is 
much mottled by large yellow (or partly 
crimson) spots and on the anal plate by 
whitish. Spiracles purple-black with a cen- 
tral white line and black marks around them ; 
the lateral yellow specks here segregate to 
form an obscure stigmatal line. A row of 
purple-black subventral blotches irregularly 
represent the feet on the apodal segments. 
Venter a little whitish with a narrow ventral 
line posteriorly; feet green. Two erect 
black spines at the anus. As the stage ad- 
vances, yellow spots appear in the dorsal 
patch on the 3rd~5th abdominal segments, 
the sides are strongly sprinkled with little 
brown spots and the dorsal band becomes 
purplish edged with j'ellow but with no dis- 
tinct crimson. 

Cocoon. Constructed on bark of gummy 
silk and bits of bark and wood, like that of 
the other species of Cerura. 

Food plants : — Poplar (Populus) 
and willow (Salix). 
Larvae from Dutchess Co., New York. 



82 



PSYCHE. 



[May 1S91. 



Cerura cinereoides Dyar. (West- 
ern form.) 

Egg. Slightly less than hemispherical, 
the base flat. Color, dull brownish black, 
smooth. Diameter about 1 mm. Duration 
of this stage, eight days. 

Larva: First stage. Head dark red- 
brown. On joint 2 are two brown processes, 
minutely spined. Joint 13 has two "tails" 
3 mm. long, brown, twice broadly annulated 
with pale yellow and minutely spined. The 
body is brown with three dorsal pale yellow 
patches, on joints 2 to 6, 8 to 10 and 12 re- 
spectively, the posterior one faint. Venter 
and legs pale whitish. Length of larva, ex- 
clusive of the tails, 4 mm. It spins a slight 
web on the surface of the leaf to which it 
clings. 

Second stage. Head red-brown with two 
blackish shades in front. Processes on joint 
2, which is somewhat swollen, thick and 
spined. Tails twice broadly annulated with 
pale yellow. The body is red-brown with a 
transverse row of minute spined points on 
each segment. The dorsal patches are as in 
the previous stage, but the one on joint 12 
extends also on joint 11. The venter and 
legs are pale yellow. The extensile threads 
in the "tails" are pale whitish at base, the 
rest dark brown, once broadly annulated 
with white. They are extended in the same 
manner as the "horns" of a larva of Papilio, 
the base appearing first, followed by the re- 
mainder of the part, reversing itself as it is 
extruded. These the insect lashes over its 
back if disturbed. Length 6 mm., tails, 4 mm. 
Third stage. Head brown, densely 
marked with small yellow spots, but leaving 
two wavy lines of the ground color in front, 
paler at the sides posteriorly. Antennae 
whitish. Joint 2 is somewhat swollen and 
bears two thick processes about 1 mm. long 
covered with pointed tubercles. Each seg- 
ment has a row of similar tubercles each 
bearing a short fine hair. The dorsal ones on 
joints 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11 are rather larger 



than the others. The tails are spinose, green 
but brown above at the base and twice annu- 
lated with brown towards the ends. Length 
4.5 mm. The body is yellowish green, the 
red-brown of the dorsum being reduced to a 
subdorsal brown line on each side which join 
on the last segment and are connected over 
the back on joints 2 and 3 by brown mottlings 
between the processes, by a large patch on 
joints 6, 7 and 8 and another on joint 11. The 
large spot is paler centrally. Later the sub- 
dorsal line disappears and the brown dorsal 
patches are connected by an obscure dorsal 
line. Length of body, 8 to 12 mm. 

Fourth stage. The head is partly retracted 
under the skin of joint 2, purple-brown be- 
fore, yellowish green at the sides behind the 
eyes, the upper two thirds densely covered 
with small pale yellow spots, but leaving two 
lines of the ground color in front. A few 
minute hairs over the surface. Antennae 
white. The body is slightly elevated dorsally 
at joint 3. Color green, with a yellowish 
tinge at the bordering of the dorsal patches, 
which are four in number and purple-brown. 
The first is on joints 2 and 3, triangular, 
covering the upper part of the spined pro- 
cesses of joint 2, partly divided by a green 
dorsal line anteriorly; the second is on 
joints 4 slightly and 5 to 9, elliptical, reach- 
ing below the spiracles, pointed anteriorly, 
and connected posteriorly with the third 
patch on joints 10 and 11, which widens pos- 
teriorly and narrows abruptly to the fourth 
patch on joints 12 and 13 which is partly re- 
placed by the ground color. The two last 
extend over the subdorsal spaces. All are 
partly mottled with pale yellow and contain 
conical tubercles, each surmounted by a short 
hair. The sides of the body are sprinkled 
with brown and whitish specks and have a 
few short fine white hairs. Venter white. 
Tails purple brown at the basal half above 
and twice annulated with brown at the ex- 
tremities. They are still spinose and the. ex- 
tensile threads are black with a white ring. 

Fifth stage. Head as before, but at ma- 



May 1S51.] 



PSYCHE. 



83 



turitv the yellow spots are quite faint and a 
blackish shade extends up from the eyes 
widening to the vertex. Jaws black ; anten- 
nae white. Body smooth, the conical pili- 
ferous elevations represented by brown spots. 
The processes on joint 2 are relatively much 
smaller and without spines. A slight dorsal 
elevation on joint. 3 posteriorly, just covered 
by the end of the first dorsal patch. Tails 
spined as before and marked the same. The 
extensile threads are dark purplish black, 
once annulated with purplish white. Dorsal 
patches much as before, the second, third and 
fourth strongly confluent, the second and 
third most so. The second is marked cen- 
trally with many dark crimson spots, with 
which color all the patches are narrowly 
edged inside the yellow border. At maturity 
the color of all the patches fades to lilac and 
a number of yellow spots appear in the sec- 
ond one, its outline anteriorly becoming ir- 
regular. Body yellowish green with a 
transverse row of purple-brown spots on each 
segment, more numerous subventrally, and 
a number of whitish spots, which are thick- 
est at the spiracles giving the appearance of 
a stigmatal line. These are also found on 
the dorsal patches, and on the anal plate are 
partly confluent, replacing the purplish 
brown. The spots on the patch on joint 2 
are yellowish like those on the head. Spir- 
acles dark reddish brown, partly surrounded 
by a similarly colored but paler spot. Ven- 
ter whitish, at maturity green, a reddish 
ventral line on joints 12 and 13. Purple spots 
on the bases of the legs and on the legless 



segments, 
ish. 



Feet green, marked with brown" 



At the anus, beyond the upper anal 
plate, are two erect spiny hairs which 
serve to project the frass to a consider- 
able distance. Length of larva 35 mm. ; 
of tails 5 mm. 

Cocoon. Formed on a piece of wood 
first of gummy silk which is strength- 
ened by many little pieces of wood 
bitten off from inside. When finished, 
it is elliptical, quite hard and of the 
color of the wood or bark on which 
it is made. Length about 30 mm. ; 
width, 13 mm. 

Pupa. Cylindrical, tapering slightly at 
both extremities, somewhat flattened. Color 
pale brown, venter yellowish and a dark 
dorsal line. Wing and leg cases greenish. 
Abdomen very minutely punctured. Wing 
cases creased. Length iS mm. ; width 6 mm. 

The duration of the first larval stages 
was from three to six days, the last two 
seven days. The pupa state lasts through 
the winter. 

Food plant. Probably Willow 
(Salix). 

Larvae from Los Angeles Co.. Cali- 
fornia. 



TWO NEW TACHINIDS. 



BY C. II. TYLER TOWNSEND, LAS CRUCES, N. M. 

The following two species of Tachi- the names in a future paper of his, I 

nidae, recently received from Professor submit descriptions of them. 
F. L. Harvey, of Orono, Maine, among 

a lot of other Diptera for determination, Tachina disiocampae n. sp. $. Eye* 

prove to be new. As he desires to use brown, very thinly and indistinctly 



84 



PSYCHE. 



[May 1891 



front at vertex about one-half the width of 
the face below, at base of antennae about one- 
third the width of the head; frontal vitta 
black, of equal width, with a row of black 
bristles on each side extending fully half-way 
down the cheeks, the front on each side 
golden, this color extending nearly as far 
down on the cheeks as do the frontal bristles ; 
vertex blackish with longer and stouter bris- 
tles, three on each side posteriorly inclined, 
and a pair on the ocellar area anteriorly in- 
clined ; antennae blackish, a little shorter 
than the face, second joint elongate, the 
third joint about twice the length of the 
second; arista 3-jointed, basal half somewhat 
thickened; vibrissae removed from the oral 
margin, the facial ridges with a few bristles 
which do not extend quite half way up the 
face, but usually as far as the lowermost 
frontal bristles; proboscis blackish, palpi 
reddish-brown, black bristly; face and 
cheeks silvery, in places with a golden sheen, 
lower cheeks cinereous with short black 
bristles; occiput blackish or cinereous, 
covered with dense, coarse, whitish hair ex- 
cept a narrow bare space opposite the vertex, 
the edge with a fringe of black hairs. Thorax 
black above with six gray vittae, the middle 
pair sometimes coalesced, covered with short 
black hair and with rows of black bristles; 
humeri and pleurae more or less cinereous, 
black pilose; scutellum dark flesh-red, some- 
what black at base, with black hair and eight 
marginal macrochaetae which reach at far- 
thest about to the middle of the second ab- 
dominal segment. Abdomen long oval, some- 
what conical, black, thickly covered with 
rather short black bristles becoming longer 
behind, the basal half of the second, third and 
fourth segments cinereous usually more dis- 
tinct on the sides, the second segment usually 
with a flesh-red tinge on the sides ; the first 
and second segments each with one dorsal 
pair of macrochaetae near the hind margin, 
the third segment with two pairs, the anal 
segment with many stout bristles ; venter 
black, the bases of the segments cinereous 



except the anal, black hairy. Legs black, 
black hairy, femora somewhat cinereous, 
femora and tibiae with black bristles and a 
few macrochaetae; claws black, elongate, 
pulvilli dirty yellowish. Wings hyaline, 
costo-basal portion tinged with yellowish, 
curvature of the fourth vein with a wrinkle 
appearing like a stump; veins black, very 
stout towards the base of the wing, the base 
of the costa with black bristles, the third vein 
bristly above and below at its origin ; tegulae 
white with yellowish margin, halteres very 
dusky, nearly black. 

Length of body 12 mm ; of wing 9^ mm. 

Described from two specimens, bred 
from larvae of Clisiocampa sylvatica. 
Orono, Maine. The eyes in this species 
cannot be said to be hairy, although thin, 
scattered hairs are distinctly visible with 
a high-power lens. I base my generic 
reference of this species particularly on 
the strongly elongated second antennal 
joint as compared with the third, and 
the wrinkle at the curvature of the fourth 
vein, characters of the true Tachina 
sens. Schiner. This species agrees 
exactly with Schiner's description, ex- 
cept the one remark, " eyes bare." 
Some authors seem inclined to abandon 
this much patronized genus, but I think 
we can not do better than accept it as 
restricted by Schiner (Faun, austr., 
Dipt., r, 472.) 

Phorocera promiscua n. sp. $ . Eyes 
brownish, thinly, indistinctly hairy; front- 
broad, a little more than one-third the width 
of the head; frontal vitta nearly black, of 
equal width, cleft behind where a prong 
widens outward on each side of the ocelli ; a 
row of bristles on each side of the vitta, ex- 
tending about three or four bristles below the 



May 1891.] 



PSl'CHE. 



85 



base of the antennae, two orbital bristles out- 
side each row ; a long pair of bristles directed 
backwards on the vertex, and a shorter pair 
directed forwards on the ocellar area; the 
front golden on each side, this color extend- 
ing as far down on the cheeks as do the frontal 
bristles, the rest of the cheeks and face gray; 
facial ridges with bristles extending fully or 
'more than half way up the face; antennae 
not quite so long as the face, blackish, second 
joint short, the third joint nearly or quite 
three times as long as the second; arista 
black, two-jointed, the basal half thickened; 
vibrissae somewhat removed from the oral 
margin; proboscis blackish, palpi light red- 
dish-yellow, black bristly; lower cheeks dark 
gray, with black bristles; occiput ashy, gray 
pilose, with black bristles on the borders. 
Thorax above leaden gray, with four black 
lines, with numerous black bristles becoming 
longer behind, and covered with short black 
hairs; humeri and pleurae gray, the bristles 
and short hairs of the dorsum extending be- 
low on the sides of the thorax ; scutellum dull 
gray, darker at the base, covered with short 
black hairs, and with eight marginal macro- 
chaetae, the longest pair reaching the base of 
the third abdominal segment, a shorter de- 
cussate pair between them. Abdomen ovate, 
first segment black above; second and third 
segments leaden gray, densely covered with 
short black bristles, each one arising from 



an opaque black dot; anal segment obscure 
golden pollinose, edges of segments black; a 
dorsal pair of weak macrochaetae near the 
hind margin of the first segment, a stronger 
pair on the second, four pairs on the third, 
and about twice as many on the anal segment ; 
venter dull gray, anal segment obscure gol- 
den as above, incisures and median line black. 
Legs black, femora and tibiae black bristly; 
claws short, pulvilli dusky. Wings grayish 
hyaline, fourth vein without wrinkle or 
stump, third vein bristly above and below at 
its origin; tegulae white, halteres dusky 
brown. 

Length of body 7 to 7 4 mm ; of wing 5^ to 
6 mm. 

Described from three specimens, bred 
from larvae of Clisiocampa sylvatica- 
Orono, Maine. I believe I am right in 
referring this species to Phorocera, al- 
though in some specimens the bristles 
on the facial ridges do not extend more 
than halfway up the face. This species 
seems to be near Tachina {Masicera) 
armigera Coquillett (Insect life, 1, 
332), which however is said to have 
the eyes bare. I would not be sur- 
prised if the latter should prove to be a 
Phorocera. 



Edwards's Butterflies of N. America. 

The eleventh part of the Butterflies of 
North America, just issued, is in every way 
equal to its predecessors. For the first time 
in this third series, each of the three large 
quarto plates, with the accompanying text, 
is given up to a single and relatively little 
known species of butterfly, two of them to 
species of Satyrinae, a group which nowhere 
in the world has found so complete a treat- 
ment as in America, at the hands of our 



author. Excepting for thejintermediate larval 
stages of Satyrus meadii, every single stage 
of the creature's life is ^represented, usually 
by more than a single ^gure, and all in that 
exquisite and finely exact style we have be- 
come accustomed to in this work, but which 
can never be too highly praised or too fully 
appreciated. Such illustrations lie at the very 
foundation of the exact knowledge of butter- 
flies, and are the key to any proper under- 
standing of their real relationships. 

The butterflies treated of are Afatura 



36 



psyche. 



[May i So i 



flora, Satynis meadii and Chio/iobcts ckryxus, 
all of them living from five hundred to a 
thousand or two miles from Mr. Edwards's 
home, where they were bred and studied. 
This shows at once the opportunities to be 
overtaken by any zealous student, and ren- 
ders possible thorough acquaintance with our 
entire fauna. Mr. Edwards hints here and 
there at some of the difficulties of the work, 
to have overcome which, even partially, in 
the case of such distant and secluded insects 
as this Satyrus and this Chionobas, is a high 
merit indeed ! Apatura flora is an inhabi- 
tant of our extreme southern border; Satyrus 
meadii 'lives at moderate altitudes in restricted 
localities in Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona 
and Montana; and Chionobas ckryxus at 
higher elevations in the Rocky Mts. from 
Colorado to British America and, if with Mr- 
Edwards we include Calais in the species' 
also across the continent in the higher north. 
In all three species the caterpillars hibernate 
in early life, but the history of the species as 
given here presents nothing of unusual inter- 
est and closely resembles that of their nearest 
allies. Eighty-one figures, most of them col- 
ored and many much magnified, are given on 
the three plates. 

Fifth report of the U. S. entomologi- 
cal commission. — Dr. Packard's treatise on 
forest insects, only just issued though com- 
pleted over three year's ago, closes the work 
of the U. S. entomological commission. It 
is based on a former " bulletin " of the com- 
mission, but is vastly enlarged and abounds 
in illustrations many of which, unfortunately, 
conform to the standard of those published 
years ago by the agricultural department, 
but are much inferior to those now published 
by its division of entomology. One can 
quickly see by a glance through the volume 
of more than gco pages, 40 plates and 300 
cuts in the text that it is a veritable store 
house of facts and observations, and is 
worked out in the same way as the previ- 
ous bulletin. It has the faults of many gov- 
ernment publications that the material is too 



little sifted and digested, but there can be no 
doubt of its great service. A systematic 
index of the insects is sadly needed; the 
very plan of the book particularly requires it. 

Personal Notes. — Mr. William Beuten- 
miiller has recently been appointed curator 
of the department of entomology in the Am- 
erican museum of natural history in Central 
Park, New York City. 

Mr. C. H. Tyler Townsend has just taken 
the post of entomologist at the agricultural 
experiment station at Las Cruces, New Mex- 
ico. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

S February, 1S89. — The 143d meeting was 
held at 156 Brattle St., the president in the 
chair. 

Mr. G. Dimmock read part of a letter from 
Mrs. C. M. Winston describing the resem- 
blance of some "walking-sticks" to the plants 
on which they lived. 

Mr. Dimmock showed a collection of Cyni- 
pidae with their galls given to the Club by 
Mr. C. P. Gillette of Iowa ; it was voted to 
give the collection to the Boston society of 
natural history. 

Mr. J. H. Emerton showed specimens of 
Hypochilus, a spider recently described by 
Geo. Marx which has the cribellum and cala- 
mistrum like Filisata and also four respira- 
tory sacs like the Theraphosidae. These 
specimens were collected by Miss Mary T. 
Palmer at Manitou, Col. 

Mr. Emerton also made some remarks on 
the spiders collected by the Messrs. Smith of 
Brooklyn, N. Y. in the province of Matto 
Grosso in Brazil. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder explained the history of 
a newspaper account of a pretended great 
flight of butterflies at Westerly, R. I. 

Mr. H. Hinkley showed some artificial in- 
sects made by Japanese and made some re- 
marks on the breeding habits of Lepidoptera. 



PSYCHE, 






A. JOXJRKT^IL. OIF 1 ENTOMOLOar:^^ 1 



[Established in 1874.] 

Vol. 6. No. 18.2 

June, 1S91. 

CONTENTS: 

A decade of monstrous beetles (Plate 2). — Samuel H. Scudder .... 89 

Personal notes .............. 93 

Description of the preparatory stages of Callosamia promethea Drury. — 

Wm. Beutenm'aller ............. 94 

Preparatory stages of Heterocampa unicolor Pack. — Harrison G. Dyar. . 95 

The embryology of a common fly. — W. M. Wheeler ...... 97 

Oeneis and its early stages. — Samuel H. Scudder ....... 99 

Notes (Lowne's Anatomy of the blow-fly; death of Kiinckel d'Herculais ; distribution 

of Vanessa cardui) ............. 100 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club 101 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS, 20c 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



88 



PSYCHE. 



[June, 1891. 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

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CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meetings of the Club are now held at 
7.45 P.M. on the second Friday of each month, at 
No. 156 Brattle St. Entomologists temporarily in 
Boston or Cambridge or passing through either city 
on that day are invited to be present. 

A very few complete sets of the first five volumes 
of Psyche remain to be sold for $25. Vol. I will 
not be sold separately. 

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Cambridge, Mass. 

The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
by the Cambridge Entomological Club: 

Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged in- 
sects of America: a re-examination of the 
Devonian insects of New Brunswick, in the 
light of criticisms and of new studies of other 
paleozoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder. S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 

em. 1875. 1. 00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col. pi. Boston, 1883. .25 

Scudder, S. H. The fossil butterflies of 
Florissant, Col., Washington, 1889 . . 1.00 

Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Jahrg. 
42-46. Stettin, 1881-1885. . . . 5.00 

U. S. Entomological Commission. Fourth 
Report. Washington, 1885. . . . 2.00 

Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

TACHINIDAE WANTED. 
Named or unnamed Tachinidae wanted in ex- 
change, or for study, from any part of North America 
including Mexico and the West Indies. 

C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, 

Las Cruces, New Mexico. 



PSYCHE. 



A DECADE OF MONSTROUS BEETLES. 



BY SAMUEL H. SCUDDER. 



Monstrosities among insects have al- 
ways a unique interest ; ear - ly in my 
entomological career I began the col- 
lection of facts regarding them, planning 
a general survey and classification of 
the entire literature of the subject, which 
I have not only never fully carried out, 
but which the multiplicity of other work 
will prevent my undertaking seriously 
for a long time to come, if ever. On 
that account I have thought it well to 
publish the few original cases which 
have come into my hands, and of which 
I have made notes, together with illus- 
trations of them. None of them are of 
exceptional interest, but one or two are 
not a little remarkable. They all be- 
long to the Coleoptera, and all but one 
to one of the two families, Carabidae 
and Scarabaeidae. The drawings were 
made by Messrs. J. H. Emerton and 
Edward Burgess. 

CARABIDAE. 

Carabus serratus Say. $ . A right 
fore leg in which the femur is normal but 
the tibia unusually thick at base ; only 
a short distance beyond (about -±- the 
distance) it divides into two branches, 
each of which is at tip very nearly, if 
not quite, as large as the normal tibia. 



The inner one is not so well developed 
as the outer and may therefore be con- 
sidered the supernumerary limb. The 
inner is slightly shorter. The tarsal 
joints of each are five in number, and in 
the inner are slightly shorter than in the 
outer ; this is especially the case with 
the terminal joint. In the inner leg the 
terminal joint is not inserted in the 
middle of the previous but upon the 
middle of its inner half and at the same 
time it is slightly curved inwards as if 
to give room for another joint, which 
indeed I think once existed, for there is 
a pit upon the middle of the outer half 
of the terminal surface of the penulti- 
mate joint just large enough for the re- 
ception of such a joint, and this too 
would account for the unusual shortness 
of the remaining terminal joint. The 
terminal joint of the outer leg is pro- 
vided with a normal pair of claws ; the 
other has only a slightly bent, very 
minute, and very short central and un- 
divided pi'ocess. 

The outer tibia is normal in shape 
and in armature ; the inner exhibits 
above a longitudinal groove broad and 
deep in the middle, becoming abruptly 
shallow and narrow anteriorly, and ter- 
minating by a union of the borders at 



90 



PSYCHE. 



[June 1891 



the very margin of the limb ; posteriorly 
it shallows, narrows gradually, and ter- 
minates in a point back of the division 
of the primary tibia. A similar but not 
so distinct groove is seen beneath, and 
at the tip beneath three instead of two 
prominent spines are visible. It is evi- 
dent, then, that the inner portion of this 
supernumerary leg is exhibiting a ten- 
dency itself to divide in two places : at 
the tip of the tibia and at the tip of the 
tarsi ; the only indication in the parts 
lying between these two points is in the 
very trifling greater width of all the 
tarsal joints. 

This specimen was received from Mr. 
Frederick Blanchard of Lowell through 
Mr. E. P. Austin. It is now in the 
Museum of comparative zoology in 
Cambridge. 

Dyschirius sp. (PI. 2, fig. 7). Of 
this species I have only notes and rough 
sketches referring to the right front 
tarsus. The 1st and 2d joints are nor- 
mal ; the 3d is longer than usual, bent 
a little forwards, and bears at the bend 
a 4th joint and at the tip another ; that 
at the tip bears a normal 5th joint with 
claws as usual only a little smaller ; that 
at the bend bears an altogether similar 
5th joint only the claws are still smaller, 
scai'cely curved, and a second still more 
abortive pair of claws is found at the 
outer edge close to the tip, thus show- 
ing signs of double bifidity. 

The specimen was shown me by Dr. 
J. L. LeConte, but its origin I do not 
know. 

Amara muscidus Say (PI. 2, fig. 2). 
The right antenna is 12-jointed ; the left 



antenna is affected as follows: joint 1-6 
normal (the first not shown in the figure) 
7th a very little enlarged apically, the 
better to support the abnormal 8th joint, 
which is depressed and beyond the base, 
here slightly larger than usual, ex- 
pands and forms a sublenticular mass 
slightly longer than broad, with a dis- 
tinct straight impressed line down the 
middle of the upper inner surface (as if 
made up of two connate joints) ; it is of 
the normal length. Each of these two 
lateral halves bears an appendage of 
four almost precisely similar joints, the 
exact counterpart of those of the oppo- 
site antenna except in being a very little 
smaller though of the same proportions ; 
the lower is borne at the extremity of 
the lower half, and is continuous with 
the antenna ; while the upper is attached 
to the upper outer angle of the upper 
half and trends a little away from the 
normal direction; the 9th, 10th and 
1 ith joints of this half are a trifle shorter 
than those of the other more normal 
half. 

The specimen came from Massa- 
chusetts, and was received from Mr. 
Samuel Henshaw. 

Galerita janus Fabr. (PI. 2, fig. 1). 
The specimen of this species which I 
have to describe briefly, is not greatly 
malformed. Malformation occurs in the 
right hind leg, the femur of which is 
perfectly natural, and the tibia is of nor- 
mal length and clothing, but is perhaps 
a little sw r ollen, and considerably twisted 
from a point slightly beyond the base, 
the curvature being more or less sinuous, 
at first and most strongly backward, at 



June 1S91. 



PSYCHE. 



91 



the apex in the opposite direction. It 
hears the usual spines at the apex, but 
the longer inner one is curved beyond 
the middle. All that remains of the 
tarsus is a spine-like appendage which 
takes its place, — an appendage less than 
one half the diameter at base, about as 
as long as twice the width of the tibia, 
tapering slightly, and bluntly rounded 
at tip. 

The specimen was obtained by the 
late Mr. F. G. Sanborn, May 10, 186S, 
in West Roxbury, Mass., and is now in 
the museum of the Natural history 
society, Boston. 

Chloeniits tomentosa Say (PI. 2, 
fig. 3) . The single specimen before me 
shows a somewhat simple malformation 
in the left middle leg. The femur and 
tibia are normal, excepting that the tibia 
is somewhat more enlarged than natural 
at the apex, more resembling in this 
respect the fore tibia, expanding broadly 
at its extreme apex. Here, besides the 
normal spurs, there is the attachment 
of what appear to be a triple series of 
tarsi. The middle one is reduced to a 
mere conical bulb between the other 
two, bristling at its apex with spines of 
a moderate length ; one of the others 
consists only of what may perhaps be 
regarded as the basal half of the meta- 
tarsus extending at right angles outward, 
bluntly rounded at the apex, but show- 
ing at the extreme apex and just at its 
side the points from which a couple of 
spines, probably of moderate size, have 
been broken oft"; the inner is the only 
developed tarsus, and this is malformed 
in two ways : first that the metatarsus 



is rather stouter than normal, a little 
curved, and is followed by a short 
supernumerary joint only a little smaller 
than the normal second joint; and 
second, that the whole tarsus is bent at 
right angles between the supernumerary 
joint and the second (this bend is not 
seen in the figure) ; unless indeed these 
two joints may be regarded as one, con- 
stricted and bent at right angles in the 
middle. 

This specimen was obtained by Mr. 
F. Stratton at Natick, Mass., and is 
now in the museum of the Natural his- 
tory society, Boston. 

La.mpyridae. 

Telephones rotimdicollis Say (PI. 
7, i fig- 5)* A right antenna in which 
the first joint is longer than usual ; the 
second is of ordinary length but as large 
at base as at apex and bears two joints, 
one at the apex, a normal third fol- 
lowed by eight joints as usual, and the 
other a short, depressed, thickened joint 
articulated on the apical half of the an- 
terior face of the second joint, and fol- 
lowed by five joints, the first of which 
is like the preceding, while the rest are 
slender, elongated joints, somewhat like 
the normal joints but evidently useless 
and perhaps immoveable (by will) in 
life, together curling backward. 

In the drawing the normal third bears 
a curved appendage which I did not 
see ; and the third joint of the supple- 
mentary palp, being bent and folded, is 
represented as if made up of two small 
joints. 

This specimen was shown me by Dr. 



92 



PSYCHE. 



[June 1S91. 



J. L. LeConte, but its origin I do not 
know. 

SCARABAEIDAE. 

Lachnosterna fusca Froh. (PL 2, 
fig. 8). This is on the whole the most 
singular monstrosity with which I have 
met. It concerns the middle leg of 
the left side. The femur of normal 
length is extraordinarily enlarged so as 
to form a cuneate piece, at its apex 
nearly as broad as half the length of the 
femur. From both the anterior and pos- 
terior extremities of the expanded sub- 
compressed apex there arises an inde- 
pendent tibia ; the anterior is sub-nor- 
mal, having all the parts but the tibia 
somewhat reduced in size and of more 
uniform width throughout, the tarsi 
entirely normal and complete. The set 
of members arising from the posterior 
extremity of the expanded femur con- 
sists of a tibia similar in length and in 
general appearance to the other but 
stouter and deeply cleft on its outer face 
to the depth of fully one third its length. 
Each of the uniform halves thus cleft 
presents the normal pair of apical spurs 
and is followed by a series of tarsi in 
general respects normal but of rather 
diminished size, and the upper having 
the terminal joint not bullate at the ex- 
tremity but terminating in a conical 
point without any claws. 

The origin of this specimen I do not 
know; it is now in the Museum of 
comparative zoology at Cambridge. 

Polyphylla decefnlineata Say (PI. 
2, fig. 6) . A right antenna in which 
the first and second joints are normal, 



the third not larger than usual but bear- 
ing two fourth joints : the first articulated 
at the tip, the second articulated on the 
anterior face, the articulation occupying 
all of it but the part close to the base ; 
both fourth joints are formed in general 
like the normal fourth joint ; the first is 
directed backward and bears a normally 
formed set of laminae, seven in number, 
but small and directed subparallel to, 
though not so much curved as, those of 
the left antenna ; in this case the second- 
ary fourth joint differs from the normal 
fourth only in being smaller to about 
the degree that the laminae are smaller 
than normally. In the second case the 
fourth joint is greatly swollen and bears 
at its broad apex a very peculiar set of 
lamellae, which from the first show their 
intention to divide ; three are undivided, 
but irregular in shape, more or less im- 
perfect, and attached not by one ex- 
tremity but near the middle, the longer 
portion directed anteriorly and a little 
inward ; the shorter in an opposite 
direction, each curved downward ; the 
first two of these are flat laminae, a little 
thickened at the point of attachment ; 
the third is enormously thickened at 
this point and produced into a triangular 
projection, upon either side of which 
are attached the remaining laminae, 
four anterior and three posterior, the 
division of this portion of the bifid an- 
tenna taking place at this point. 

This specimen was shown me by Dr. 
J. L. LeConte, but I did not learn its 
origin. 

Cotalpa lanigera Linn. Instances 
are quite frequent in which the longer 



Psyche, 1891, vol. 6. 



Plate 2. 










June 1S91 .] 



PSYCHE. 



93 



anterior claw on one or many of the 
feet shows a tendency to division, being 
in some instances cleft on the posterior 
outer edge from a little below the tip 
one-sixth the distance to the base of the 
claws. Mr. E. P. Austin first drew 
my attention to this feature, and informs 
me that he has noticed it in a consider- 
able number of specimens he has ex- 
amined. Nearly every specimen I have 
examined shows some trace of it, from 
a tubercular enlargement of the spot 
whence the bifurcation proceeds, up to 
the amount I have mentioned above. 
Half of the four specimens in the Harris 
collection in the Boston society of nat- 
ural history have it. 

Trichius piger Fabr. (PI. 2, rig. 4). 
A right hind leg in which the femur is 
normal ; the tibia is slightly shortened 
and thickened, but terminated by the 
usual two spines ; the tarsal joints are 
curved rather strongly upward, and in- 
stead of being uniformly long, slender, 
and gradually thickened at the apex, 
are (except the last) uniformly and 
nearly equally short and stout, nearly 
triangular, with the apex prominent be- 
neath ; they are scarcely longer than 
their extreme height at apex. The last 
joint is conical, truncated, a little smaller 
only at tip than at base, about twice as 
long as it is broad at the base, and very 
slightly curved outwards ; it bears at 



the tip a pair of scarcely divaricating 
claws a little shorter than the normal ; 
but in addition to this it also bears at 
the very base of the joint, above, two 
more pairs of claws ; one pair so near 
the base as to appear at first sight to be 
attached to the penultimate joint, a little 
smaller than, and facing in the .same 
direction as the apical pair, and also 
scarcely divaricate ; the other, just be- 
yond, also scarcely divaricate, larger 
than either of the other pairs, but still 
smaller than the normal claws, and fac- 
ing in an opposite direction to the other 
two pairs; apparently the claws are all 
freely moveable. 

The specimen was obtained at Med- 
ford, Mass., by the late Mr. F. G. San- 
born, and is now in the museum of the 
Boston society of natural history. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE 2. 

i. Right hind leg of Galerita janus. 

2. Left antenna of Amara musculus. 

3. Left mid leg of Chloenius tomen- 
tosa. 

4. Right hind leg of Trichius piger. 

5. Right antenna of Telephones ro- 
tundicollis. 

6. Right antenna of Polyphylla de- 
cemlineata. 

7. Right fore leg of Dyschirius sp. 

8. Left midleg of Lachnosterna fusca. 



Personal Notes. — Mr. C.W. Woodworth, 
recently entomologist to the Agricultural 
experiment station at Fayetteville, Ark., has 
accepted a similar position at the station in 
Berkeley, Cal., and has already moved to his 
new post. 



Mr. Theo. D. A. Cockerell, of England, 
formerly secretary of the Colorado biological 
association, has been appointed curator of 
the museum in Kingston, Jamaica. After 
June 24 his address will be Institute of 
Jamaica, Kingston, W. I. 



S4 



PSYCHE. 



"June 1S91. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PREPARATORY STAGES OF CALLOSAMIA 

PROMETHEA DRURY. 

BY WM. BEUTENMULLER, NEW YORK. 



Egg. — Oval, slightly flattened above and 
"below, sordid white. Height 1.20mm. Width 
1.50 mm. Laid June 14. Emerged June 24. 
Larva : First stage. — Head dull black with 
a sordid white transverse band across the 
middle. Body greenish yellow with a trans- 
verse black band on the anterior and posterior 
portions of each segment, running to the 
sides. 

Along the dorsum are. two rows of tuber- 
cles, and a row along the subdorsal and 
another row along the sides below the spira- 
cles. All the tubercles are yellow, except 
those on the first segment and the two dorsal 
pairs on the second and third segments and 
those on eleventh and twelfth segments, 
black. Each of the tubercles are also fur- 
nished with about five bristle-like hairs, which 
are black. Length 3 mm. Duration of this 
stage seven days. 

After first moult. — No change except that 
the larvae are more conspicuous. In some 
individuals of the brood the two tubercles 
on dorsal region on the second and third 
segments are yellow instead of black as in 
the previous moult. Length 10 mm. Dura- 
tion of this stage five days. 

After second moult. — The body is now 
whitish green, with the tubercles black, ex- 
cept the two dorsal pair on the second and 
third segments and the one on the eleventh 
segment bright yellow, with their bases 
black; these six tubercles remain present in 
all the subsequent stages, while all the re- 
maining tubercles gradually become reduced 
into mere piliferous spots. Anal plates yel- 
low margined with black. Head yellow, with 
a black transverse band and a black spot on 
each side of the top. All the feet yellow, 
abdominal ones with a black spot on the 
outer side of each. The transverse bands 



across the segments are now quite faint, and 
in some specimens they are broken or ab- 
sent. Length 20 mm. Duration of this 
stage four days. 

After third moult. — The body color is 
the same as in the previous moult. The 
four tubercles on the second and third seg- 
ments are now bright orange yellow and 
the one on top of the eleventh segment 
lemon yellow; all other tubercles black and 
much smaller than the ones just mentioned. 
Thoracic feet and anal legs yellow, abdominal 
legs same as in the last stage. Head yellow 
with two black spots on each side. Length 
24 mm. Duration of this stage three days. 
After fourth moult. — Body entirely green, 
with a whitish hue. The transverse bands 
have now disappeared. The four tubercles 
on the second and third segments are now 
quite prominent, coral red, and the one on 
the eleventh segment lemon yellow. All the 
other tubercles are reduced to mere pilifer- 
ous spots. Head and legs yellowish green. 
Length 30 mm. Duration of this stage five 
days. 

After fifth or last moult. — Same in all re- 
spects as the preceding moult, except that the 
larva becomes stouter and more prominent 
in appearance. Length 39 mm. The full 
grown larva measures about 55 mm. Dura- 
tion of this stage five days. 

Food-plants. — Sassafras, tulip-tree, linden, 
spicebush, sweet-gum, choke-cherry, plum, 
pear, ash, Magnolia, Halesia, etc. 

The early stages of this species were made 
first known by Dr. C. V. Riley, (4th Mo. 
rep. p. 121) who gives only four moults, 
while the brood I raised moulted five times. 
The mature larva was first figured by Abbot 
and Smith (Ins. Ga., v. 1, p. 91, pi. 46) and 
again subsequently by various writers. 



June 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



95 



PREPARATORY STAGES OF HETEROCAMPA UNICOLOR PACK. 



BY HARRISON G. DYAR, NEW YORK. 



The eggs were not observed but I believe 
that I have found the larva in its first stage 
which is as follows : — 

First stage. — Head cordate, black, shiny, 
a large white patch in front covering the 
clypeus and labrum ; width .4 mm. Body 
enlarged dorsally at joint 2 and bearing on 
each side of the cervical shield a smooth 
elongated process (.4 mm.) of uniform thick- 
ness tipped by a fine short hair. The anal 
feet are prolonged into a pair of smooth 
processes or imperfect stemapoda, a little 
enlarged at the end and minutely hairy 
below. Body cylindrical, smooth, shiny, 
pale green with four fine red-brown lateral 
lines on each side, the uppermost faint; 
three patches of red-brown, the first on joint 
2 dorsally, the second on joint 7 dorsally and 
laterally and the third on joint 11 and joint 
12 anteriorly dorsally running forward upon 
joint io above the feet. Cervical shield and 
"horns" and anal plate black. Stemapods 
1 mm. long, green, twice ringed with black 
the swollen ends red-brown. The legs on 
joints 7 and 10 are black outwardly. Venter 
pale whitish throughout. During this stage 
the larva eats only the lower half of the leaf. 
Second stage. — Head slightly bilobed, flat 
in front, pale whitish, more distinctly white 
in a large patch covering the clypeus. A 
broad diffuse red-brown band runs to the 
vertex of each lobe. Ocelli black; width of 
head .7 mm. Cervical horns short, black, 
arising from swollen bases and each tipped 
by a short hair; stemapods 1.2 mm. long, 
pale yellowish, with a few black dots near the 
center, the terminal extensile portion crim- 
son preceded by a black ring. Body pale 
greenish, not shiny; joints 2, 7, 11 and 13 
red-brown above as are the feet on joints 7 
and 10. A broad irregular brown dorsal 
shade and four fine red-brown lateral lines 



somewhat indistinct on joints 8 — 10. As the 
stage advances all the red-brown fades out 
except on the cervical shield; the dorsal 
shade becomes a band, contracted at the seg- 
mental sutures and enlarged on joints 7 and 
11. During this stage and subsequently the 
larva eats the whole leaf. 

Third stage. — Head slightly bilobed, flat 
in front, rounded and narrowing a little to 
the vertex; pale whitish green, a broad dif- 
fuse brown band on each lobe from the ocelli 
to vertex; ocelli black; width 1.35 mm. 
Cervical horns are two short black tubercles 
on the cervical shield ; stemapods 2 mm. 
long, faintly reddish with a few elevated 
black dots, especially below and outside, the 
tips a little swollen and crimson. Body 
whitish with three fine faint white lines on 
each side of the reddish brown dorsal band 
which is very distinct, covering the cervical 
shield and anal plate, retracted at each suture 
and widening on joints 7 and 11 more than 
on the other segments. Feet and venter 
concolorous with the body. As the stage 
advances the body becomes green, the bands 
on the head and the dorsal band of the body 
become edged with white and the two 
remaining narrow undulated subdorsal lines, 
pale yellow. 

Fourth stage. — Head not distinctly bilobed, 
about as high as wide, flat in front and nar- 
rowing toward the vertex; width 2.1 mm; 
marked a6 before, the inner white border of 
the brow r n bands very broad, covering nearly 
all of the front of the head except the clypeus 
and central suture; antennae and mouth 
parts whitish; maxillae black inwardly. 
Cervical horns reduced to mere points; 
stemapods 2.5 mm. long, whitish, shaded 
with red-brown at the bases and ends, the 
few minutely piliferous elevated dots brown, 
and the extensile part white. Body marked 



96 



PSYCHE. 



[June 1S91 



as before; the dorsal band of nearly uniform 
width, retracted at the sutures, hardly dis- 
tinctly wider on joint 7. considerably widened 
on joint 11, expanded on joint 2 to cover the 
rudimentary horns and faint on the anal 
plate. Length after molt, 15 mm. As the 
stage advances the broad inner borders of the 
bands on the head fade out near the bands 
leaving a white line bordering the clypeus 
and central suture; the dorsal band becomes 
partly mottled with its white borders which 
are yellow at the sutures; there is a trace of 
a yellow stigmata] line and the sides have a 
few black specks at the extremities. Spira- 
cles ocher, surrounded by yellow. 

Fifth stage. — Head rounded, flat in front, 
pale green, the broad brown bands extending 
from before the ocelli to the vertex of each 
lobe slightly mottled and bordered behind 
with yellow and before faintly with white. 
A white line starts on each side of the clypeus 
a little above its base and borders it, running 
close to the central suture and becoming 
merged at the vertex in the .borders of the 
brown bands; ocelli and maxillae inwardly 
black; mandibles and antennae white; width 
3.2 mm. Body as before, cervical processes 
absent, stemapods relatively shorter (2 mm). 
Color green, a broad red-brown dorsal band 
mottled and streaked on a white ground, ex- 
tended in two small distinct spots on joint 2 
which represent the cervical "horns" and on 
joint 11 containing a V-shaped brown line 
which is repeated more faintly on joint 12. 
The stemapods are white, brown inwardly 
and speckled with brown outwardly with a 
few minute hairs. In the segmental sutures 
the dorsal band is slightly retracted and is 
yellow; a narrow yellow sub-dorsal- line and 
a waved suprastigmatal line besides a stig- 
matal line on joints 3 and 4. Spiracles ocher, 
paler centrally and surrounded by a whitish 



shade; a white subventral band on joints 
11-13. Feet concolorous with body. A num- 
ber of dark purple specks over the sides es- 
pecially on joints 2-4 and 1 1-12. As the stage 
advances a marked change takes place. The 
head becomes finely reticulated with brown 
except on clypeus and mouth and the white 
marks become faint ; the body except in the 
dorsal band and on the venter is heavily 
spotted with brown, the spots small but so 
thick that some become confluent. They tend 
to segregate in parallel longitudinal lines 
between the lateral yellow lines and are ab- 
sent on the cervical shield and anal plate 
which are both large, the former semicircular. 
The color of the body fades to sordid greenish 
white and the brown of the dorsal band fades 
out leaving it creamy white with a fine brown 
line very near each edge, brown interseg- 
mental marks, a broad brown central streak 
on joint 7 and on the anal plate and the ir 
regular V-shaped mark on joint n. The 
spiracles are each surrounded by a brown 
ring. Length at maturity 50 mm. 

Cocoon. — Formed between two leaves: 
semi-transparent, similar to that of Schizura 
leptinoides but less perfect and weaker. 

Pupa. — Cylindrical, gently tapering to the 
extremities; thorax and wing cases moder- 
ately prominent; at the posterior edge of 
the thorax, a curved row of rounded cutical 
granulations. Cases densely creased, body 
more sparsely punctured. The cremaster 
consists of two separate, short, conical pro- 
jections, their sharp ends curved almost 
straight outward, above which is a curved 
row of about a dozen narrow carinated 
ridges 0.5 mm. long, parallel to the length of 
the body. Length 20 mm; width 7 mm. 

Food plant. — Sycamore {Acer pseudo-flan- 
t 'anus) . 

Larva from Dutchess Co., New York. 



June 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



97 



THE EMBRYOLOGY OF A COMMON FLY.* 



Since 18S6 five investigators, Kowalevsky, 
Blochmann, Biitschli, Henking, and Voeltz- 
kow have contributed important observations 
on portions of the embryology of common 
muscids (Calliphora, Lucilia). To this list 
Prof. Graber's work is now to be added as the 
most comprehensive and voluminous. This 
paper is worthy of special attention, coming 
as it does from an eminent entomologist who 
has for years been actively productive in a 
field which many a younger investigator has 
deserted after contributing a short memoir on 
some common insect. 

Prof. Graber's treatise covers nearly the 
whole ground of embryonic development in 
Musca beginning with the cleavage of the egg 
and concluding with a description of the ner- 
vous system and the formation of the imaginal 
discs. To our knowledge of the preblasto- 
dermic stages he cannot be said to have ad- 
ded any really important facts, although he 
has succeeded in correcting some of Voeltz- 
kow's errors. 

The formation and evolution of the germ- 
layers of Musca constitutes the all-important 
topic of the paper. After devoting a pre- 
liminary chapter to some observations on 
Aphis, in order to disprove Will's statement 
that the mid-gut arises from the yolk-cells 
(vitellophags), Prof. Graber attacks the sub- 
ject in Lucilia and Calliphora, pointing out 
step by step as he proceeds the points wherein 
he agrees or disagrees with his predecessors. 
The main question : Do the vitellophags take 
part in the formation of the mid-gut? was 
answered negatively by Kowalevsky, Biitschli 
and Voeltzkow and to this conclusion Prof. 
Graber assents. In this important point he 



*Verg'leichende studien iiber die embryologie der 
insecten und insbesondere der musciden. Von Veit 
Graber. Denkschr. d. math, naturw. classe d. k- 
akad. d. wiss. Wien, bd. 56. xSSip. (4to. p. 257-314. 10 
plates.) 



cannot be said to have made any great ad- 
vance, his observations being merely corrob" 
orative of the results obtained by other recent 
investigators besides those who have worked 
on Musca. The fatiguing length to which 
Prof. Graber goes in describing his sections 
would be unpardonable, were it not that he 
had not read Heider's work on Hydrophilus 
or his present critic's paper on Doryphora 
before publishing. 

To the important subject of the relations 
of the fore- and hind-gut to the blastopore 
Prof. Graber has contributed some interest- 
ing observations, although his remarks, as we 
hope to show presently, must be received with 
some reservations. His results are very 
briefly these : The fore-gut (stomodaeum) is 
formed near the anterior end of the gastrula 
raphe as a distinctly ectodermic invagination 
whereas, on the other hand, the hind-gut 
(proctodaeum) appears to be formed as a 
deepening of the gastrular groove at the pos- 
terior end of the embryo. Its walls are con- 
sequently of mesentodermic origin. Be- 
sides the elongate median gastrula, familiar 
to all students of insect embryology, Prof. 
Graber describes two pairs of grooves which 
run parallel with the median groove and also 
contribute in the formation of the mesento- 
dermic layer. These grooves thus constitute 
a lateral gastrulation. Their relations to one 
another and to the median groove are not eas- 
ily understood from the description and Prof. 
Graber should have introduced diagrams to 
show their exact position and extent. The 
true morphological significance of the lateral 
gastrulation is not explained and as nothing 
comparable to it has been observed in other 
insects, the observation has as yet only the 
value of an interesting and isolated fact. 
The author's suggestion that the small 
grooves may be a new formation introduced 
for the purpose of augmenting the mesento- 
derm is, to say the least, improbable, when 



98 



PSYCHE. 



[June 1S91. 



we take into consideration the great extent 
of the median invagination in Musca and the 
small size of the blastopore in certain Or- 
thoptera where no lateral gastrulation has 
been observed. 

One may venture to object to some of the 
new terms of which Prof. Graber has been 
rather prodigal in his latest papers. The 
time-honored term "blastoderm" is easily 
understood and it is difficult to see why it 
should be relegated to the biological attic for 
effete nomenclature to make room for an only 
remotely suggestive term like "cycloblast." 
Prof. Graber now dubs the yolk-cells "cen- 
troblasts" notwithstanding the termination 
"blast" is properly applied only to tissues of 
a germinal or formative character and not to 
elements which, like the yolk-cells, degener- 
ate and take no part in building up the insect. 
It would be wiser to suspend the use of terms 
like "ptychoblast" till we possess a better 
knowledge of "arthropod" germ-layers, as we 
have still a great deal to learn on this sub- 
ject. In the meantime "mesentoderm" is 
quite clear and will answer all purposes. 
"Entomyoderm" and "ectomyoderm" are 
scarcely to be regarded as improvements on 
the old terms, "splanchnopleure" and "soma- 
topleure." We supposed that Prof. Graber's 
terminological fecundity was exhausted 
when he gave us the sesquipedalian, "ec- 
toptygmatorhegmagenous ptychonotogony.' 
But these are small blemishes in a work 
which will rank among the more important 
contributions to insect embryology. 

The chief value of Prof. Graber's paper 
cannot be said to lie in a furthering of what 
we must regard as one of the chief aims of the 
study of insect development, viz: a know 
edge of the mutual phylogenetic relations of 
the existing orders of insects (often separated 
by wide gaps, towards the bridging of which 
comparative anatomy and paleontology have 
contributed only a little), and a knowledge 
of the relations of insects, as a, class, to other 
arthropod groups and to their remote ances. 
tors, the annelids. In our estimation Prof. 



Graber's work is chiefly valuable as showing 
to what an extent the embryonic develop- 
ment of a calyptrate muscid has been de- 
flected from the ancestral path — in other 
words, it is an admirable picture of one of 
the "short-cuts" in insect development. 

It will be remembered that the egg of the 
fly hurries through its whole development 
in about 24 hours, that it is provided with a 
relatively small quantity of yolk, and that 
the characters of the secondarily developed 
and degraded maggot have been reflected 
back into embryonic life. That this reflection 
has materially altered the original ontogeny 
as displayed by older forms such as the Or- 
thoptera and Hemiptera, is evident from the 
fact that the embryo no longer exhibits the 
typical cephalic and thoracic appendages, to 
say nothing of the abdominal appendages 
(embryos of bees, beetles with apod larvae 
and fleas still develop thoracic legs!). More- 
over the ammion and serosa are rudimen- 
tary in Musca; the head has become pro- 
foundly and strangely modified and the 
mesodermic layer no longer exhibits the typi- 
cal paired coelomic cavities. It is, therefore, 
obvious that conclusions drawn from the 
embryogeny of a muscid cannot without 
extreme caution be extended to cover other 
insects. It is further evident that to ascer- 
tain the exact path of development in an 
insect that develops so rapidly a very great 
number of eggs must be examined to insure 
certainty in regard to the different steps in 
the hurried sequence of tissue-changes. 
Granting the correctness of Prof. Graber's 
observation that the proctodaeum is of mes. 
entodermic origin, we may perhaps account 
for this condition on the supposition that 
whereas in other insects of slow development 
the hind gut is not formed till after the clos- 
use of the posterior end of the blastopore, 
in Musca the processes of growth succeed 
one another so rapidly that the blastopore 
does not have time to close before the hind- 
gut is found. Thus the apparently mesento- 
dermic character of the hind gut would 



June 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



99 



be a secondary condition due to acceleration 
of development. 

The 10 plates with 127 figures illustrating 
Prof. Graber's papers are beautifully executed 
and are by far the most accurate ever pub- 
lished on the subject. It is to be regretted 
that Prof. Graber did not introduce larger, 
clearer and more numerous diagrams. The 
need of these is especially urgent as it is next 
to impossible to obtain good surface views 



of the fly's egg, and mental reconstruction, 
even from such excellent sections as those 
given in the plates, is no easy task for the 
reader. 

It is to be hoped that the next investigator 
who undertakes the study of the Musca egg 
will make use of the wax reconstruction 
methods now so succesfully employed by 
workers in other fields of embryology. 

W. M. Wheeler. 



OENEIS AND ITS EARLY STAGES. 

At the last (May) meeting of the Cam- 
bridge entomological club Mr. S. H. Scudder 
spoke of the group of Oeneides as one of the 
most interesting of butterfly genera, partly 
because (using the word in a restricted sense) 
there was no other genus of butterflies in 
which so many species were common to the 
Old and New Worlds, but more because it is 
the only genus entirely restricted to high 
latitudes and altitudes and widely spread in 
the world. Eight species occurred in Eu- 
rope-Asia, of which two or three were also 
found in North America, which possessed 
besides at least eight or nine species. One 
would suppose that it would be one of the 
last with the early stages of whose life we 
should be acquainted, and this was the case 
until recently, but now more or less has been 
published concerning eight of the species, 
mostly from observations in this country, 
and it is understood that Mr. W. H. Edwards, 
to whom most of this advance is due, has full 
or tolerably complete histories of two or 
three more. 

I had the good fortune, he remarked, to be 
the first to publish an account of the early 
stages of one of the species of the genus — 
Oeneis semidea, the only one found in New 
England, — due to the joint efforts of the late 
Messrs. Shurtleff and Sanborn and myself, 
though no one has yet carried the creature 
through from the egg. Since then most of 



the additions to our knowledge of American 
species have come from Edwards, but Fyles 
has published the history of Oe. jntta to 
which Fletcher and I have added something, 
and in Europe, where the same species oc- 
curs, Holmgren and Berg. One of the latest 
known species, Oe.macounii, is now almost 
completely known, thanks to Mr. J. Fletcher, 
who has published an account of it, and the 
egg and first larval stage have also been de- 
scribed by Mr. W. Beutenmuller. All that is 
known of chryxus, iduna, and ivalda, is due 
entirely to the indefatigable efforts of Mr. 
Edwards. 

Of the European species also, it so chanced 
that I was the first to publish anything (a 
year previous to Berg's account of Oe.jutia) 
describing the egg and first larval stage of 
Oe.aello, the alpine species, to which nothing 
has since been added; and excepting Oe. 
jutta, before referred to, the early stages of 
only one other species, Oe. bore, are known, 
due to the studies of Sandberg. 

Out of sixteen or seventeen species, then, 
recognized in the northern hemisphere, we 
now know more or less of the transforma- 
tions of about half the species not to mention 
the two or three which Edwards has worked 
out but not yet published. This is a remark- 
able showing for a group of butterflies with 
such a distribution, and brings out several 
features which are a little puzzling. First, 
there are two types of surface sculpture in 
the eggs; the more common is that in 



100 



PSYCHE. 



[June 1S91. 



which the more or less sinuous or zigzag 
ribs form with their interspaces laterally al- 
ternating, very similar and equal, angulate 
elevations and depressions over the sides of 
the egg; in the other the elevations are 
more abrupt and rounded and are separated 
from each other by nearly flat interspaces 
The latter type is represented by aello, and ; 
to judge from advance copies of one of his 
next plates Mr. Edwards has kindly shown 
me, to a more marked degree by one of the 
species whose transformations are yet unpub- 
lished; the other type includes semidea, jut- 
ta, ivalda, iduna, chrysus, and macounii. 
Second, there are two types of structure in 
the caterpillars just from the egg, but these 
two tvpes in no way correspond with those 
found in the egg. In one, the terminal seg- 
ment has the two posterior forks produced to 
more or less blunt points and the notch be- 
tween them is deep; in the other, these forks 
are rather broadly truncate and the notch be- 
tween them slight. To the latter belongs 
onlv Oe. semidea; to the former, jutta, ival- 
da, chryxus, macounii, and aello, as well as 
the unpublished form referred to. 

The chrysalids, rs might be expected with 
concealed objects, show little difference, but 
in the imago a wide diversity exists, especi- 
ally in the form of the wings and their 
markings and in the presence or absence of 
a discal streak upon the upper surface of the 
fore wings of the male. But it would appear 
that any division upon these grounds would 
more or less cut athwart the groups derived 
from the egg or the juvenile larva, unless it 
be that the more rounded and less pointed 
fore wing combined with a lack of ocelli and 
of sexual adornment and the possession of 
more densely and profusely haired mid and 
hind femora in the imago is correlated with 
the truncate tips of the forks of the last seg- 
ment in the juvenile larva; in which case 
the first larval stage of bore and brucei as 
well as of oeno should, like semidea, show a 
truncate extremity. Sandberg has described 
(but insufficiently) the young larva of bore, 



and Edwards has raised but not published 
brucei, so that we shall doubtless soon be 
able to know whether this is true; if so, it 
might be well to divide the genus into two 
groups, to which the subgeneric names of 
Oeneis and Chionobas might then be given, 
the former to the latter group, the latter to 
that of which Oe. semidea would be typical. 

Notes. — The second and somewhat 'tardy 
part of Lowne's anatomy etc. of the blow 
fly (London, Porter) is even more extended 
than the first, containing 116 pages and 6 
plates besides 17 figures in the text, all the 
illustrations being very coarse but instructive 
wood cuts. The part is entirely devoted to 
the " integumental skeleton of the imago" 
and is so detailed and so full of comparisons 
that it almost serves the purpose of a general 
treatise on entomology. Half a dozen topical 
bibliographies scattered through the work 
will be found very useful. 

The death is reported of M. Jules Ktinckel 
d'Herculais, formerly president of the French 
entomological society, while carrying on 
official researches upon the destructive locusts 
of Algeria. The sensational reports of the 
press that he was overcome and devoured by 
locusts is in no way to be credited. The 
probable truth is that he was overcome by 
the heat of the desert and died before his 
body was found, the locusts devouring a por- 
tion of his clothing. His superb quarto 
volume, still incomplete, upon the genus 
Volucella, with its 26 exquisite plates, is 
practically a treatise on the anatomy of the 
Diptera and will remain a monument to his 
technical skill as anatomist and delineator. 

Concerning the distribution of Vanessa 
cardui, Mr. Charles Oberthiir, in comment- 
ing at the April meeting of the French ento- 
mological society on Scudder's doubt (Butt. 
N. E.,478) whether the species is indigenous 
in French Guiana and in Tahiti, says that as 
Boisduval neglected to attach any labels to 
his exotic specimens of this species (except- 
ing one from Madagascar) it is impossible to 



June 1891.] 



PSYCHE. 



101 



say whether his collection, now owned by 
Oberthiir, contains any specimen from either 
country; but he possesses specimens from 
French Guiana collected by Constant Bar at 
Isle Portal on the Maroni, the river which 
separates French and Dutch Guiana. He 
gives a list of other localities from which he 
possesses specimens, but none of them are of 
special importance. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

8 March 1S89. — The 144th meeting was 
held at 156 Brattle St., the president in the 
chair. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen said that the cyclamens in 
a greenhouse in Montvale, Mass., had been in- 
jured by Otiorhynchus sulcatus , and remarked 
on the history of our knowledge of its depre- 
dations in America. 

Mr. S. Henshaw stated that it had recently 
heen introduced into New Zealand where it 
is also doing much damage. 

Mr. H. Hinkley showed a variety of Satur- 
tiia io in which the eye-spot on the hind wing 
is almond-shaped. He has raised a large 
number and showed a fairly large series 
which exhibited some very prettv gradations 
of color. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder remarked on the former 
range of distribution of Pieris oleracea. He 
gave as a reason why P. rafae has extermi- 
nated P. oleracea that the first brood of the 
former hatches about two weeks earlier than 
that of the latter species. 

Mr. Scudder then read a paper on cosmo- 
politan butterflies. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen remarked briefly on the 
distribution of certain dragon-flies in Brazil, 
showing that many are extremely local. 

Mr. J. H Emerton showed drawings of the 
copulatory organs of Agalena naevia. The 
palpal organs are, with few exceptions, of 
three varieties, the most common variety 
having a stout spiral tube of one and a half 



turns with the tip turned outward. Another 
variety found only in large individuals has 
the tube longer and more slender, and a third 
variety found in spiders of various 6izes, has 
the tube very short and coiled in a small 
spiral. The epigynum is of two principal 
forms; one with a simple opening, and the 
other, usually occurring in large spiders> 
with a wide opening partly divided into two 
by a process from the front edge ; between 
these are many intermediate forms. The 
other parts of the male palpi vary but little 
and there are no other variations which 
would show that we have more than one 
species of these spiders. 

Mr. Emerton stated that he had found a 
new species of spider in the natural history 
society building in Boston. There were two 
specimens, one male and one female. They 
may be foreign as they were found near some 
West Indian material that had been there for 
about two years. 

[The records of several meetings at this 
point have been lost.] 

11 October, 18S9. — The 148th meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St., the 
president in the chair. 

The secretary stated that the records of the 
last meeting had been mislaid. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder gave an account of what 
had been done at the meeting of the Execu- 
tive Committee, and showed the circular 
which was sent soliciting subscriptions to 
Psyche. 

Mr. Scudder then gave a brief account of 
his field work in the west during the past 
summer for the U. S. Geological Survey. 
Having first visited Florissant in order to 
make sure of bringing home a sufficient 
number of fossil insects to warrant the out- 
lay of the expedition, he next went to west- 
ern Colorado to examine two localities near 
together. One of them on the summit of the 
Roan Mountains, on the divide between the 
White and Grand Rivers, where fossil plants 
of species identical with those found at Flor- 
issant had been obtained many years ago, 



102 



PSYCHE. 



[June 1S91 



and the other in the lower White River, where 
at two different localities forty miles apart 
Denton had many years ago brought home a 
small collection of fossil insects of presum- 
ably the same age as those at Florissant. In 
both of these places the party was very 
successful. The journey had to be made in 
a wagon and the search among the rocks on 
foot or on horseback, and as the greater part 
of the time had to be given up to the attempt 
to discover which beds contained fossil in- 
sects, very little was left for the exploitation 
of the same; for the beds in which insects 
were found covered an area of hundreds of 
square miles, and in a vertical series ranging 
from five hundred to fifteen hundred feet, in 
nearly all of which some remains were found 
but in certain localities, especially at the ex- 
treme upper beds, in such abundance as to 
warrant the belief that each of these localities 
may be richer than that of Florissant, hither- 
to believed to be the richest in the world: 
Subsequent visits were made to Green River, 
Wvo. , where the pocket in which all speci- 
mens had hitherto been found had been en- 
tirely worked away, and his efforts were direc- 
ted to the discovery of some new location in 
the immediate vicinity ; in this he was suc- 
cessful, and was able to obtain several hun- 
dred specimens; at Fossil in the same terri- 
tory, insects were found to occur so rarely as 
not to warrant a search for them, and at 
Amethyst Mt., in the Yellowstone Park, no 
strata sufficiently fine in which to preserve 
the remains of fossil insects were found in 
those beds which have yielded the leaves of 
plants. 

Mr. Scudder then showed specimens of 
some of the fossil Diptera brought from Col- 
orado. He said that the same species of lar- 
vae had been found throughout five hundred 
vertical feet of strata. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen remarked on Dr. Pack- 
ard's article in Psyche on the epipharynx of 
insects which he considers very important. 
He said that European white ants had been 
introduced into Panama. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder remarked on the scarcitv 



of butterflies and in fact of all insects in the 
Yellowstone Park, and indeed throughout all 
the west during the past summer. 

Mr. H. Hinkley said that he had investi- 
gated whether the milk-weed butterfly hiber- 
nates or not and came to the conclusion that 
it does not. 

Mr. Scudder said that he had found it very 
difficult to make butterflies which hibernate 
in nature do so in confinement, so that he 
does not place much faith in negative evidence 
from artificial experimentation. 

Mr. Hinkley said that a fungus disease very 
like muscardine has attacked the larvae of A. 
fromethea during the past summer. He said 
that he had raised a true second brood of 
this species, and had reared large numbers 
of other Bombycidae in close proximity to 
his prometheas and none were affected. 

8 November, 1889. — The 149th meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St., the 
president in the chair. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen in commenting upon an 
article on the gipsey moth (Ocneria dispar~) 
in the Boston Transcript for 31 October, 1SS9 
said that he remembered the fact of the acci- 
dental introduction of the species by Mr. L. 
Trouvelot some twenty years ago. Judging 
from his experience with the species in Eu- 
rope, Dr. Hagen doubted the necessity for 
legislative acts and appropriations in order 
to suppress its ravages. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited a fossil trilo- 
bite which showed a remarkable resemblance 
to a scarabaeid-beetle (Phanaeus), also a 
new species of fossil butterfly (Barbarotkea 
florissanti) from Florissant, Col. This butter- 
fly is the second of the Libytheinae found at 
Florissant, and is most closely related to the 
European species; the other {Prolibythea 
vagabnnda) is most nearly allied to the 
species from West Africa. Of the known 
fossil butterflies one ninth are Libytheinae ; 
of living species one eight-hundredth belong 
to the same family. 

Mr. Scudder also exhibited a photograph 
of a suffused melanic male of Papilio turnus 
sent by Mr. James Fletcher of Ottawa. 



PSYCHF 

A. JOXJi^^T^L OF ENTOHOLPGY. 



[Established in 1S74.] 



AlTfQNAt 



Vol. 6. No. 183. 

July, 1S91. 



CONTENTS: 

On a singular gland possessed by the male Hadenoecus subterraneus 

(Fig.)-— H. Gorman 105 

A new Simulium from southern New Mexico. — C. H. Tyler To-wnsend . . 106 

Two new lepidopterous borers (Plate 3). — Otto Lugger ..... 108 

Notes on Bombycid larvae. — I. — Harrison G. Dyar ... no 

The germ band of insects. — W. H. Wheeler 112 

Bibliography (The proboscis of the blow-fly ; the foot of the same). . . . 115 

Full grown larva and pupa of Deidamia inscripta. — Caroline G. Soule . 116 

On the food-habit of Telea polyphemus. — Caroline G. Soule . . . . 117 
Recent Literature (Tutt's British Noctuae; Bugnion's Postembryonal development, 
habits, and anatomy of Encyrtus; Foerster's Insects of the middle oligocene of 

Brunstatt) 117 

Personal Notes .............. iiS 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club . . . . . 1x8 



Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 



YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS, 20c 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



104 



PSTCHE. 



[July, 1891. 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

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CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meetings of the Club are now held at 
7.45 P.M. on the second Friday of each month, at 
No. 156 Brattle St. Entomologists temporarily in 
Boston or Cambridge or passing through either city 
on that day are invited to be present. 

A very few complete sets of the first five volume s 
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Cambridge, Mass. 

The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
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Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880. 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Illinois. Trans. Dept. Agric. for 1876 (con- 
taining first report of Thomas, State Entomo- 
logist). Springfield. 111., 1878 . . . 1.00 

Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged in- 
sects of America: a re-examination of the 
Devonian insects of New Brunswick, in the 
light of criticisms and of new studies of other 
paleozoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875. 1. 00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col. pi. Boston, 1883. .25 

Scudder, S. H. The fossil butterflies of 
Florissant, Col., Washington, 1889 . . 1.00 

Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Jahrg. 
42-46. Stettin, 1881-1885. . . . 5.00 

U. S. Entomological Commission. Bulletins, 
Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 1. 00 

— Third Report, Washington, 1883 . . 2.50 

— Fourth Report, Washington, 1885 . . 2.00 
Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 



FOR SALE. 
Ceylon, Java, Borneo and New Guinea Insects, 
especially Lepidopiera and Coleoptera singly or in 
lots. Also Orthoptera, dragon-flies, land and fresh 
water shells at low prices. 

H. FRUHSTORFER, 

Care German Consulate, 

Soerabaia, Java. 



PSYCHE. 



ON A SINGULAR GLAND POSSESSED BY THE 
HADENOECUS SUBTERRANEUS. 



MALE 



BY H. GARMAN, LKXINGTON, KY. 



The male of this cricket is found at 
times with a pair of white, fleshy ap- 
pendages protruding from slits between 
the terga of the 9th and 10th abdominal 
somites, the nature of which is not clear, 
and about which I find nothing written 
in the literature relating to the species, 
to which I have access. 

The slits through which the organs 
appear are situated one on each side an- 
terior to and a little within the cerci. 
When fully protruded the glands are 
white, cylindrical, a little 
tapering, and are about XX 
1-8 inch long. They are 
not protruded by the 
young, as far as observed, 
but the slits, which are of 
rather large size, can be made out in 
them without difficulty. I believe 
they are protruded during the period 
of sexual excitement. A number of 
examples were taken in copula with 
the lot in which individuals with pro- 
truded glands occurred, but unfortu- 
nately were not noticed with refer- 
ence to the glands at the time of 
collecting. They appear to the have 
no immediate connection with genital 
organs. 

What their function may be can only 
be conjectured at present. Scent glands 
somewhat like them have been observed 




in some female moths of the family 
Bombycidae. If the organs are scent 
glands, however, it is a little strange 
that they should be borne by the males. 
I can imagine no other use for them. 
The sense of smell is certainly the one 
best calculated to bring the sexes to- 
gether in the darkness of the caves. 
Auditory organs such as occur in Locus- 
tidae and Acrididae they do not possess, 
and the tactile sense, though highly de- 
veloped, is manifestly inadequate to all 
demands of the peculiar surround- 
ings. 

As organs possibly of the same 
nature, I may mention that Miall 
and Denny refer to glands of un- 
known function which are pro- 
truded in the pleural region of the 
abdomen in Corydia carunci(ligera, 
one of the Blattidae. 

Prof. A. S. Packard figures on pi. 17, 
fig. 3, of his work on cave animals, a 
male cricket which is said by him to be 
infested with a parasitic fungus. There 
is some probability that this supposed 
fungus is one of these glands. 

The figure represents the tip of the 
abdomen of the male cricket, seen from 
the side, and with the somites drawn 
apart more than is natural. 7, S, 9, 
somites ; a, gland, partly protruded ; 
3, fully protruded gland. 



106 



PSYCHE. 



[July iSqi. 



A NEW SIMULIUM FROM SOUTHERN NEW MEXICO. 



BY C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, LAS CRUCES, N. M. 



In the southern part of New Mexico, 
along the valley of the Rio Grande, 
there begins to appear about the first of 
May a buffalo gnat which is quite as 
troublesome, especially to man, as its 
more eastern congener, S. pectiarum. 
It proves to be an undescribed species. 
The first individuals that I have noticed 
this year were in an orchard near Me- 
silla on the 7th of May, and they were 
at that date swarming in considerable 
numbers. Mesilla is about a mile from 
the Rio Grande, which flows to the 
west of the town. Gnats were found 
also on same date but in less numbers 
on the college grounds, which are situ- 
ated about four miles from the river. 
The river rises in May, overflows all 
the low areas lying adjacent to it, and 
becomes a roaring, rushing body of 
water. Its volume is dependent on the 
amount of snow in the foot-hills to the 
north particularly in Colorado, and on 
rains, which are only exceptionally a fac- 
tor. The snow in the canons exerts little 
influence, for its thaw is so gradual as not 
to be felt. I give these data for what 
bearing they may have on the breeding 
habits of this species. It is well known 
that Simulium breeds in running water, 
and our species no doubt is dependent 
on the rise of the Rio Grande for its 
appearance. Doubtless, also, it is dis- 
tributed through the valley by the 



system of acequias or irrigation ditches 
in use in this country, which open 
from the river on a higher level to the 
north, and furnish the only source of 
water supply for the raising of crops. 
This is an adverse bearing of the ques- 
tion of riparian irrigation on injurious 
insects. The securing of artesian water 
and shutting off of the river water would 
no doubt lessen the dispersion of the 
gnats through the valley. 

From the first part of May the gnats 
increase in numbers, until by the middle 
or last of that month the}' are very 
abundant in all parts of the valley. It 
is usually between this time and the 
middle of June that the river is at its 
highest point. The)* are then to be 
found on the mesa to the east toward 
the Organ Mts., and may be met with 
also on the elevated mesa nearer the 
mountains, especially to the north. On 
May 17th I observed them on the sum- 
mit of the first mountain at the eastern 
end of the Dofia Ana range, which is 
nearer the river than the Organs, and 
farther north. The elevation is at least 
4,500 (probably 5,000) ft. above sea 
level, or about 1,500 (perhaps 2,000) 
ft. above the level of the river. They 
are not found in the Organ Mts., which 
are about twenty miles east of the river, 
nor on the plains to the east and south 
of them, though on the mesa to the 



July 1S91. 



PSTCHE. 



107 



west they approach to within a few 
miles. This was observed May 23d- 
24th, while in the valley itself at this 
time they were almost unbearable. 

These gnats are a great annoyance to 
man, by far greater than any other in- 
sect that we have in this locality. Many 
persons are so susceptible to them as to 
preserve through the height of the gnat 
season a chronic inflammation of the ex- 
posed parts of the face and neck resulting 
from repeated bites, which cause an in- 
tense irritation and even give rise to 
cutaneous sores. The inclination of the 
gnats to bite increases with the advance 
of the season, but the pest is consid- 
erably abated after the fall of the 
water. They are also very trouble- 
some to animals, and are supposed 
to cause the inflamed eyes in the 
horses of this region through the sum- 
mer months. I append a description 
of the species. The female alone is de- 
scribed, as that is the only sex which 
composes the biting swarms, and I have 
not secured either the male or the early 
stages. 

Sitnulium occidentale, n. sp. J . Cinereous, 
abdomen light fulvous. Head cinereous, eyes 
black ; face cinereous, raised, somewhat darker 
in the centre, sparsely clothed with fine sil- 
very hairs; front cinereous, widened below 
into a cross-bar, a prong invading the orbital 
area on each side, silvery pubescent on the 
orbital margin, and with longer pubescence 
on the occipital margin; proboscis black, 
brownish at tip, palpi black ; antennae cinere- 



ous, with short, silvery pubescence, the two 
basal joints longer than the following joints, 
which are nearly equal in length; occiput 
cinereous, with silvery pubescence around the 
margin. Thorax cinereous, mesoscutum en- 
tirely covered with silvery pubescence, with 
two dorsal lines, and usually a fainter median 
line between them ; pleurae fulvous posteri- 
orly; scutellum black, silvery pubescent. 
Abdomen light fulvous, sparsely covered 
with short silvery pubescence; second, third 
and fourth segments above with a brown 
cross-band shading to darker on the sides 
and in the middle, particularly on the third 
and fourth segments; remaining segments 
with a broad, median, dorsal, cinereous band, 
bounded laterally on the fifth, sixth and 
seventh segments by a curved, more or less 
faint line of brown; venter light fulvous, 
silvery pubescent. Legs black, silvery pub- 
escent. Wings hyaline, iridescent bv re- 
flected lights; halteres white. Length of 
body 2 mm ; of wing 2 mm. 

Described from many fresh specimens. 

This species is smaller than either 
S. pecuarum or S. meridionale. S. 
metallicum Bell, from Mexico is given 
as 2 mm. long, but it is the male which 
is described, and the female would be 
very much larger. S. occidentale dif- 
fers from S. pecuarum very markedly 
in the thoracic and abdominal markings. 
These markings are very much like 
those of S. meridionale ; but the 
median thoracic line is always very 
faint, the abdomen is light fulvous, the 
lateral lines of segments 5, 6 and 7 are 
curved, and the abdominal markings 
are of a different color, besides other 
minor differences. 



108 



PSYCHE. 



[July 1S91. 



TWO NEW LEPIDOPTEROUS BORERS. 



BY OTTO LUGGER, ST. ANTHONY PARK, MINN. 



To the long list of Injurious borers 
infesting cultivated and wild plants two 
new species must be added which, in 
Minnesota, are of especial interest, as 
they cause great damage to some of our 
trees, and even threaten to destroy them 
entirely in some regions. 

All visitors to the Twin Cities admire 
our groves of oaks, chiefly composed of 
peculiarly branched and gnarled burr- 
oaks, and dark and straight red-oaks. 
The former, though badly infested by 
numerous species of insects, seems to be 
proof against any lasting injury by them. 
The tree is in fact so well protected with a 
corky bark, even found upon the young- 
est twigs, that both insects and intense 
cold seem to be powerless. This is 
quite different, however, with our red- 
oak, a tree of much quicker growth and 
but slightly protected by thin and glossy 
dark bark, at least when still young and 
not wrinkled by old age. Nature seems 
to have endowed the former, like a good 
mother, with a warm and enduring coat 
against insects and the inclemencies of 
winter, and to have treated the red- 
oak like the step-mother so much fabled 
about. The red-oak seems to have a 
very great attraction for all kinds of 
boring insects, but notwithstanding its 
wonderful power to repair injuries and 
to heal wounds made upon its bark and 
wood — a power not shared by the burr- 
oak — the tree is a doomed one, provid- 



ing no steps are taken to protect it as 
well as it deserves. But all advice to 
protect any of our native trees is usually 
received with a smile that is more or 
less unpleasant to the true lover of nature, 
as it contains the elements of contempt, 
ridicule and derision for the adviser. 

Among the worst borers of the red- 
oak are several lepidopterous larvae, but 
chiefly those of Prionoxystus querci- 
perda (Fitch), P. robiniae (Peck) and 
Trochilium lugger i. The first (pi. 3, 
figs. 1 and 2) , as well as the second spec- 
ies, are insects described long ago ; the 
latter, and the most injurious one in this 
regior, has been described by H. Ed- 
wards, our authority in this family of 
insects. Below is his description, illus- 
trated by pi. 3, fig. 3. 

Trochilium luggeriw. sp. Upper side of head 
black, orbits of eyes bright lemon yellow. 
Face black. Palpi black at the base, otherwise 
lemon yellow. Thorax with the disk black, 
with short erect downy hairs. Collar, patagia, 
spot at the base of the wings, and a broad 
streak at base of thorax conspicuously lemon- 
yellow. Antennae chestnut brown above, dull 
orange beneath. Tibiae orange, tarsi some- 
what of a darker shade. Abdomen black, 
anal tuft pale orange, with bright yellow 
band at the posterior edge of all segments, 
those of the posterior segments much 
widened. Forewings thinly clothed with 
scales the costa narrowly dull orange as is also 
the oblique rather indistinct discal mark at the 
end of the cell. The space from vein 2 to 
vein 5 clear of scales behind the cell. Hind 



Psyche, i8gi, vol. 6. 



Plate 3. 



A>- 



m ' -- • sjSJ" 








2 ni 



► I ft 



I 

MM 












uly 1S91.J 



psyche. 



109 



wings with the anterior margin dull orange. 
Fringe of both wings brownish. Under side 
of forewings with the costa lemon-yellow. 
Length of body 20 mm. Exp. of wings 35 
mm. 

The moth issues towards the end of 
May, and fresh pupal skins can be ob- 
served till towards the close of June. 
Some trees harbor hundreds of these in- 
sects, and consequently suffer greatly; 
the trunk and all the larger limbs are 
equally infested. In only one instance 
a pupal case was seen projecting from 
the trunk of a small burr oak. 

A second and equally injurious borer 
is destroying our ash-trees in the wind- 
breaks surrounding farm houses located 
in the open prairies, and also those 
planted in the parks or as shade trees 
along the streets in our villages. As a 
general rule only the smaller trees are 
infested, but these to such an extent that 
they break down entirely. Professors 
Aldrich and Orcutt have given the life- 
history of this insect in a late bulletin. 
But even old and very large trees do not 
escape entirely, as I have seen trees two 
feet in diameter, and apparently quite 
healthy, whose bark was perforated 
with numerous holes made by this in- 
sect. In these cases the trees did not 
suffer to any visible extent, but death is 
always the consequence in smaller trees 
where the borer cuts off entirely the 
circulation of sap, and enters deeper 
into the solid wood. 

Trochilium fraxini, n. sp. The head is 
grizzled black above, with the base, palpi and 
antennae dark orange. Coxae black, tibiae 
and tarsi orange, the posterior portion of 
the tibiae broadly banded with black. Thorax 
with the disk black, with rather long and 



erect black hairs. Collar, patagia, a large 
spot at the base of each wing, and a narrow 
streak over the posterior part of scutellum 
lemon-yellow; all these spots with the excep- 
tion of those at base of wings are edged in 
front with dark orange. Abdomen black, 
banded with yellow at the posterior end of 
each segment; sides of posterior 5 segments 
orange, the orange extending almost over 
the whole surface of the three last ones. 

Forewings covered with scales, except a 
narrow portion from base to cell, and some 
very small spaces immediately behind the 
cell. Costa and internal margin coppery 
brown. Outer margin broadlj' brown, shaded 
with purplish copper. Discal mark large, 
almost rounded. At the base all the veins 
are stained with bright scarlet orange, and 
there are some scales of the same color below 
the costa. Beneath the forewings are lemon- 
color on the costa, shading into orange to- 
wards the centre of the wing, and into brown 
on the outer margin. Discal mark orange. 
Hind wings with a coppery sheen. Fringes 
of both wings brown. Length of body 15 
mm. Exp. of wings 30 mm. 

In pi. 3, fig. 4, this species is shown ; 
it resembles very strongly a Polistes. 

This species resembles very closely 
the injurious m >th Podosesia syrhigae 
(Harr.), but belongs to a different 
genus. 

Explanation of Plate 3. 

Fig. 1. Prionoxystus querciperda, 
$ and 9 imago, and empty pupal case ; 
natural size. 

Fig. 2. The same, larva ; natural 
size. 

Fig. 3. Trochilium luggeri, im- 
ago, empty pupal case and hinder ex- 
tremity ; the last enlarged, the others of 
natural size. 

Fig. 4. Trochilium fraxini, ima- 
go ; natural size. 



110 



PSYCHE. 



[July 1S91. 



NOTES ON BOMBYCID LARVAE.— I. 



BY HAHRISON G. DYAK, NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Nola ovilla Grote. 

1875. Grote, Can. ent., 7, 221. 

1884. Packard, Amer. nat., iS, 726. 

Larva. Dr. Packard makes the following 
statements : " It differs from Arctian and 
Lithosian larvae in having one less pair of 
abdominal legs. The body is broad and 
much flattened, rather short, with four pairs 
of well developed abdominal feet; the first 
pair being situated on the fourth abdominal 
segment. The body is hairy, though not 
densely so; on each segment are four dorsal 
tubercles, from which radiate short dusky 
hairs; on the side is a larger and longer 
tubercle from which arise lateral, very 
long hairs. Length 13 mm." 

Cocoon. "Boat-shaped, flattened, oval 
cylindrical, closely attached to the surface 
of a leaf. It is composed of silk, covered 
closely on the inside with bits of oak leaves." 
Nola trinotata Walker. 

1866. Walk., Cat. Brit, mus., pt. 35, pg. 
1902, Lebena. 

1891. Butler, Insect life, v. 3, p. 297, 
sexmaculata Grote. 

1877. Grote, Can. ent., v. 9, p. 235. 
Nola. 

1S90. Dyar, Insect life, v. 3, p. 61. 

Larva. I have elsewhere described this 
larva. It is a thick, somewhat flattened in- 
sect, the last segment small, the abdominal 
feet consisting of but four pairs, as in the 
preceding. It is furnished with piliferous 
warts as above. It lives exposed upon the 
surface of the leaves, forming no web. 

Cocoon. Curiously constructed of little 
pieces of bark laid together like bricks. It is 
interesting to watch the larva forming its 
cocoon, which it does by building up two 
parallel walls by spinning the little pieces of 
outer bark together by their edges, and sub- 



sequently drawing them together from the 
inside. The pieces of bark are bitten off the 
branch on which it forms its cocoon. 

Nola hyemalis Stretch. 

18S5. Stretch, Ent. amer., 1, 102. 

Larva. Congeneric with the above. Body 
flattened, wider than high, tapering very 
slightly to the extremities; abdominal feet 
present only on the 4th, 5th, 6th and roth ab- 
dominal segments. Head small, pale testa- 
ceous, whitish above the mouth with brown- 
ish marks at the sides; ocelli black. Body 
pinkish, cervical shield bisected, dark; three 
rows of piliferous warts on each side as in 
N. sexmaculata. The upper two are brown- 
ish and bear short hairs ; the third row (lat- 
eral) is orange, and bears long, whitish 
hairs. On the body is an interrupted dorsal 
and waved subdorsal line, and brown dorsal 
shades connected with the lines; spiracles 
black; length of larva 10 mm. 

Cocoon. Not strong, composed entirely of 
silk, and not firmly fastened to a support. It 
is elliptical, opaque white. The pupa is with- 
out cremaster, light brown, and pilose. 

I found a number of these larvae on willow 
near Phcenix, Arizona, in November, 1889. 

Nola sorghiella Riley. 

1882. Riley, Report U. S. dep. agr., 
187, pi. 11. 

Larva. This is congeneric with the pre- 
ceding species, as may be seen from Prof. 
Riley's figures. It is of the same general 
shape, and has the characteristic four pairs 
of abdominal feet, but differs from the other 
species strikingly in habit, as the larvae ap- 
pear to live socially in a web. 

These four species of Nola are the only 
ones of which the larvae are known, so far as 
I am aware. 



July 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



Ill 



Orgyia definita Packard. 

1864. Packard, Proc. ent. soc. Phil., 3, 

332- 

18SS. Lintner, 4th rept. N. Y. state en- 
tom., p. 50. 

1891. Thaxter, Can. ent., 23, 34. 
This species has six stages in larvae that 
produce male moths, and seven stages for 
female moths. I have observed all but the 
first of these stages, and the life history, as 
far as I have made it out, is as follows : — 

Egg. Nearly spherical, the top a little 
flattened; a large, central, brownish spot 
with a paler dot at the apex of the egg, sur- 
rounded by a concentric concolorous ring; 
diameter 1 mm. The eggs are laid in masses 
on the cocoon of the female moth, but are 
not naked as in the O. nova, nor covered 
with froth as in O. leucostigma, but with the 
hairs from the body of the moth, which are 
rubbed on by the female before it dies. The 
eggs are gummed together, and the hair also 
adheres to them. The winter is passed in 
this stage as with the allied species. 
First stage. Not observed. 
Second stage. Head pale whitish, width 0.7 
mm. Ocelli black, mouth brown. The 
warts on the body are small, except a large 
pair on joint 2, which bear two or three short 
plumed black hairs; a few more of these 
hairs arise dorsally on joint 12. The other 
warts bear a few long white hairs. The body 
is pale whitish, the retractile warts on joints 
10 and 11 whitish. There are traces of the 
two anterior of the four dorsal, brush-like 
tufts which are seen in the mature larva on 
joints 5-8. Even in this early stage the char- 
acteristic markings of the mature larva are 
developed, though somewhat indefinitely. 

Third stage. Head pale yellowish, jaws 
black; width 1 mm. The warts are arranged 
as in the mature larva, small, concolorous 
with the body, the large ones on joint 2 bear, 
ing thin pencils of plumed black hairs. A 
similar pencil, mixed with shorter brown 
hairs, arises from joint 12. The body is pale 
whitish, with a yellowish subdorsal band on 



the posterior segments and a stigmatal band 
running the whole length, wider on joints 
5, 6, and 7. Three dorsal, deep yellow tufts 
on joints 5, 6, and 7 respectively. The warts 
bear thin, whitish hairs; the dorsal retractile 
ones on joints 10 and 11 are whitish with a 
blackish shade around them. Length of 
larva 10 mm. 

Fourth stage. Head as before, with a small 
brown shade above the mouth ; width 1.5 mm. 
The body differs only in being shaded with 
blackish dorsally and laterally. The yellow 
tufts are now four in number on joints 5-8. 
The cervical shield is pale yellow like the 
head. 

Fifth stage. Width of head 2.1 mm. Be- 
tween the yellow dorsal tufts are a series of 
velvety black spots, concealed unless the in- 
sect is disturbed. The dorsum is gray, 
broadly so anteriorly, but partly replaced by 
a yellow subdorsal band on joints 9-13. The 
lateral region is gray, the warts whitish and 
partly surrounded by yellow. A narrow 
stigmatal band. Otherwise as before. 

Sixth stage {$ mature larva). Head pale 
yellow, shiny, the labrum and antennae 
white; width 2.8 mm. Body pale yellow, a 
pale, almost colorless, dorsal band, replaced 
on joint 2 by the pale yellow cervical shield 
containing two darker yellow warts, narrow 
and greenish on joints 3 and 4. widening and 
enclosing the yellow dorsal brush-like tufts 
on joints 5-8, narrowed on joints 9-12 en- 
closing the concolorous retractile tubercles, 
and absent on joint 13. A narrow subdorsal 
and fainter stigmatal, similarly colored lines. 
These bands are in some specimens more or 
less blackish, or black, blue-gray, or dark 
brown, and there is a velvety black spot be- 
tween the dorsal tufts on joints 6, 7 and 8. 
The warts are all pale yellow; the pencils on 
joint 2 are long, plumed, black; that on joint 
12 of light brown hair with a few long black 
plumed ones on its posterior side. The other 
hair is long, thin and white. 

The larva does not differ structurally from 
O. leucostigma, but differs markedly in color. 



112 



PSYCHE. 



[July 1891. 



Seventh stage (9 larvae only). Head 
pale yellow minutely mottled with grayish 
spots; lahrum, antennae and a spot before 
the eyes, white; ocelli and jaws black; width 
3.5 mm. The body is as in the previous 
stage, but the warts on the cervical shield 
are not distinctly darker. The dorsal black- 
ish or pale gray shade is in triplicate on 
joints 3 and 4. Spiracles white in a fine 
black border. The body is often bright yel- 
low, as are the dorsal tufts, and even the 
hair is yellowish. 

Cocoon. Double, thin, made of silk and 
the hairs of the larva. 

$ Pupa. Cylindrical, the abdominal seg- 
ments tapering, the eyes, wing cases and an- 
tenna cases especially prominent; a little 
depressed behind the thorax. Semi-trans- 
parent, shiny yellowish white, the back cov- 
ered with long, thin, silky white hairs; cre- 
master flat, terminating in several brown 
hooks well fastened in the silk of the cocoon. 
Length 12 mm. ; width 5 mm. 

5 Pupa. Robust, thickest through the 



2nd to 4th abdominal segments, elsewhere 
smaller, of nearly even width ; thorax and 
head small, no wing cases, leg cases small. 
Last segment rounded, cremaster flat, lather 
broad at base, terminating in a number of 
brown divergent hooks. Color semitrans- 
parent, shiny, very pale yellowish, without 
marks. Over the dorsum considerable fine, 
rather long, whitish silky hair. Length 18 
mm., greatest diameter 8 mm. 

$ Imago. Of the same structure as O. 
leucostigma, but not white, the color of the 
down, which is especial ly abundant on the 
ventral side, being light brown. A small 
black spot on the second abdominal segment. 
The rudimentary wings are dark cinereous. 
The J imago is very similar to O. leucostig- 
ma, but can be distinguished by its darker 
color and heavier black markings. 

Food plants. Dr Thaxter gives oak, but I 
have found the species as omnivorous as O. 
leucostigma. My specimens were fed mainly 
on maple and witch-hazel. 



THg GERM-BAND OF INSECTS.* 



Those who have watched the advance in 
our knowledge of insect embryology during 
the past three or four years will be deeply 
interested in Prof. Graber's latest treatise. 
Like his muscid paper it represents many 
years' study, but unlike that work it covers 
a very considerable ground, being a compre- 
hensive description of the germ-band of a 
number of insects. The species investigated 
belong to the genera: Lina, Lema, Tele- 
phone, Melolontha, Hydrophilus; Pieris, 
Gastropacha, Bombyx, Zygaena ; Hylotoma ; 
Stenobothrus, Mantis, and Gryllotalpa. It 
will be seen that this list comprises repre- 

* Vergleichende studien am keimstreif der insecUn, 
von.Veit Graber. Denkschr. d. math, naturwiss. 
c lasse d. k. akad. d. wiss. Wien. Bd. 57, 1890,621- 
734. 12 colored plates. 4°. 



sentatives of four of the important orders. 
Prof. Graber treats of the formation and 
method of growth of the germ-band, its re- 
lations to the envelopes (amnion and serosa), 
its segmentation (both internal and external) 
and its appendages. Chapters are introduced 
on the formation of the germ-layers and on 
the origin of the body spaces. Many pages 
are given up to a minute and critical discus- 
sion of the results achieved by other investi- 
gators. The work concludes with a long 
chapter on the development of the nervous 
system. 

In a brief sketch we cannot hope to do 
justice to the mass of matter with which 
Prof. Graber presents us; it will be possible 
to touch on only a few of the questions with 
which he attempts to deal. Before so doing 



July 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



113 



a word must be said about the technique em- 
ployed by Prof. Graber. As he informs us, 
and as is quite evident from his twelve large 
colored plates, his results were largely ob- 
tained from germ bands isolated from the 
yolk, stained in toto with carmine, and 
mounted in some resinous medium. His 
first plate shows that he has also examined 
Lina embryos unstained and in situ on the 
yolk. Now both of these methods, though 
useful for some purposes, are quite inade- 
quate to decide any delicate question con- 
cerning surface relief, and have consequently 
been all but abandoned by some recentworkers 
In point of detail Prof. Graber's surface 
views of Lina cannot stand comparison with 
some of the figures of insect embryos pub- 
lished decades ago, while nowhere is the in- 
adequacy of his isolation method better 
shown than when he attempts to elucidate 
the structure of the brain. When repre- 
sented at all in his figures this important or- 
gan is incorrectly represented. In order, 
therefore, properly to appreciate Prof. Gra- 
ber's observations it is necessary to bear in 
mind that his technique is somewhat defective. 

In the 15 quarto pages devoted to the ner- 
vous system there are many new and inter- 
esting facts, but we miss a careful treatment 
of the very earliest stages in the formation 
of the ganglia, both cephalic and ventral. 
It is safe to say that a few good sections 
through the nerve-cord of a sufficiently young 
Stenobothrus embryo would have brought 
out some interesting facts on the formation 
of the median and lateral cords — facts which 
would have induced the author to view the 
nervous system of the Coleoptera in a little 
different light. 

A short time ago Prof. Graber devoted a 
paper to the important subject of metameric 
segmentation in insects. According to the 
observations therein recorded, the first seg- 
ments to make their appearance in the em- 
bryo are not the definitive body-segments 
{microsomites), but segments nearly or quite 
corresponding to the imaginal aggregates of 



segments (head, mouth-parts, thorax, abdo- 
men) ; the definitive segments being formed 
by a splitting up of these macrosomites. Al- 
though it occurred to Prof. Graber at the time 
that this phenomenon might be due to a fore- 
shadowing of adult structure, he chose to 
adopt the view that the early macrosomitic 
segmentation was an ancestral feature. In 
his present paper he devotes considerable 
space to this subject, bringing out quite an 
array of pseudo-mathematical formulae, and, 
notwithstanding Heider's very sensible com- 
ments on his former paper, still persists in 
seeing some mysterious palingenetic trait in 
macrosomitic segmentation instead of an 
anticipation of the ultimate adult structure. 
That the latter is the correct explanation is 
shown by a study of Xiphidium. In this 
Locustid the definitive segments make their 
appearance in a wave which runs from the 
anterior to the posterior end of the germ- 
band. When the whole postoral portion of 
the germ-band has thus been split up into 
about eight segments, the remainder of the 
definitive segments are successively intercal- 
ated just in front of the caudal plate. Then, 
and not till then, does macrosomitic segmen- 
tation set in. Although this method of 
growth by intercalation of segments in front 
of the anal plate has been repeatedly shown 
to be the typical method in Annelids, Crus- 
tacea, Peripatus, Arachnids, Myriopods and, 
to a certain extent, in Hydrophilus (Heider), 
Prof. Graber maintains that it does not occur 
in insects. Strangely enough the very fig- 
ures of Stenobothrus to which he appeals, 
prove the very opposite of his contention, for 
they show quite clearly that the youngest 
segment must lie just in front of the anal 
plate. The first indications of segmentation 
have probably escaped Prof. Graber, — it 
being impossible, as we have found after 
repeated trials, to detect them in semi-trans- 
parent, isolated germ-bands. 

Prof. Graber divides insect embryos into 
microblastic and macroblastic, or long and 
short ones. Stenobothrus is microblastic; 



114 



PSYCHE. 



[July 1S91 



Lina macroblastic. Apart from its being un- 
scientific to classify things as big and little, 
it is difficult to understand how such a classi- 
fication can be of any service whatsoever. 
There is a complete gradation between long 
and short germ-bands : in Stenobothrus the 
germ-band is very small when first outlined 
on the yolk ; in Mantis and Oecanthus it is 
somewhat larger; in Gryllus still larger; in 
Blatta it is nearly as long as the egg; in 
other forms, like Musca and the Coleoptera, 
it is longer than the egg. But this is not a 
difference in the germ-bands, it is a difference 
in the amount of yolk. Stenobothrus has a 
direct development, Musca undergoes a pro- 
found postembryonic metamorphosis; the 
former needs a great deal of yolk because its 
embryonic development is long and compli- 
cated, the latter but relatively little yolk, be- 
cause its embryonic development is very 
short and comparatively simple. Although 
Prof. Graber was aware of the existence of 
transitional forms between his long and short 
germ-bands, it seems never to have occurred 
to him while writing the ten long quarto 
pages, which he devotes to this and similar 
distinctions, that the true differences lie in 
the quantities of yolk with which different 
eggs are provided. This is a strange omis- 
sion for an embryologist to make after all 
that has been said and written on the effects 
of yolk on development. Verum ofieri longo 
fas est obrepere somnitm. 

Equally artificial and useless is Prof. Gra- 
ber's division of germ-bands into straight 
and crooked (tanyblastic and ankyloblastic). 
It is obvious that the curvature of a germ- 
band depends on the character of the yolk 
surface on which it happens to lie. Thus the 
germ-band of a spherical egg is necessarily 
curved (Phryganeidae), while the germ-band 
on the long side of an elongate, oval egg will 
be more or less straight (Blattidae). It is 
somewhat disappointing to find that no at- 
tention is devoted to the important relations 
of the germ band to the micropylar axis, a 
subject on which Hallez has published two 



suggestive little papers (Comptes rendus, v. 
101, 1SS5 and v. 103, 18S6). 

Prof. Graber finds the abdomen of the em- 
bryo insect to consist oieleven true segments. 
He believes that he has found distinct traces 
of coelomic cavities in the last (eleventh) 
segment, and figures them in Mantis and 
Hydrophilus. If correct, this observation is 
of great interest, since Haase has recently 
maintained, after an exhaustive study of the 
facts of larval and imaginal structure, that 
there are only ten segments in the insect ab- 
domen, the "afterstiick" not being a true 
segment. * 

The antenna? are shown by Prof. Graber 
to be decidedly postoral in their origin. 
Reichenbach pointed out that of the two 
pairs of antennae in Astacus the first arises 
on a level with the mouth, while the second 
is postoral. As far as their relation to 
the mouth is concerned, therefore, the anten- 
nae of insects would correspond to the 
second pair of antennae in Crustacea. The 
labrum arises, as Prof. Graber points out, 
from a pair of appendage-like organs. The 
honey-bee is cited as an exception to this 
general rule, the labrum of this species 
having been described as an unpaired appen- 
dage from the first. But Carriere has re- 
cently shown that the labrum of the wall- 
bee {Chalicodoma muraria') arises as a 
pair of papillae at first separated at their 
bases, but subsequently uniting to form a 
single piece. Prof. Graber has not succeeded 
in throwing any new light on the obscure 
question as to whether the labrum represents 
a pair of true appendages serially homolo- 
gous with the antennae, mouth-parts, legs, 
etc. 

A lengthy chapter is devoted to a consid- 
eration of the abdominal appendages of 
insect embryos. Among the numerous facts 
recorded the most valuable are those relating 
to Hylotoma berberidis. In this Tenthre- 
dinid the German investigatorsucceeds in es- 
tablishing direct continuity between the em- 
bryonic abdominal appendages and the pro- 



July iSyi.] 



PSYCHE. 



115 



legs of the caterpillar-like larva. He finds 
that during embryonic life each of the eleven 
abdomidal segments presents a pair of appen- 
dages. Those on the ist and 7th-c)th segments 
soon disappear, while those on the remaining 
segments persist as the prolegs of the larva. 
The pair of appendages on the tenth segment, 
which are at the time of their origin in 
line (homostichous) with the appendages of 
the preceding segments, move pleurad, and 
thus become ectostichous. On the nth seg- 
ment the appendages ("afterspitzchen") are 
close together (entostichous). It is this last 
pair of appendages which corresponds to the 
anal legs of Lepidoptera, since, in the true 
caterpillars, according to Prof. Graber, the 
anal legs do not belong, as Haase and other 
investigators aver, to the tenth, but to the 
eleventh abdominal segment. Prof. Graber's 
figures are certainly far from being conclu- 
sive on this point. The peculiar cerci of 
Lyda belong to the tenth segment and are 
not therefore homologous with the anal legs 
of Lepidopterous larvae. 

It is also interesting to note that the forma- 
tion of the embryonic envelopes and the 
manner in which the dorsal body-wall is com- 
pleted in the embryo Hylotoma strikingly 
resemble what is observed in Lepidoptera. 
This fact may prove to be of use as further 
evidence of a common ancestry for the Lepi- 
doptera and Hymenoptera. The embryology 
of Hylotoma certainly appears to bear out the 
conclusion long since drawn from the adult 
structure of the Phytophaga, viz. : that this 
group is the most primitive among existing 
Hymenoptera. When we pass from a Tenth- 
redinid to an Apid it appears that the embry- 
onic envelopes show a tendency to become 
aborted, just as they do in the Diptera, in 
passing from an old form like Chironomus to 
a recent form like Musca. The general valid- 
ity of this remark is in no wise impaired by 
the difference in the kindsjof abortive change 
undergone by the envelopes in the two orders. 
W. M. Wheeler. 



Bibliography: the proboscis of the 

BLOW-FLY. 

Roffredi, M. M6moire sur la trompe du 
cousin et surcelle du taon dans lequel on a 
donne une description nouvelle du plusieurs 
de leur parties. Avec des remarques sur leur 
usage, principalement pour la succion. Misc. 
Taurinensia, torn. iv. Turin, 1776-79. 

Erichson, Wilhelm Ferdinand. Entomo- 
graphien; untersuchungen in dem gebiete 
der entomologie. 1. Ueber zoologische 
charactere der insecten, arachniden und crus- 
taceen. Berlin, 1840. 

Brulle, [A]. Recherches sur Ies transfor- 
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Ann. sc. nat. , ser. iii, torn, i, zool., 1S44. 

Blanchard, E. De la composition de la 
bouche dans les insectes de l'ordre des dip- 
teres. Compt.-rend., torn, xxxi, pp. 424-27, 
1850, Paris. 

Gerstfeldt, G. Ueber die mundtheile der 
saugenden insecten. 8°, Dorpat, 1S53. 

Hunt, [G]. The proboscis of the blow-fly. 
Quart, journ. microsc. sc, vol. iv., 1856, 
London. 

Mayer, [F.J.C.]. Ueber ein neu entdecktes 
organ bei den dipteren. Verhandl. naturh. 
ver. preuss. Rheinl. und Westfalen ; sitz- 
ungsberichte", bd. xvi, p. 106. Bonn, 1859. 

Suffolk, W. T. On the proboscis of the 
blow-fly. Month, microsc. journ., vol. ix, 
1S69. 

Lowne, B. T. On the proboscis of the 
blow-fly. Journ. Quekett micr. club, vol. i, 
p. 126, 186S. 

Lowne, B. T. Further remarks on the 
proboscis of the blow-fly. Journ. Quekett 
micr. club, vol. i, p. 190, 186S. 

Anthony. The suctional organs of the 
blow-fly. Month, micros, journ., vol. ix, 
1869. 

Lowne, B. T. The anatomy and physi- 
ology of the blow-fly. 8°, London, 1S70. 

Graber, V. Ueber den schlundmechanis- 
mus der arthropoden. Amtl. ber. d. 50 ver- 



116 



PSYCHE. 



[July 1S91. 



samml. [deutsch.] naturforsch. und aerzte, 
Munchen, 1877. 

Macloskie, [G]. The proboscis of the 
house-fly. Amer. nat., vol. v., pp. 153-161, 
1880. 

Meinert, [F]. Sur la conformation de la 
tete et sur Interpretation des organes buc- 
caux chex les insectes. Entom. tidskrift, vol. 
i, pp. 147, 150, 1S80. 

Meinert, [F]. Sur la construction des 
organes buccaux chez les dipteres. Ibid., 

PP- x 5o-i53- 

Meinert, [F]. Fluernes munddele (Trophi 
Dipterorum). Kjobenhavn, 8°, 18S1, with 6 
plates. 

Dimmock, George. The anatomy of the 
mouth parts and of the sucking apparatus of 
some Diptera. 8°, Boston, 18S1, with 4 
plates. 

Becher, E. Zur kenntniss der mundtheile 
der dipteren, Denkschr. Wien acad., math, 
nat. kl., bd. xlv, 1S82. Gives the literature 
of the subject very fully. 

Kraepelin, K. Zur anatomie und physio- 
logie des russels von Musca. Zeitschr. wiss. 
zool., bd. 39, 1S83. 

Lowne, B. T. On the head of the blow- 
fly larva and its relation to that of the perfect 
insect. Journ. Quekett micr. club, ser. ii., 
vol. iii., p. 120, 1SS7. 

[-From Lowne' s Anatomy, etc., of ike blow- 
fly,pt- 127-128. London, /8o/.^\ 

THE FOOT OF THE BLOW-FLY. 

Power, Henry. Experimental philosophy, 
in three books, containing new experiments, 
microscopical, mercurial, magnetical, 4 . 
London, 1644. 

Hooke, [R]. Micrographia. London, 1667. 

Leeuwenhoek, A. Anatomia rerum cum 
animatarum turn inanimatarum ope micro- 
scopiorum. Lugd. Bat., 1687. 

Leeuwenhoek, A. Select works, contain- 
ing his microscopical discoveries ; translated 
by Samuel Hoole, plates, 4°. London, 179S- 
1807. 



Dereham, The Rev. W. Physico-theology. 
second edition, 1 714. An ingenious teleo- 
logical disquisition, containing a note on the 
fly's foot, p. 374, and many curious notes on 
insects. 

Inman, Thos. On the feet of insects. 
Proc. Liverpool lit. phil. soc. no. vi. p. 220. 
Liverpool, 1S49. 

West, Tuffen. The foot of the fly; its 
structure and action elucidated by compar- 
ison with the feet of other insects. Part 1, 
with 3 plates. Trans. Linn, soc, vol. xxiii 
(1859), 1S61. 

Lowne, B. T. On the so-called suckers of 
Dytiscus, and the pul villi of insects. Month- 
ly microsc journ., vol. v., 1S71. 
[From Lowne's A?iatomy, etc., of the blow- 
fly, p. /go. London. i8qi.~] 

Full-grown larva and pupa of Deida- 
mia inscripta. — On July 13, 1890, I found 
on Ampelopsis veitchii, in Brookline, Mass., 
a larva a trifle over two inches in length. 

The head was round, green, with a faint 
white line on each side of the median suture. 
The body tapered from the fourth segment 
to the head, and was clear, bright green, 
without obliques. Two pale yellow lines ex- 
tended from the head over the dorsum of the 
first three segments. A brighter yellow- 
white line extended up each side of the caudal 
horn, and a little way down on the sides of 
the body — like the "last pair of obliques" of 
many sphingid larvae, only extending by no 
means so far down on the body. There was 
a thick wavy stigmatal edge from 1st segment 
to the tip of anal flap. The body was not 
rough, but striated transversely. The caudal 
horn was green except on the sides where 
the yellowish lines came. Feet and prolegs 
green, spiracles unnoticeable. 

On July fifteenth it stopped eating, and, on 
the seventeenth pupated. The pupa was 1 3-16 
inches (20 mm.) long, slender, brown mottled 
with greenish on the back. The abdominal 
segments were "honey-combed" with tiny 



July 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



117 



darker brown depressions. The tongue-case 
was a sharp ridge extending to the apex of the 
wing-cases. At its base, on each side, was a 
dark, rough tubercle; on each eye-cover was 
another; and on the apex of the head 
another. The anal hook was long and 
pointed, with a little spur near the tip. 
, Caroline G. Soulc. 

On the food-habit of Telea Polyphe- 
mus. — On June 10th emerged in one of my 
boxes a J Telea polypkemns of normal size 
and specially brilliant coloring. Its larval his- 
tory was an experiment in food. The larva 
was found just before the third moult, on a 
small oak tree. Its food was varied every 
day, and consisted of the following leaves, 
given in the following order : — 

Oak, maple, willow, pine, white birch, 
apple, chestnut, moosewood, wild grape, 
poplar, walnut, elm, cherry, and then began 
with oak again. The only leaf it refused 
was sassafras. 

Chestnut, pine, and wild grape were new 
to me as food-plants of T. polvphemus and 
were suggested by finding larvae on them 
several times last summer. 

The larvae on pine were especially large 
and clear in color; those on wild grape, 
markedly smaller. Caroline G. Soule. 

Recent literature. — Mr. J. W. Tutt, 
who edits a journal whose special function 
is to record all sorts of variation in insects 
has just published the first volume (16, 
164 pp.) of "The British Noctuae and 
their varieties" in which over 100 species 
and an enormous number of varietal forms 
are described and named; scarcely a single 
species escapes dirision, and some show ten 
or fifteen varieties (Apamea didyma for in- 
stance), while a distinction is further made 
between varieties and subvarieties. Only 
the imago is considered. A large amount of 
the material is new, but the author has care- 
fully collated all fragmentary notes in the 
literature of the subject. In the introduction, 



which treats of variation in Lepidoptera 
generally, its nature, extent and probable 
causes, no reference is made to the claim the 
author elsewhere refers to (Ent. rec, 1, 55-56) 
that melanism has in some instances be- 
come a prevailing feature in those parts of 
England where manufacturing plants have 
given a grimy aspect to nature. If this be 
really true, and it would seem to be difficult to 
prove incontestable, then natural selection 
by elimination of the unfittest has certainly 
produced a sensible degree of protective 
mimicry within recent historic times. 

A painstaking, detailed account of the 
postembryonal development, habits, and an- 
atomy of Encyrtus fuscicollis has just been 
given by Dr. E. Bugnion in the Recueil zoo- 
logique suisse, accompanied by half a dozen 
folding plates. The species investigated is 
claimed to be parasitic on different caterpil- 
lars, and among others on a Hyponomeuta 
attacking the spindle tree in which the 
author studied them. He raised 21 different 
lots, and they usually yielded males or fe 
males exclusively, and in half the other times 
one sex was in excessive abundance. This 
Encyrtus appears to lay its eggs (50-129) at 
one thrust in the form of a single chain which 
floats in the perivisceral cavity. At the end 
of the embryonal period, or rather after the 
first moult, the larvae pierce this tube, and 
live on the lymph of the host till they are 
ready for their change, when they devour the 
viscera, form separate cocoons which pack 
the body of the host to the utmost, and ap- 
pear in the imago state in about three weeks ; 
they at once pair. Whether they are double 
brooded and in the second generation infest 
some other insect is still a question ; if not, 
the maintenance of the species depends on 
the life of fertilized females from early in 
August to sometime in April or May of the 
succeeding year. 

The most considerable and valuable work 
that has appeared for fifteen years on the 
tertiary insects of Europe, has just been pub- 
lished at Strassburg as part of the Abhand- 



118 



PS 2 CHE. 



[JulyiScji. 



lungen zur geologischen specialkarte von 
Elsass-Lothringen. It is on the insects of 
the middle oligocene of Brunstatt, Alsatia, 
by Dr. B. Foerster, and describes 159 species, 
all but one belonging to the Coleoptera, 
Hemiptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera to 
name them in the order of their abundance. 
Six excellent plates, including 171 figures, 
all drawn by the author, accompany the 
work. Two of the beetles, a Dorcatoma and 
a Bruchus, the latter rather imperfect, pre- 
sented no features by which they could be 
distinguished from living European species. 
The mass of the species are of a small size. 
Interesting comparisons are instituted with 
the insects of other tertiary localities. 

Personal notes. Entomologists every- 
where will deeply regret to hear of the death 
of Mr. Henry Edwards who loved his favorite 
studies quite as much as he did the stage and 
brought to both an ardor and freshness con- 
tagious and perennial. "Do mention," writes 
one of his correspondents, "his unwearying 
kindness and unfailing help to entomologists 
who were more ignorant than himself. I owe 
much to his help and encouragement and 
shall miss him sorely, though I never saw 
his face," and these qualities which so en- 
deared him to a large circle of friends were 
indeed conspicuous in that face. 

Two entomologists have recently received 
appointments at Harvard university though 
not in the field of entomology : Dr. Roland 
Thaxter as assistant Professor of crypto - 
gamic botany and Mr. J. G. Jack as Arboretum 
lecturer for 1S91-1892. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

13 December, 1889. — The 150th meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St., the pres- 
ident in the chair. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen said that from a recent 
study of the species of Anax he thought that 
A. concolor and A. longipes were identical 
and that the number of species so called 
should be reduced. 



Mr. S. H. Scudder, referring to the fossil 
plant-lice found at Florissant, said that most 
of the species belonged to the Aphidinae and 
a very few to the Schizoneurinae. As a whole 
the species differ notably from modern types 
in the length of the stigmatic cell and in 
this respect they agree with the species from 
amber and a form figured by Brodie from the 
secondary rocks of England. * 

Mr. Scudder said that in a psocid from the 
tertiary rocks of White River, the ocelli 
were very large and encroached upon the 
eyes. 

He also showed a photograph of the fossil 
butterfly (Barbarothea) mentioned at the 
last meeting and called attention to the com- 
parative shortness of the palpi. 

10 January, 1S90. — The 150th meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St., the 
president in the chair. 

The secretary read a letter from Mr. B. 
Pickmann Mann of Washington, in which, 
after wishing the Club and its members a 
happy and prosperous new year, he detailed 
an account of the financial condition of vol- 
ume four of Psyche. 

The report of the retiring secretary, Mr. 
Roland Hayward, was then read, accepted, 
and ordered to be placed on file. The retir- 
ing treasurer, Mr. Samuel Henshaw, then 
presented his report, which was laid on the 
table for action, till the report of the audi- 
tors should be received. 

The Club next proceeded to ballot for offi- 
cers for 1890, with the following result: 
President, C W. Woodworth of Fayetteville, 
Ark. ; Secretary, Roland Hayward ; Treas- 
urer, Samuel Henshaw; Librarian, George 
Dimmock. Members at large of Executive 
Committee, Holmes Hinckley and Samuel 
H. Scudder. Messrs. George Dimmock and 
Samuel Henshaw were elected editors of 
Psyche. 

The retiring president, Mr. Samuel H. 
Scudder, then read his annual address, en- 
titled, "The work of a decade on fossil in- 
sects." (See Psyche, 1890, v. 5, pp. 287- 
295-) 



PSYCHE, 









A. JOXJK,ISrA.r J OF ENTOMOLOGY. 



[Established in 1874.] 

Vol. 6. No. 184. 

August, 1891. 

CONTENTS: 

Some old Correspondence between Harris, Say, and Pickering. — II . . 121 

Some of the early stages of Zerene catenaria. — Samuel H. Scudder . . 124 
A list of the Bombyces found in the Electric-light globes at Pough- 

keepsie, N. Y. — Harrison G. Dvar ......... 126 

Experiments with Alpine Butterflies. — Samuel H. Scudder .... 129 

Edward Burgess .............. 131 

The London Insect ary 131 

Recent Entomological Literature (Transactions of the American entomological 

society; Insect life ; the "jumping bean"; Kolbe's Introduction) . . . 132 

A Moulting-habit of larvae of Platysamia ceanothi. — Caroline G. Soule . 133 
Miscellaneous Notes (Maynard's Manual of N. A. butterflies; a Cincinnati boy in 

the tropics ; the reported death of Kunckel) ....... 133 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club 134 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS. 2or. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



120 



PSYCHE. 



I August 1S91 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

RATES OF SUBSCRIPTION, ETC. 

PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

$3^ Subscriptions not discontinued are considered 
renewed. 



Beginning -with January, iSgi, the rate of 
subscription is as folluzvs: — 

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The index will only be sent to subscribers to the 
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form, to the author of any leading article, if or- 
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Author's extras over twenty-five in number, 
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CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meetings of the Club are now held at 
7.45 P.M. on the second Friday of each month, at 
No. 156 Brattle St. Entomologists temporarily in 
Boston or Cambridge or passing through either city 
on that day are invited to be present. 

A very few complete sets of the first five volumes 
of PSYCHE remain to be sold for $25. Vol. I will 
not be sold separately. 

Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
by the Cambridge Entomological Cluu : 

Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880. 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Illinois. Trans. Dept. Agric. for 1876 (con- 
taining first report of Thomas, State Entomo- 
logist). Springfield. III., 1878 . . . 1.00 

Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged in- 
sects of America: a re-examination of the 
Devonian insects of New Brunswick, in the 
light of criticisms and of new studies of other 
paleozoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875. 1. 00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col.pl. Boston, 1833. .25 

Scudder, S. H. The fossil butterflies of 
Florissant, Col., Washington, 1889 . . 1.00 

Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Jahrg. 
42-46. Stettin, 1881-1885. • • • 5-°° 

U. S. Entomological Commission. Bulletins, 
Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 1. 00 

— Third Report, Washington, 1883 . . 2.50 
— Fourth Report, Washington, 1885 . . 2.00 
Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

FOR SALE. 

Ceylon, Java, Borneo and New Guinea Insects, 
especially Lepidoptera and Coleoptera singly or in 
lots. Also Orthoptera, dragon-flies, land and fresh 
water shells at low prices. 

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Care German Consulate, 

Soerabaia, Java. 



PSYCHE. 



SOME OLD CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HARRIS, SAY, AND 

PICKERING.— U. 



[HARRIS TO SAY.] 

Milton, Dec'r 22, 1823. 
Dear Sir, 

It was with great pleasure that I re- 
ceived your interesting letter, in reply 
to the one, which I had the honour of 
addressing to you. Your attention to 
my queries has emboldened me to 
trouble you with another communica- 
tion. 

Our coasts and waters are extremely 
barren of varieties of shells ; but few 
being found except the most ordinary & 
common species of Mya, Balanus, So- 
len, Cardium, Ostrea, Mytilus, Murex, 
Turbo, & Helix. I have no collection 
myself, but may, perhaps, be able to 
procure you some of these from my 
friends. The coat of mail, or Chiton, 
I have never seen. If you will point 
out by what conveyance I shall send 
you the insects described by the late 
Professor Peck, I shall be happy to for- 
ward them. Possibly a private oppor- 
tunity may shortly occur to me. The 
summer past, I procured a dozen or 
more specimens of Xenos Peckii ; but 
the insects were so small that I did not 
succeed in preserving more than 2 or 3 ; 
one of which is at your service if desir- 
able. Prof. Peck described the insects, 
named in my former letter, for the 
Journal of the Mass. Agricult. Soc. 



They are now out of print ; but if I can 
procure the numbers containing his 
accounts. I shall endeavour to present 
them to you. The papers & lectures of 
this lamented friend are in my hands, 
and will be published by my father & 
myself, as soon as subscriptions to a 
sufficient amount shall be obtained. 
Many of his drawings are exquisitely 
fine, & some of these it is proposed to 
have engraved for the work. For the 
sake of the widow, and orphan son it is 
desirable that it should be published ; 
I am doubtful however, whether it will 
quite equal the expectations of all. His 
friends could have hardly expected so 
much from a self-taught naturalist, who, 
for nearly twenty years, pursued, but 
with scanty resources, his studies in ob- 
scurity ; and who, in his latter and 
more prosperous days, was a victim to 
the repeated attacks of disease. A 
short sketch of the life of this most 
interesting & amiable man will be pre- 
fixed to the volume, and will then 
enable the public to appreciate his 
merits, & to commiserate his misfor- 
tunes. 

In the month of August last, I dis- 
covered Cantharis marginata on the 
banks of the Neponset, and have in- 
cluded an account of it in a paper on 
our indigenous medicinal species, drawn 
up for the N. E. Medical Journal : it 



122 



PSYCHE. 



[August 1891 



will appear in the number, which is to 
be issued in April. By the solicitations 
of one of the editors of the Boston Jour- 
nal of Philosophy, &c, I have consented 
to its publication in the number of that 
Journal for February next. The object 
of this paper is principally to clear up 
some mistakes arising from ignorance 
of the species, & to collect some facts 
of practical utility ; it will be only in- 
teresting in this vicinity. Should you 
see it, you will find your information 
on the subject duly honoured. It was 
my good* fortune also to trace the pro- 
gress of the Peach-tree insect; and 
having, in July, obtained it in its per- 
sect state, I concluded that it must be 
a Zygaana, according to Fabiicius' char- 
acter of that genus, in his Entomologia 
Systematica (1793). An account of it I 
presented to an agricultural friend, 
John Lowell, Esqr. , & proposed to call 
it Zygama (Persicaa) cyanea, alis 
posticis hyalinis ; abdomine barbato, 
cingula croceo. Soon afterwards, I 
obtained, what I took to be another 
species, from the Cherry-tree ; the larva 
being found to infest excrescences on 
the trunk and limbs. This, as well as 
the former, I was unable to find in 
Fabricius' Glossata, & placed it in my 
collection with this definition — Zy- 
gaena (Cerasi) alis hyalinis, margine 
fasciaque anticarum cyaneis, abdomine 
barbato, chalybato ; barbA, apice alba : 
pedibus chalybatis, geniculis aureis, &c. 
This insect I afterwards obtained also 
from the peach tree ; inhabiting, like 
the preceding, beneath the bark at the 
root. Still, the two were so dissimilar 



that I could not suppose them to be 
merely the sexes of one species. Your 
having remarked the great difference, in 
appearance, of the sexes of Aegeria ex- 
itiosa, has led me to think that, these may 
be the same you mention by that name. 
Please inform me whether my defini- 
tions correspond with your specimens ; 
&, if so, whether you are fully per- 
suaded that they are but sexual distinc- 
tions. My insects are certainly nearer 
related to the genus yEgeria of Leach, 
in the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, than 
to that of Zygama. Does this latter 
genus, according to the new arrange- 
ment, contain insects with the anus 
bearded ; or are we to look to the an- 
tennas alone for a distinction from 
Aegeria? I have discovered, here, 
another insect, probably of the same 
genus, which may be thus described — 
yEgeiia (fulvicornis) brunnea, alis pos- 
ticis hyalinis ; margine postico, stigma- 
teque costali fuliginoso ; antennis, 
tarsisque fulvis : abdomine barbato.* 
There is a beautiful Bombyx, quite 
common here, it appears to be a non- 
descript, & Prof. Peck proposed to call 
it B. Trifolii, from the larva being very 
fond of the common clover. I have 
also found it feeding occasionally on 
the leaves of the Balsam Poplar, & the 
American Elm. Male sulphureous: 
upper wings with two irregular lines & 
a central macula ferruginous ; under 
wings with an ocellus & arc of a blue- 
black colour ; tY. an external arc & the 



* Habitat unknown to me: found in meadows: mag- 
nitude of the first mentioned. 



August 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



123 



inner margin lateritious. Pupil of the 
ocellus pale, with a central white dash. 
Length from tip to tip of the expanded 
wings z\ inches. Female fuscous ; 
upper wings with the lines & maculae 
dark & somewhat hoary ; under wings 
croceous, with the same concentric arcs 
& pupil as the male. Length between 
the wing 3* inches. The larva of this 
Bombyx is particularly curious — it is 
between 2 & 3 inches long, & covered 
with greenish or light yellow spines 
which, like those of the nettle are per- 
forated, stinghig, & contain a poison- 
ous I iquor. The chrysalis hybernates 
in a thin, silky, firm, cocoon ; & the 
perfect insect is developed about the 
middle of June. It may, perhaps, be 
well known to you ; if so, what do 
you call it ? 

In the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia I 
find many genera, of the order Lepidop- 
tera, accredited to Fabricius, which do 
not appear in his Entomologia System- 
atica, printed in 1 793 ; nor do I know 
in what work of Fabricius these genera 
are to be found. This makes it ex- 
tremely difficult to study the order 
Lepidopt. and almost impossible for a 
novice to ascertain the species which 
belong to the modern genera. Is Co- 
quebert's Decade a very valuable book 
to the student, and can you inform me 
its cost & probable utility? 

I should like much to see Mr. Worth's 
paper, when published. 

If I do not intrude on your time & 
patience, I hope you will allow me, 
occasionally, to address you ; & in 
return, to favour me with your replies. 



In this way you will, from the centre of 
science in which you preside, shed light 
on an obscure individual, groping his 
way without access to books, & un- 
aided by instruction, but anxious for 
information, & desirous to obtain it 
from the best sources. 

Be pleased to receive my congratula- 
tions on your safe return from your late 
expedition, & my hopes that it will be 
productive, to yourself, both of honour & 
reward . 

I am, Sir, with great respect, 

Your humble s erv't 

T. Wm. Harris. 

P. S. May I not hope to hear from 
you soon ? 

[DRAFT OF REPLY BY THOMAS SAY.] 

Dear Sir — 

I avail myself of a leisure interval to 
reply to your letter of the 22nd ult. I 
was not aware that an yEgeria inhab- 
ited the Cherry tree, but of the fact 
there can be no doubt as you found the 
larva in the trunk and limbs of the tree. 
Your desc'n of this insect and that of 
the specimen from the peach tree, 
agree perfectly with those I have dese'd 
as the sexes of AL. exitiosa. That my 
two specimens are male & female I 
have no doubt, hut that they are sexes 
of the same species I hold Mr. Worth 
responsible ; they do indeed differ very 
much in appearance, but so also do 
other sexes of identical species of the 
same genus. The anus of yEgeria is 
far more obviously bearded than that of 
Zygaena many of which latter are 



124 



PSYCHE. 



[August iSqi. 



altogether destitute of elongated hairs 
on that part, the antennas however are 
widely different. I do not remember 
to have met with the third sp. of J5L. 
you mention ; but your description of 
the Bombyx agrees perfectly with B. Jo 
of authors, yet, I cannot suppose that 
Profess'r Peck was unacquainted w. 
that insect which is so common in na- 
sure & familial" in the books ; if indeed 
it is not that species it is without doubt 
new. 

Fabr. did not live to publish his Sys- 
tema Glossatorum, but the work was 
left in manuscript, & was finally publ'd, 
I think, by Illiger, but I have never met 
with it, & have therefore, with you, to 
rely entirely on the Edinb. Encyc. for 
his genera. Coquebert in his Decades 
proposes to illustrate the works of Fabr. 
by figures ; his figures are good & 
represent the genera as they stood at 
that time, but so many divisions have 
been since made that the book might 



lead to error if implicitly relied upon. 
I have seen but one copy of this work, 
A; doubt much if it can be purchased in 
this country. I have no idea of the 
price in Europe. It is a folio vol. 
& contains if I remember rightly 30 
plates. 

The number of the Journal A. N. S. 
containing Mr. Worth's obs's on the 
Peach tree destroyer will be published 
about Tuesday next. I thank you for 
mentioning the name of the work in 
wh. Prof. Peck published his desc's, we 
have the Jour. Mass. Agric. Soc. here 
& I can refer to them. 

To communicate any information I 
may possess to those who are in pursuit 
of knowledge in Zoology, affords me, I 
assure you, much gratification, I there- 
fore hope that you will not scruple to 
command me freely, though on the 
other hand such are the nature of my 
avocations I cannot promise always to 
answer promptly. 



SOME OF THE EARLY STAGES OF ZERENE CATENARIA. 



BY SAMUEL H. SCUDDER. 



On September 24, 1S59, I raised a 
female of this species, and kept her in 
confinement. On the third day she be- 
gan to lay eggs and in the next two or 
three days laid 259 of them. Two years 
afterwards I placed a similar female, as 
soon as born, alone in a large box with 
a sprig of sweet fern ( Comptonia as- 
fileni folia), but her eggs were in all 
cases dropped loose in the box. The 
eggs are about 0.75 mm. in height > 



ovato-spheroidal, truncate at base, very 
minutely punctured, and of a somewhat 
pale pea-green color. None hatched. 

The caterpillar is very common on 
sweet fern, and is said by Packard to 
feed upon Car ex penny slvanica, and 
also on "blackberry, woodwax, wild in- 
digo, etc." It lives solitarily, though 
many are often found upon a single 
plant, and when full grown may be fre- 
quently seen extended in a straight rigid 



August 1S01. 



PSTCHE. 



125 



position upon a twig, supported only 
by its two pairs of prolegs, the body 
at an angle of about forty-five degrees 
with the terminal segments. In this 
position it may remain a long time. 

Its general color is a greenish lemon 
yellow or straw color. The body is largest 
at the seventh abdominal segment, and 
tapers very regularly and gently in each 
direction, the head being scarcely broader 
than the first thoracic segment. The head 
has the mouth parts white, a transverse se- 
ries of three black dots on the frontal triangle, 
and on each lobe of the head a series of four 
similar dots arranged in a quadrilateral. 
The body is marked by several longitudinal 
series of very delicate reddish brown lines, 
two on either side above and three on either 
side below the spiracles, those above being 
apparently latero-dorsal and infralateral, the 
latter the finer; the first thoracic segment 
bears a rounded dorsal shield with four black 
dots arranged in a quadrilateral, and on 
either side of each thoracic segment is a sin- 
gle, on that of each abdominal segment a 
pair, of short, transverse, black spots (one 
in front of and one behind the spiracle) the 
lower ends of which are on the stigmatal line ; 
each of the legs has a pair of black dots and 
each of the prolegs two vertical series of sim- 
ilar dots, the hinder series of the hindmost 
pair forming a triangular cluster, its apex 
downward ; the last segment has an arcuate 
series of four black dots, opening forward, 
besides a cluster of smaller ones at the ex- 
treme posterior margin, and the penultimate 
a transverse series of four dots next the pos- 
terior edge, two subdorsal and two stigmatal ; 
spiracles marked by a black dot encircled 
with milky white. Length 45 mm. 

The cocoon is an ovate open-meshed 
net about 25 mm. long by S mm. in 
greatest breadth, made of shining yellow 
silk ; the meshes are so open that the 



caterpillar in making the cocoon can 
thrust its head through any of them, 
yet on completion the cocoon is rigid 
and yields to handling less than many 
compact cocoons, so stiff are the threads. 
It is also strengthened by the guys which 
attach it to the surrounding foliage. 
When completed, it is much shorter 
than the enclosed caterpillar, which is 
obliged to lie in a cork-screw-like posi- 
tion until his change occurs, and then 
by his contortions he contrives to eject 
the cast skin through the meshes of 
the cocoon. 

The chrysalis is of a white color, though a 
pale pea-green tint suffuses the thorax and 
appendages, especially on the ventral side, 
and the abdominal segments are edged pos- 
teriorly with lemon yellow, except the last two 
which are black. There are also some other 
distinctive marks : the head is covered with 
short curved irregular lines and dots, and lias a 
few yellow spots on top; the ocellar riband 
is black; all the incisures of the appendages 
are marked with black, and the wing veins 
are indicated by ragged black lines now and 
then interrupted; there is a dorsal yellow 
streak on the abdomen which is bounded by 
short black lines and dots; cremaster yellow 
except the reddish testaceous tip. Length 
22 mm. : breadth 4.5 mm. 

An inky tinge begins to suffuse the 
body about three days before emer- 
ging ; it first affects the dorsum of the 
thorax, then it extends to the head and 
rest of the thorax except the wings 
and to the ventral portion of the abdom- 
inal segments just succeeding the wing- 
tips, and finally to nearly the whole 
body. I once chanced to observe a 
moth while emerging; it had thrust its 
body forward out of the chrysalis skin 



126 



PSYCHE. 



[August 1S91. 



so as to touch the cocoon. I saw 
it force its way out through one of the 
meshes, which it did in a few seconds 
by a series of starts, pushing itself with 
its legs and opening and contracting its 
limp wings ; it made use of any limb 
as soon as it was free from its encase- 
ments, and as soon as it was out of the 
cocoon it took up a position where its 
wings could properly hang and expand. 
Most of the imagos bred by me came 



out in the third week of September; 
one was in chrysalis from August 23 to 
September 24, or thirty-two days. As, 
according to Packard, there is but one 
brood a year and eggs are laid very 
soon after hatching, it is probable that 
winter is passed in the egg state. 
Packard figures the caterpillar, but not 
(as he says) the pupa, in his Monograph 
of the Phalaenidae. (From notes taken 
in 1S59 and 1861.) 



A LIST OF THE BOMBYCES FOUND IN THE ELECTRIC LIGHT 
GLOBES AT POUGHKEEPSIE, N. V. 



BY HARRISON G. DYAR, NEW YORK. 



During the summer of 1890 I made 
nine visits to the electric lamps of Pough- 
keepsie and the following list shows the 
number of Bombvces that they contained 
at each visit, with totals. I have in- 
cluded also the names of all Bombyces 
that I have found in western Dutchess 
County even though not found in the 
lamps in 1890. The numbers will give 
a fair idea of the relative abundance of 
the different species. To my surprise I 
found Halesidota tessellaris the most 
abundant though, judging from the 
larvae, it was no more common than 
usual, while Clisiocampa americana, 
which was second in abundance, was 
unusually common, doing much injury 
to the wild cherry and apple trees. 

I visited about one-third of the electric 
lights in Poughkeepsie and took al- 



together 7S74 specimens. The'list con- 
tains 114 species. The seven most 
numerous species, those comprising one 
per cent or over of the total number, 
were the folio wins: : — 



Halesidota tessellaris Sm. Abb, 
Clisiocampa americana Harr. 
Hyphantria var. textor Harr. 
Spilosoma, virginica Fabr. 
Clisiocampa diss t via Hiibn. 
Hyperchiria io Fabr. 
PyrrJiarctia Isabella Sm. Abb. 
All the rest together (S8 species) 



Per cent. 

34 

3 1 
16 

1 

1 

1 

1 

15 



I was greatly assisted in making the 
collections here recorded by the kind- 
ness of Mr. J. H. Van Norstrand of 
Poughkeepsie who takes care of the 
electric lisfhts I visited. 



August 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



127 



Nola tritiotata 

'' melanopa 

Argyrophyes nigrofasciata 

Clemensia albata 

Crambidia pallida 

H vpoprepia fuc.osa (and 
Euphanessa mendica... 
Crocota brevicornis .... 

" opella 

Utetheisa bella 

Callimorpha suffusa. .... 

Arctia virgo 

" nais 

" virguncnla , 

" arge 

Pyrrharctia Isabella 

Phragmatobia fuliginosa 

Leucarctia acraea 

Spilosoma virginica .... 
" latipennis ... 

" antigone .... 

Hyphantria cunea 

Eucbaetes egle 

" collaris 

Ecpantheria scribonia . . 
Halesidota tessellaris. . . 

" caryae 

" maciilata. . . . 

Orgyia definita 

" leucostigma 

Parorgjia clintonii.. 

" parallel a 

" cinamomea • . 

Lagoa crispata 

Euclea cippus 

Parasa cbloris (fraternal 

Empretia stimulea 

Pbobetron pitbecium . . . 

Limacodes scapha 

" biguttata. . . • 

" y-inverva . . . 

" fasciola 

" flexuosa 

" caesonia .... 

Sisyrosea inornata 

Adoneta spinuloides ... 



June 

14. 



June 
20. 



June 
24. 



July 



July 



July 

i7- 



July 

28. 



Aug. 

4- 



Aug. 
14. 



15 



IO 

s 

I 

4 
167 

8 
1 



15 



3 
543 



140 
3 
3 



1 
10 



16 
3 



204 

4 



712 



865 



20 
2 



'4 



M 



13 

1 
24 

1 So 

1 

576 



14 



7 
34 
14 
26 
60 



197 

1 
5 

55 



o 

o 

6 

32 

8 
20 

3 
29 

1 

6 
35 

4 
10 

S3 

45 

47 

122 

1 

8 

1306 

18 

33 

1 

2676 

45 
1 

2 
42 



15 



128 



PSYCHE. 



[August 1S91. 



Packardia elegans 

" fusca , 

" geminata 

" albipunctata 

Tortricidia flavula 

Lacosoma chiridota 

Ichthyura inclusa 

" van 

" albosigma . — 

Apatelodes toi ref'acta 

" angelica 

Datana angusii 

" ministra 

" drexelii 

" major ■ 

" palmii 

" integerrima 

" contracta 

" perspicua 

Nadata gibbosa 

Gluphisia trilineata 

Notodonta stragula 

Lophodonta ferruginea 

" angulosa 

" georgica 

Pheosia rimosa 

Nerice bidentata 

Edema albicosta 

Ellida gelida* 

Seirodonta bilineata 

Oedemasia concinna 

Dasvlophia anguina 

Scbizura ipomeae 

" unicornis 

" badia 

" leptinoides 

" eximia 

Ianassa lignicolor 

Heterocampa obliqua 

" manteo 

" guttivitta. . . , 
" biundata 
" unicolor 
" marthesia • ■ 
Cerura borealis 



June 
14. 



June 



June 

24. 



July 



July 

9- 



12 
I 



J"iy 
17- 



7 
27 



July 
2S. 



Aut 
4- 



Aug. 
14. 



O 
O 

o 
o 
o 
I 
I 

16 

I 

5 
7 
1 

51 

2 
2 

2 

17 
o 

65 

5 
o 
2 



29 
o 

26 

3 



* One specimen in electric light July it, 1SS9. 



August 1891 I 



PTC HE. 



129 



Cerura occidentalis 

" aquilonaris 

" cinerea 

" multiscripta 

Platypteryx arcuata 

Dryopteris rosea 

Actias luna 

Telea polyphemus 

Calosamia promethea .... 
" angulifera .... 

Platysamia cecropia 

Hyperchiria io 

Eacles imperialis 

Citheronia regalis 

Anisota stigma 

" senatoria 

Dryocampa rubicunda .... 
Clisiocampa americana . — 

" disstria 

Gastropacha americana . . . 

Tolype laricis 

" velleda 

Prionoxystus robiniae .... 



June 
14. 



June 
20. 



13 



50S 
I 



June 
24. 



1382 



July 



23 

20 

5 



3 
429 

82 

1 



Totals per visit 118 SSi 1579 i 1424 1199 1074 17S 918 503 



July 

9- 



13 

3 
1 

15 

2 1 
16 

4 
3 



82 
29 



J»iy 

17- 



July 

2S. 



Aug. 
4- 



l| 



Aug. 
14. 



Totals. 



6 
1 
o 
1 
2 
54 
4 
1 

49 
106 

40 

H 
9 
o 

28 

Hi9 
118 

2 

4 
o 



Total number of motbs taken. 



7S74 



EXPERIMENTS WITH ALPINE BUTTERFLIES. 



BY SAMUEL H. SCUDDER. 



Before noon on July 17 last, the morn- 
ing being fair, 1 caged half a dozen 
Ocneis semidca 9 on a pot of growing 
sedge in an open south window, in the 
hotel on the summit of Mount Washing- 
ton, N. H. The afternoon and all the 
next day the mountain was enveloped 
in clouds, and no eggs were laid before 
July 20 when, by eight o'clock, a single 
egg was seen ; during that day and the 
next, both of which were fair, about 
eight or nine eggs were laid, perhaps a 



few more. July 20, at about 2 p.m., 
two more cages were stocked, both out 
of doors on growing sedge, and in one 
five, in the other seven females were 
placed. These were examined about 
twenty-four hours later ; three eggs 
were found in the former, none in the 
latter, and all the females were re- 
placed where the five had been, and left 
in the care of Mr. H. H. Lyman who 
remained longer on the mountain. Into 
the caere in the house half a dozen more 



130 



FYS CHE. 



[August 1S91 



butterflies were placed on the afternoon 
of the 2 1st, and at seven o'clock the 
next morning this cage was taken to 
Cambridge and carefully examined, with 
the result of finding twenty-six eggs ; 
most of these were laid on the dead last 
year's blades of sedge ; a number were 
found on the wire hoops supporting the 
netting ; still fewer on the green blades 
of the sedge, — perhaps four or five; 
one on a piece of brown paper in which 
the pot was wrapped, but none either 
on the netting, the edge of the flower- 
pot, or the ground. 

Toward the end of July, 1887, as re- 
ported in my New England Butterflies, 
p. 146-147, I carried three females of this 
butterfly down the railway on Mount 
Washington to the base, and found them 
apparently affected by the change so as 
to be unable to fly. I thought it would 
be well to repeat the experiment and 
extend it ; accordingly, when I left the 
mountain July 22, I did not disturb the 
butterflies I had placed in the cage until 
I reached Cambridge, or just before 
dark of the 22d. The butterflies were 
all of them affected as described by me 
before, but to a slightly less extent, none 
lying quite helpless on their side and 
some, after being fairly down the moun- 
tain a few hours, keeping their wings 
tightly closed continuously as they hung 
from the lace. It is possible (though I 
do not think it at all probable, from the 
nearly continuous shaking of the train) 
that some of the eggs mentioned were 
laid after leaving the summit of the 
mountain, but some have certainly been 
laid since their arrival at the seaboard, 



for one was seen laid on July 23, 
seven were found on July 24 and twelve 
more on July 25. Their behavior 
below when attempting flight is quite 
the same as one finds on startling 
them up from the sedge toward the 
close of the day on the mountain ; 
they flutter close to and in contact with 
the ground as if injured, and unable 
even with desperate efforts to get away. 

It was a somewhat curious coinci- 
dence that I heard on my return that 
Mr. W. H. Edwards had received in 
West Virginia a lot of semidea, male 
and female, sent alive in a pasteboard 
box from Mount Washington ; half were 
dead, but two of the females were lively 
and wandered about the cage in which 
he placed them. It is quite evident, 
then, that the change to a lower level 
does not interfere with their activities to 
the extent that I supposed it did. 

Oeneis semidea is very abundant 
this year ; a single larva in last stage 
but not quite fully grown was found 
under a stone on July 20. 

During our stay on the mountain, 
Mr. Lyman and I searched in vain from 
the Ledge to Tuckerman's Ravine, in 
all its best known haunts, for Brenthis 
montinus without seeing one, and I am 
quite convinced that it was not on the 
wing. But an interesting capture was 
made of Eurymus interior, males of 
which, to the number of a dozen or 
two, were seen in the lower half of the 
woodless region. The only other but- 
terflies seen above timber were Argyn- 
nis cybele, Pieris rapae, and Etiphoe- 
ades glaucus. 



August 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



131 



EDWARD BURGESS. 

The death of Mr. Edward Burgess of 
Boston on July 12 at the a^e of 43 removed 
one of the few persons in America who have 
made important contributions to insect 
anatomy. 

His work was not voluminous but it was 
very careful and exact. As president of this 
Club he gave in 1880 an excellent review of 
the then recent literature in insect anatomy 
and physiology. His own most important 
and extensive paper was on the anatomy of 
the milk weed butterfly, but he worked out in 
more or less detail the anatomy of the per- 
fect stage in Anabrus and Aletia and studied 
minutely the male abdominal appendages of 
butterflies, the structure of the head of 
Psocidae, the mouth parts of the larva of 
Dytiscus and the varied course of the aorta 
in Lepidoptera. He was also the first to 
show the precise structure and working of 
the apparatus for feeding in the imago of 
Lepidoptera. 

A large part of his work was in aid of ihe 
researches of others, in which he was gener- 
ous almost to a fault, and his unselfish devo- 
tion to his duties for sixteen years as secre- 
tary of the Boston society of natural history, 
in whose publications most of his papers 
were issued, brought the office to a high 
state of efficiency — a devotion further sig- 
nalized in his will, in which he made the 
society his contingent residuary legatee. 
Besides, although he published but a single 
short paper on Diptera, his knowledge of 
this group, in which he lendered large ser- 
vice to others, was unsurpassed among our 
countrymen. 

To entomology, which he had cultivated 
with such signal success, Mr. Burgess, it is 
true, died several years ago when he parted 
from his collection and library and turned his 
attention exclusively to naval architecture in 
which he had been interested from boyhood 
and which offered far more promise of finan- 
cial returns, then first absolutely necessary 



for him to consider. His world-known suc- 
cess in his new field (for he fairly leaped 
into fame) it is not the place here to con- 
sider, but, clearly the greatest genius our 
country has ever produced in this branch of 
science, his naturalist friends without excep- 
tion will agree that in losing him from their 
immediate ranks Science at large has been 
the gainer; they were indeed eager to ap- 
plaud his success, his old scientific friends 
being, we beliqve, the very first to give him 
a tangible proof of their pride in his fellow- 
ship — a pride all the greater for the almost 
painful modesty with which he received 
every mark of his growing fame. Selfishness 
could not live in his sight. When the city 
of Boston gave him a public reception, his 
shrinking boyish figure as he rose to return 
his thanks, in which he tried to turn public 
attention rather to the one whose means, 
whose confidence and whose sympathy had 
rendered the realization of his scientific 
genius practically possible, will not soon be 
forgotten by those who witnessed it. But 
the gentleness and sincerity of his charac- 
ter, the refinement of his life and manners, 
his truthfulness and loyalty, and all those 
other delicate traits which revealed his heart 
and rendered him so dear to his intimate 
friends will remain to them a source of 
perennial inspiration. 



THE LONDON INSECTARY. 

The following extract from a recent num- 
ber of Nature shows that America is largely 
drawn upon for interesting insects in the 
display at the insect-house of the Zoological 
Society of London, and yet no special men- 
tion is made of our large and striking Bom- 
bycidae. It suggests that when the contem- 
plated natural history gardens in Boston are 
fairly established, we can easily rival any 
exhibitions of this nature now existing. 

'•The insect-house in the Zoological 
Society's Gardens is now in excellent order, 



132 



PSYCHE. 



[Augu • t 1801. 



and well deserves a visit. In addition to the 
silk-moths that are usually present during 
the warm weather, the Papilioninae, or 
swallow-tail butterflies, afford at the present 
time the chief display. The perfect insects of 
several species of the. genus Papilio have 
appeared — P. crespkontes, a/ax, and asterias 
from North America, P. alexanor from the 
Mediterranean shores, and the handsome P. 
maackii from Japan. The last named has 
been seen for the first time in the house this 
year, and offers a striking contrast to the 
other species of the genus that have pre- 
viously been exhibited in the Gardens, it 
being of black and golden-green colours in- 
stead of the yellows and blacks that we are 
accustomed to in our European swallow- 
tails. P. cresphotites has appeared in large 
numbers in the house, but no varieties have 
been obtained. This also is the first season 
for two other beautiful Papilioninae, viz. 
Doritis apollina from Asia Minor, and the 
Japanese Sericina telamon. The latter 
shows considerable difference in the mark- 
ings of the sexes. The North American 
Limenitis disippus can be at present seen in 
all its stages, and is well worthy of atten- 
tion, the caterpillar moving along the leaf- 
stalks with a peculiar interrupted gait. Of 
the sphinx moths, the south European Deile- 
phila alecto has already appeared, and D. 
nicae is expected. These insects are, how- 
ever, not seen to advantage in confinement, 
as their superb powers of flight cannot be 
displayed in a small compartment. Two 
examples of the Orthoptera are alive in the 
house — Diapheromera fe7norata, one of the 
stick- or twig-insects from North America, 
and Empusa egcna from southern Europe. 
The former has been reared from eggs laid 
in the insect-house, but these progeny are 
not so healthy as those obtained from fresh- 
ly-imported eggs. The Empusa is of a most 
bizarre form, and belongs to the family Man- 
tidae, the species of which feed only on liv- 
ing creatures. The public is indebted to Mr. 
S. H. Carver for the opportunity of seeing 



living scorpions; he has sent examples of 
two species of this group from Egypt, both 
of which unfortunately are unidentified, 
there being obvious difficulties in the way of 
carrying about live scorpions and comparing 
them with dried specimens. There is a 
third scorpion, from south Europe, living 
with its Egyptian congeners; it has a small 
delicate tail, and is altogether a less frightful 
creature, though assuming a menacing atti- 
tude with equal readiness. A spider, Lycosa 
portosantana, from Madeira, is healthy, and 
is a fine creature, though insignificant by the 
side of its neighbour, a huge Mygale from 
South America. The latter, as well as the 
scorpions, is fed with mice, which are given 
to it dead, though in its native haunts a 
Mygale has been known to prey on living 
individuals of these small mammals." 



Recent Entomological Literature. 

The first number of the 18th volume of the 
Transactions of the American entomological 
society contains convenient analytical tables 
to the genera of Coccidae by Ashmead, as well 
as a catalogue of the described South Ameri- 
can Asilidae by Williston ; one is rather sur- 
prised to see Dasypogon figuring in three 
different, places. A monograph of the spe- 
cies of Cryptohypnus found in boreal Amer- 
ica bv Horn will be welcomed by the coleop- 
terist; it includes thirty species and they 
are divided into nine groups containing from 
one to seven species each. Other papers are 
less important. If the society would print a 
table of contents to each number on the va- 
cant fourth page of the cover it would be 
very welcome, especially as the head-lines of 
the pages are not very distinctive. 

The issue of Insect life for June is a 
double one and therefore makes even a 
better showing than usual. This journal has 
now certainly justified its publication, though 
grave doubts have been expressed as to the 
province of the government in the issue of a 
periodical, and it may still be questioned 



August 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



133 



whether such a periodical should be open to 
direct contributions from others than the 
divisional force and those in the state exper- 
iment stations working in concert with them. 
Particularly technical articles like Lord 
Walsingham's seem out of place, and it 
would be hard to justify them, when there 
are plenty of openings for their publication 
and the}' have only a very indirect bearingon 
economic entomology. Were such articles 
omitted, the periodical would certainly gain 
in character, and as it is, quite apart from its 
value on the purely economic side, no ento- 
mological periodical in the world is so rich 
in interesting and varied notes on the habits 
of insects. 

Apropos of the "jumping-bean" which is 
twice mentioned in this number of Insect 
life, once in the answer to correspondents 
and again in the proceedings of the Ento- 
mological society of Washington, it may be 
well to call attention to a recently published 
foreign paper on Carcocafsa saltitans, and 
on another and nearly allied moth, Gra- 
■pholitlia motrix, which causes similar move- 
ments in the fruit of Colliguaya brasilteiisis 
in Uruguay : the article, by Dr. Berg of 
Montevideo, will be found in the Anales of 
the Sociedad cientifica argentina, vol. 31. 
The new moth is particularly interesting since 
the motor power in Dr. Riley's new jumping- 
bean is recognized by him as also a 
Grapholitha. 

Kolbe's Introduction to the knowledge of 
insects is so good that one must scold at its 
slow appearance. Begun in 1889, it has only 
reached its sixth number, and to judge by 
the scheme laid down in the prospectus it is 
not a quarter finished ; we hope it is not, for 
though we find some oversights, it contains 
a rare collection of facts and some very in- 
teresting discussions; the present number 
deals with the structure of the legs and of 
the abdomen ; the account of the ovipositor 
and of the claspers seems rather meagre 
though possibly more is to be given in the 
next part. 



A MOULTING-HABIT OF LARVAE OF PLA- 

tysamia ceanothi. — In watching a brood of 
ceanothi larvae, which are living on wild 
cherry, my attention has been drawn to a 
habit, noticed at each moult, and which I 
have not seen in other Bombj'cid larvae. 
When first becoming quiet the larva spun a 
loose web to the twig just in front of its 
head, at a short distance. When the mask 
had fallen and the skin split in moulting, the 
larva grasped this loose web with its first 
pair of feet, and pulled itself along by it, till 
all the feet were free and could cling to the 
silk. Then moulting proceeded by the usual 
contraction and expansion of the muscles. 
This was done by every larva at every moult. 
Caroline G. Soule. 



A "Manual of North American Butter- 
flies" by C. J. Maynard has just been pub- 
lished by DeWolfe, Fiske, & Co. of Boston. 
It is an octavo of over 200 pp. with ten plates 
and numerous figures in the text, and de- 
scribes more than 600 nominal species. The 
first thing which strikes one on looking it 
over is the total absence of the slightest 
allusion to any of the early stages of butter- 
flies, excepting that a single chrysalis is fig- 
ured. The only reference to the fact that 
they have a history — a history the study of 
which forms the chief charm and interest in 
these insects, and the one thing to which all 
novices should be pointed — is in some such 
curt statement as "occurs in June and July." 
Not even a single reference either general or 
particular is given to show that such life" 
histories are known; we believe the word 
"larva" or "caterpillar" does not appear be- 
yond the third page where the body of the 
work begins. The second thing we notice, 
considering that the book "is intended for 
the use of the tyro as well as for the advanced 
student," is the absence of a single table to 
distinguish the different genera of a family, 
or the different species of a genus. Thirty- 
five genera of Nymphalidae. for instance, to 
be distinguished by the tyro with no other 



134 



PSYCHE. 



[August 1S91 ■ 



aid than plodding through each of the de- 
scriptions in turn to see which fits best; or 
fifty-three species of Argynnis in a similar 
plight except that here the rough but fairly 
good figures of the under side of a hind wing 
materially aid the comparison ; or again 
eighty-six species of Pamphila where even 
figures of a single wing are wanting in more 
than two thirds of the species! For such 
characteristics as these, no possible excel- 
lence in the descriptions or the sequence, or 
even in the illustrations could possibly 
atone. It is planned upon wrong lines — a 
dreary guide to a delightful study. Better a 
single life-history well worked out, to beget 
a wish to learn more, than the whole of it. 
Butterflies are not lifeless postage-stamps, 
and should not be treated as such. 

A very lively and interesting account is 
given in the last number of the Journal of 
the Cincinnati society of natural history of 
the wanderings and collections of a "Cin- 
cinnati boy in the tropics," William Do- 
herty, who entirely without funds has wan- 
dered all through the east, making fine col- 
lections in natural history, especially in- 
sects, and paying his way by their sales. 
Through perils and adventures innumerable 
he seems so far to have escaped with his 
life; "my beggar-like and dilapidated garb 
was my safeguard against robbers," he says, 
"and my running after butterflies was calcu- 
lated to impress them that I was a harmless 
lunatic and so I got through where a more 
pretentious personage might have failed." 

Reference was made in our June number, 
p. 100, to the reported death of Kiinckel, and 
discredit given to the story that he had been 
overcome by locusts in Algiers. It now 
appears that the entire story must have been 
a fabrication, for records have reached us of 
two or three meetings of the French entomo- 
logical society (of which he was once presi- 
dent) subsequent to the date of his reported 
death, and no sort of reference to such an 
event appears, though at least one necrolo- 
gical notice is given ; moreover Kiinckel has 



since that date been appointed upon a com- 
mittee of the society, and presented papers 
both to it and to the French Academy! We 
observe that Entomological news publishes 
the telegram from Algiers as if it had no 
doubt of its truth. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

14 February, 1S90. — The 151st meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St., Mr. S. 
H. Scudder in the chair. 

The annual report of the librarian, post- 
poned from the January meeting, was read 
and accepted. The auditors announced that 
the report of the treasurer was correct, and it 
was accepted. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen asked the opinion of 
those present concerning books on entomol- 
ogy for the use of beginners and amateurs. 
Our common insects, Half-hours with in- 
sects, and Entomology for beginners, by Dr. 
Packard, and Comstock's Introduction were 
mentioned as the most available. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder read from a letter of 
Mr. James Fletcher an account of damage 
done to the pine staves of the water pipes of 
the Ottawa (Can.) water system. The pipes 
have been in use fifteen years. The destruc- 
tion is supposed to be due first to the deca}'- 
ing of a very thin layer of the surface of the 
wood through the chemical action of river 
water, and then to the removal of the de- 
cayed surface by aquatic beetles. Beetles be- 
longing to Dryops and Macronychus were 
found in the injured wood; also larvae pro- 
visionally referred to the same genera. 

Mr. Scudder read an account of the habits 
of spiders, by Jonathan Edwards, written in 
the last century, and recently published in 
the Andover Review. 

Mr. Scudder also read a letter from Mr. 
E. A. Smyth, Jr., giving his observations on 
the habits and relative abundance of several 
coliads found in North and South Carolina. 
(See Psyche, v. 5, p. 334.) 






PSYCHE, 



A. JOXJR2STA.L OF ENTOMOLOGY. 










[Established in 1S74.] 

Vol. 6. No. 185. 

September, 1891. 

CONTENTS: 

Some old Correspondence between Harris, Say and Pickering. — III 
Hemaris diffinis. — Ida M. Eliot, Caroline G. Soule .... 

Notes on bombycid larvae. — II. — Harrison G. Dyar 

The new catalogue of European Coleoptera. — John Hamilton 
Temperature experiments with moths. — Frederic Alerrifield 
Some abnormal larvae; another deidamia inscripta. — Caroline G. Soule 
Miscellaneous Notes (Monograph of the Conocephalinae ; larva of Micropteryx 
hermaphroditic Arthropoda) ......... 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club .... 



137 
142 

*45 
147 

14S 
149 

150 
150 



Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS. 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



136 



PSYCHE. 



[September 1S91 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

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FOR SALE. 

The collection of insects made by the late Henry 
Edwards, consisting of about 300,000 specimens of 
all orders and well represented in large numbers of 
individuals and long suites of specimens, from all 
parts of the world. Is particularly rich in Pacific 
coast of North America species. A large number 
of Lepidoptera from this region were described by 
Mr. Edwards and his types are in the collection. In- 
stitutions or private persons wishing to purchase 
will please address Mrs. Henry Edwards, 185 E. 116 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

The following books and pamphlets are for sale 

by the CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB : 

Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Illinois. Trans. Dept. Agric. for 1876 (con- 
taining first report of Thomas, State Entomo- 
logist). Springfield. 111., 1878 . . . 1.00 

Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged in- 
sects of America: a re-examination of the 
Devonian insects of New Brunswick, in the 
light of criticisms and of new studies of other 
paleozoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875. 1. 00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col. pi. Boston, 1883. .25 

Scudder, S. H. The fossil butterflies of 
Florissant, Col., Washington, 1889 . . 1.00 

Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Jahrg. 
42-46. Stettin, 1881-1885. . . . 5. co 

U. S. Entomological Commission. Bulletins, 
Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 ..... 1. 00 

— Third Report, Washington, 1883 . . 2.50 

— Fourth Report, Washington, 1885 . . 2.00 
Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 



FOR SALE. 
Ceylon, Java, Borneo and New Guinea Insects, 
especially Lepidoptera and Coleoptera singly or in 
lots. Also Orthoptera, dragon-flies, land and fresh 
water shells at low prices. 

H. FRUHSTORFER, 

Care German Consulate, 

Soerabaia, Java. 



PSYCHE. 



SOME OLD CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HARRIS, SAY AND 

PICKERING.— III. 



[HARRIS TO SAY.] 

Milton (Mass.) Nov'r 18, 1824. 

To Thomas Say, Esq. 
Dear Sir, 

I have waited until 
this for a private conveyance of the 
box of insects which accompanies this 
letter. 

The numbers of your Journal which 
I have received have afforded me much 
gratification, particularly the papers by 
yourself and those by Mr. Charles Bon- 
aparte. From your descriptions I have 
already recognized several of my insects, 
& probably shall more when I can find 
leisure to examine them. The last 
number of the Journal wh. I have re- 
ceived is that for August ; & I shall be 
glad to have any numbers that have 
since appeared sent me by the gentle- 
man to whom I have entrusted this 
letter & box. I have requested Mr. 
Fuller to procure for me the first vol- 
ume of your American Entomology, 
from which I anticipate much informa- 
tion & pleasure. If the work is pub- 
lished by subscription I should be happy 
to use my endeavours to procure sub- 
scribers for you. 

I am completely at a loss for the de- 
scription of that zveevil which, in your 
letter of the 26th May, you call the 



pinastri of Fabricius. The same spe- 
cific name occurs in Melsheimer's cata- 
logue ; but I find no species by that 
name in the works of Fabricius which I 
possess : These are his Entomologia 
Systematica, 5 vols. 1792-179S ; & his 
Systema Eleutheratorum, S. Rhyn- 
gotorum, S. Piezatorum, & S. Antli- 
atoru??i, 5 vols. 1S01-1S05. Neither 
does the specific name pinastri occur 
in Gftielin's Linne. 

Curc2ilio Nenuphar Herbst I do not 
find in Fabr. or Gmelin, & have not 
access to the work of Herbst. 

I must thank you to refer me to the 
number of the Journal Acad. Nat. Sc. 
in which your description of Stenoco- 
rus tridens is to be found. 

Last September I was so fortunate as 
to discover the male of that species of 
Aegeria of which [ sent you the female 
in the spring, & to wh. I gave the name 
oifulvicornis, in a former letter. After 
repeating my definition of the species I 
will, agreeably to your request, add the 
characters of the male. Aegeria (ful- 
vicornis) brunnea, alis posticis hyali- 
nis ; margine postico, stigmateque cos- 
tali fuliginoso ; antennis tarsisque fulvis, 
abdomine barbato. Mas minor, alis 
anticis basi hyalinis, apice opacis;ano 
tribarbato, barba media perlonga, fulva. 
The most remarkable characteristic of 



138 



PSYCHE. 



September 1S91. 



the male is the extremely long, slender, 
bearded appendage to the abdomen, of 
a tawny or dirty yellow colour. The 
whole length of the male from the head 
to the extremity of this appendage is T 8 ^ 
of an inch ; this appendage is not quite 
t 4 q of an inch; beirg nearly as long as 
the whole body. Standing obliquely 
on each side of the anus is a little fuli- 
ginous tuft. The abdomen is some- 
what fulvous beneath. The anterior & 
intermediate extremities are fulvous, the 
latter however have a dark patch on the 
genicula & tibiae. The first joint of 
the posterior tarsus is much more pilose 
than in the female; the hair near the 
union of the tarsus & tibia is fuliginous, 
the remainder fulvous. The pectina- 
tions of the antennas are slightly fus- 
cous. This is the only male that I have 
ever seen, & I found it on the identical 
currant bush from which I had the pre- 
ceding year taken the females. 

I have this season met with a species 
of Cicindela that is new to me, & which 
I cannot identify as any one of those de- 
scribed by you in the Trans. Am. 
Philos. Soc. Phila. 1S1S. I have called 
it Cicindela (eryt/irog~aster)* obscure 
fusca, elytris lunulis basi et apicis, 
fascia intermedia flexuosa, punctisque 
duobus albidis : abdomine femoribusque 
viridis ; ano late rufo. Length half an 
inch. Antenna? green at base. Head 
cupreous, with two green abbreviated 
lines between the eyes. Mandibles 
white at the base, black at the points. 
Lip white, with a single tooth. Thorax 
cupreous obscure, with the margin & 
breast green. Elytra obs[c]ure, some- 

*[See Harris, Entom. corresp., p. 2.] 



what cupreous, with a humeral & ter- 
minal lunule, an intermediate flexuous 
band, & two spots behind the band 
whitish. Abdomen green, the hypo- 
gastrium red. Feet obscure, thighs 
green. I have only met with one spec- 
imen, which was captured in a dry, 
gravelly pasture. 

Prof. Peck taught me to define the 
species in Latin & I have generally ad- 
hered to his advice, though it savours 
somewhat of pedantry. 

My friend, Mr. Fuller, has kindly 
taken charge of a package containing 
two boxes of insects for you. In box i , 
(the bottom one) are some of the Cole- 
optera which I have collected. They 
are all numbered in order to facilitate 
you in naming to me such as have been 
described, & to enable you to indicate 
the nondescripts. I have kept a cata- 
logue to correspond, with arbitrary 
names for all the species not as yet as- 
certained. From the want of books, 
plates, & access to other cabinets, but 
more than all, from the want of time to 
examine them I have made out but few 
of the species. These I have added, 
however, that I might from your infor- 
mation and experience, render myself 
doubly sure ; & also that I might learn 
of vou to what genera they are to be re- 
ferred, according to the System of Dr. 
Leach in Brewster's Encyclop. I pre- 
fer on most accounts his system to that 
of Latreille in the Regne Animal of 
Cuvier. Should it however be incon- 
venient to you to follow the first, I must 
content myself with having the genera 
according to the second ; with such syn- 
onyms as may be necessary. No. i of 



September 1S91 .] 



PSYCHE. 



139 



the Coleoptera I once supposed to be 
Cicindela trifasciata, F. ; but now 
think it must be you[r] C. vulgaris. No. 
7 is probably Brachinus fumans F. 
No. 27 much resembles your Buprestis 
divaricata ; but is evidently a distinct 
species, from the construction of the 
apex of the elytra. No. 37 is the lumi- 
nous larva ? of some Lampyris : it is 
very common in low grounds in Sept'r 
and Oct'r. Nos. 66, 67, 68, and 69 
may perhaps be only sexual or other 
varieties of one species. The same 
may be true as to Nos. 136, 137, 138, 
and 139. No. 76 I take to be your Alelo- 
lontha pilosicollis ; No. 83 your M. 
sericea ; & No. 86 your Cetonia bar- 
bata. No. 93, as was observed by 
Prof. Peck, differs somewhat from the 
European Tenebrio molitor. No. 98 
is to be found in all stages within the 
legumes of Baptisia (Sophora L.) 
tinctoria, in the months of Aug't and 
Sept'r. No. 106 inhabits beneath the 
bark of the Plum-tree; No. 107 beneath 
that of the Juniperus virginiana and 
if they are not already described by 
some other name, should, according to 
a rule of Linnaeus, bear for their spe- 
cific designations the generic names of 
the trees which afford them sustenance. 
This rule I conceive to be of the high- 
est importance ; and it appears most 
proper to distinguish the species of in- 
sects by the names of the trees or plants 
on which they live, in every instance 
where it is practicable, or where the 
habitat is known. 

Can you tell me where I am to look 
for the larva of No. 1 14, Lamia torna- 



tor, F. & for that of No. 117? That of 
No. 116 inhabits the Lombardy poplar. 
Can No. 117 be Stenocorus cyaneus, 
F. ? Dr. Leach has separated from the 
genus Rhagium some insects to which 
he has given the generic name of Har- 
gium ; the characters of which are, 
'•'•Thorax with a spi?ic on each side; 
antenna thickest in the middle." 
The type of this genus is Rhagium 
indagator, F. Now it seems to me 
that No. 117 might be referred to this 
genns. Please give me your opinion 
on the subject. No. 132 appears to be 
Cassida aurichalcea, F. but no men- 
tion is made, in the description of that 
species, of the small black spot on each 
elytron. I have written a paper on 
this insect for my friend Hon'l John 
Lowell. No. 149 is extremely com- 
mon on the Tilia americana, & the 
English Elm. 

In the second box No. 1 is a complete 
scare-sleep, and from its note is called 

"Katy-did" No. 20, Sigara 

swims in the ordinary way, & not upon 
its back. No. 21, Afembracis bimacu- 
latus ? F. is found in abundance on the 
Robinia pseudacacia in September. 
You may have observed the knotted 
condition of the small twigs of this tree. 
Each protuberance contains in summer 
a reddish worm, the larva of some in- 
sect, which lives on the pith, & leaves 
the tree to go through its metamorpho- 
sis, probably in the ground. May it 
not be the larva of this species of JZem- 
bracis. Do you know the oeconomy 
of No. 33 ? I have ascertained the 
metamorphosis of Nos. 34. 35, 36, 44, 



140 



PSTCHE. 



[September 1S91. 



45? 4 6 > 47' 4 S > 49' & 5°- The history 
of some of them, particularly the 5 or 6 
last, is interesting to the agriculturist, 
etc. On the cover are 3 more Lepi- 
doptera, with whose changes I have 
made myself acquainted ; & wish to be 
sure that I have ascertained the species. 
No. 129 I take to be Papilio Troilus, 
F., No. 130 P. asterias, F., & No. 
131 P. cardni, F. All three were 
raised from the young larvae. No. 75 
is the parasite of Papilio Asterias. I 
have sent but few specimens of the 
Order Lepidoptera, because they are 
large, and occupy too much room. 

Do you know the larva of Papilio 
Hyale ? & its habitat ? Of Diptera the 
box contains but 3 species. The Myopa 
& Asilus are curious from their resem- 
blance of Hymenopterous insects. 

On the cover are a few shells, ob- 
tained from a pond of stagnant (fresh) 
water. These & some from our beach 
which I picked up last summer are not 
sent as curiosities, but to convince you 
of my desire to comply with your 
wishes, as far as it is in my power. 

If you have no use for the insects I 
shall esteem it a great favour to obtain, 
through your means, an exchange of 
specimens with any collectors in your 
vicinity. You have several insects wh. 
are desiderata, e. g. Cremastocheilus 
castanea; Knoch., Geotrupes Titytis, 
F. ; Bolitophagus comutus ; Brentus 
anchorago, & other species of the same 
genus ; Rhagium inquisitor, F. ; 
Elaphrus riparius; Tipula tritici ; 
&c, &c. 1 have not yet found native 
species of Blaps; but very few of 



Dytiscus, of which No. 23 in Box 1 is 
the largest ; & but one small Hydro- 
philus. Those insects which I have 
sent are such as are the most common 
here : you can thence form some idea 
of what my collection must consist. 

I am desirous to know whether Xenos 
Peckii is common with you ; & whether 
you have discovered any other species 
either of Xenos or Sty/ops. I could in 
summer obtain any number of Xenos 
Peckii, but do not know how to pre- 
pare them for the Cabinet. 

I will now bring this long letter to a 
close, hoping that you will excuse me 
if I have trespassed on your time and 
patience ; for I am like a traveller in a 
strange land, anxious to obtain infor- 
mation, & the best of guides. 

Be pleased, Sir, to accept the best 
wishes & grateful acknowledgements 
of 

Yours, very respectfully, 

T. William Harris. 

[DRAFT OF REPLY BY THOMAS SAY.] 

Jan'y Sth, 1S25. 

Dear Sir! 

Your interesting letter with 
the boxes of fine insects came to hand in 
excellent order by Mr. Fuller, at whose 
lodging I called several times, but 
probably owing to his engagements, I 
saw only once for a few minutes. 

With respect to the pinastri I think 
it highly probable that I have adopted 
the name from Melsheimers Catalogue 
without examination since I do not find 
the insect desc'd in my Mss. Since 
the reception of y'r letter, I have looked 



September 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



141 



for it in vain in Fabr. & Herbst. Prof. 
Peck's name may therefore probably be 
retained. 

Although much of Herbst's great 
work was publ'd long before the Syst. 
Eleut. yet it contains a great many 
desc's not noticed by Fabr. 

I am very happy to find that I have 
not publ'd the Stenocortts tridens ; 
after much search I discovered the 
desc'n of the insect amongst my rejected 
Mss. with the following note sub- 
scribed "It is probable that this is the 
villosiis Fabr. as it agrees very well 
with his short desc'n." I do not think 
I have seen any insect that agrees better 
with the bidens Fabr. than this spe- 
cies, but he attributes to that sp. 2 
spines to the extremity of each joint of 
the antennas. It may be different from 
both, in which case Prof. Peck's name 
of putator must of course be retained. 

Your /Egeria fulvicornis, is, I think 
new ; it is certainly a charming and cu- 
rious insect. I cannot determine 
whether the Cicindela be new or only a 
variety, but I am inclined to the opin- 
ion that it is new. I have no unpub- 
lished description of a Cicindela. 

I agree with you perfectly with re- 
spect to latin specific definitions ; I do 
not see the necessity of thus using that 
language in preference to the French, 
German or English languages, for I 
believe that almost every naturalist of 



any distinction can read a description in 
either. If any part is to be latinized I 
conceive it ought to be the history 
which is always the most difficult to 
read in a foreign language. 

The following is a list of the insects 
contained in the first box, carefully 
compared with descriptions of authors, 
with my Mss. descr's & with the speci- 
mens in my cabinet. [The list is not 
given.] The contents of the second 
box I have not yet had time to' examine 
& compare, but I will attend to them 
as early as possible. 

A new genus has recently been made 
by Dejean for the Stenocorus cyaneus 
Fabr. under the name of Des?nocerus. 
It could not be referred to the g's Har- 
gium of Leach, which is not adopted 
by subsequent writers. 

I regret my inability to give you any 
information relative to the larvae you 
mention, my opportunity of becoming 
acquainted with the changes of insects 
is at pi'esent very limited. 

You mention having sent some 
Marine shells, but I have only received 
those that are attached to the lid of one 
of the boxes, & they are all fresh water ; 
I therefore suppose that there was a 
package that I have, unfortunately, not 
received. 

Xenos peckli is common here; but I 
have not seen any other species of the 
genus or of Stylops. 



142 



PSYCHE. 



[September 1S91. 



HEMARIS DIFFINIS: FROM LARVAE SENT FROM MISSOURI. 

BY IDA M. ELIOT AND CAROLINE G. SOULE. 



May 30. The larvae arrived and 
were moulting for the second time. 

Length 5-8 inch. Head pale green, round, 
with a deep median suture, and three glau- 
cous spots on the sutures; granulated with 
white. Body pale green dorsally, darker on 
the sides; venter with three brown longitu- 
dinal lines; thickly granulated with white. 
1st segment crowned with a transverse, 
double row of bright yellow, raised granules, 
which projected over the head, giving it a 
retracted look. This segment was bluer 
green than the others. Feet and props 
almost white barred with dark brown. Cau- 
dal horn long, slender, rough, bright yellow 
at the sides of the base, blue-black elsewhere. 
Anal shield slightly yellow at tip. Spiracles 
deep blue black, ringed with pale blue. No 
obliques. 

June 2, jd moult. — Length 1 1-8 inches. 
Head clear blue-green, granulated with 
white. Mouth-parts blue-black. Body: 1st 
segment blue-green, crowned with trans- 
verse, double row of yellow granules, de- 
pressed on dorsal line. Other segments 
white-green dorsally, very yellow-green 
laterally, and with the venter red-brown, 
with two longitudinal stripes of dark brown 
which included the base of props and feet. 
The body was thickly granulated with white, 
yellower on the sides. Feet and props 
brown, barred with darker brown. Caudal 
horn long, slender, straight, sharp, rough, 
bright yellow at sides of base, blue-black 
elsewhere. Anal shield with a faint yellow 
tip. Spiracles deep blue-black, with a white 
dot in the black at top and bottom ; a pale 
blue ring encircled the whole. No obliques. 
June 9, 4th moult. — Like the third, except 
in size. Length, 1 1-2 to 1 3-4 inches, vary- 
ing in individuals. 



June 13. Stopped eating, and the 
dorsum and head turned almost purple. 
Spun light cocoons, fastening leaves to 
the tin. 

June 16. Pupated. 

Pupa 1 1-8 inches long, smooth, slender, 
with the head very pointed, and anal tip 
very short and rough. In some specimens 
the tongue-case was hardly to be seen, in 
others was a flat ridge extending just beyond 
the apex of the wings. In color the pupae 
were of a dark brown, much lighter between 
the segments, and almost black on the head, 
thorax and wings. 

They were the most active pupae we 
have ever seen . One pupa had not 
given the imago up to Aug. S, 1S91, 
although very lively, rolling from one 
end of the box to the other whenever 
the box was jarred. 

The larvae had been fed on Sym- 
phoricarpus racemosus until they 
reached us, but ate Lojticera tartarica 
and L. japonica, and were fed chiefly 
on the former. 

They had one unusual peculiarity : 
The slender part of the caudal horn 
was easily rubbed oft", more than half 
the larvae losing it at some stage, and 
regaining it at the next moult, or losing 
it entirely during the stage before pupa- 
tion. 

The first moth, $ , emerged July 4, 
a second $ emerged July 6, and a 9 
somewhat later in the day, but before 
noon. 



September 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



143 



There were no signs of mating until 
the box was put into strong sunlight, 
when in less than five minutes the pair 
were in coitu, and so remained for 
about two hours. 

Our moths differed somewhat from 
those described by Mr. Fernald in his 
'•Sphingidae of New England." 

The $ had the top of the head, thorax, 
and first two abdominal segments of a bright 
green — almost parrot-green — the dorsal line 
being a trifle browner, and the sides of the 
abdominal segments a little yellower. The 
next two segments of the abdomen were 
almost orange, the second browner on the 
dorsum, and the first having a brown dorsal 
line. Both these segments were edged pos- 
teriorly with dark brown. The rest of the 
abdomen was dark brown, and ended in 
heavy anal tufts, those on the sides being 
black, that in the middle yellow-brown. 
On the sides of the first two abdominal 
segments, and on the dorsum of the second 
were small tufts of blue hairs. The upper 
part of the palpi, the sides of the thorax, the 
legs and the underpart of the abdomen were 
black. The under part of the palpi, the first 
joint of forelegs, and the sides of the thorax 
just beneath the base of the wings were 
bright canary yellow, as was a spot between 
the second pair of legs. On the yellow 
abdominal segments there was a broad black 
ventral band. 

When freshly emerged the transparent 
parts of the wings were covered with black 
scales thickly enough to look almost as 
opaque as the dark border, but these scales 
quickly rubbed off as the moths moved about. 
The forewings had a brown costal band, a 
much wider band on the outer margin, with 
a rust-colored spot near the apex and a brown 
patch at the base of the wings, continuing as 
a band along the hinder edge. Veins dark 
brown. When freshly emerged there was a 
patch of green hairs overlapping the base of 



the wings, but these soon rubbed off. The 
hind wings were edged with rusty brown, the 
band being widest on the inner border. 
Veins rusty brown. All these brown bands 
were opaque, and the transparent parts of the 
wings were irridescent in the light. Legs 
black, irridescent in the light. Antennae 
wide, club shaped, with a little spine at 
the apex, rusty black, serrate on the two 
edges. 

The $ differed in having no blue tufts on 
the abdomen; smaller antennae, which were 
not at all serrate; smaller anal tufts; and 
yellow, instead of orange, on the abdominal 
segments. The brown dorsal line on these 
segments w*as wider than on those of the $ . 

The moths were very quiet unless 
put into the sunlight when they at once 
began to fly about almost incessantly. 
Sugar and water were put on the net- 
ting over the box, but I am not sure 
that they fed at all. 

The 9 began to lay her eggs at about 
9.30 a.m., July 7th. The eggs were 
small, oval, bright green. Sixty eggs 
were laid the first day, and became 
slightly depressed on the next day. 
The moth would lay fifteen or twenty 
eggs, making a great noise and fuss 
over them, and then would seem ex- 
hausted, and rest for a long time before 
laying more. 

Sixty-one eggs were laid on the sec- 
ond day. Forty-three eggs were laid 
on the third day. Forty-four were laid 
on the fourth day and the $ died 
before noon, having laid 20S eggs. 
July 14, at 1 p.m., the eggs began to 
hatch, having turned yellow two days 
before. 

Young larva 1-8 inch long, pale yellow, 
tapering from the large, round head to the 



144 



PSYCHE. 



[September 1S91. 



anal segment. The body was covered with 
short white — or colorless — hairs, and the feet 
and props were of the body color. The 
mouth-parts were pink; the anterior edge of 
the first segment overlapped the head, and 
was whiter than the head or the body. The 
caudal horn was yellow at first, then gray, 
then black. It was straight, stout, blunt and 
rather long in proportion to the body. Jt 
had one hair arising from its tip. There 
was a substigmatal ridge, whiter than the 
body, from head to tip of anal shield. 

The larvae did not eat any part of the 
eggshell, but at once went to the leaves 
provided for them and began to eat. 
This is unusual in our experience of 
newly-hatched larvae, most kinds not 
beginning to feed until at least twelve 
hours from the egg, though they all 
drink greedily. After eating the larvae 
became glassy green, with yellow head, 
anal segment, feet, props, and substig- 
matal ridge. 

July 17. 1st moult. — 1-4 inch long. Head 
small, yellow. Body above green, covered 
with short hairs seen only with a lens; 
beneath almost purple. First segment with 
a dorsal crest of yellow granules depressed on 
dorsal line. Caudal horn blue-black, long, 
slender, rough, yellow at sides of base. Feet, 
props, and spiracles blue-black. 

July 20. 2d moult. — Length 1-2 inch+. 
Head green. First segment greener than the 
others, and crested as before, both head and 
1st segment being granulated with white. 
Substigmatal ridge yellower. All else as 
before. 

July 23. jd moult. — 1 1-8 inches in length. 
Head and 1st segment greener than the rest 
of body and of a blue-green. Body finely 
granulated with white. Dorsum very white- 
green ; sides very yellow-green ; venter 
almost black. Feet, props, and spiracles 
blue-black, the latter set in rings of pale 



blue. Caudal horn as before. Crest on 1st 
segment as before. 

Nine larvae came out of a clear, soft 
chocolate brown, with the first segment 
browner, and crested with yellow gran- 
ules ; the base of the caudal horn yellow 
on its sides ; spiracles, feet, and props 
blue-black. There was no difference 
of color between dorsum and sides, as 
in the green larvae. They were as 
vigorous and ate as voraciously as the 
green ones. One was yellow on dor- 
sum and brown elsewhere. 

Two others were pale brown on dor- 
sum, dark brown on sides, and had 
black heads. The substigmatal ridge 
was lost at this moult. 

July 27. 4th moult. — Head as before. 
Venter red-brown with a dark stripe on each 
side, in which the feet and props were set. 
Dorsum and sides as before. Feet nearly 
black with a white bar across the outer side. 
Props brown barred with darker brown. 
Spiracles blue-black, each with a white dot 
t7i the black at each end, and set in a ring of 
pale blue. Horn as before. 

They varied somewhat in the ventral 
marks, some having the tan-colored median 
stripe extend from head to anal props, 
others from 5th segment to anal props, the 
first five segments being almost black. 

The dark larvae came out with the head 
black, not shining. Body deep chocolate 
brown granulated with white, and lighter on 
the dorsum. First segment and anal shield 
and props bright orange granulated with yel- 
low. Feet and props dark brown. Venter 
tan-colored, with an almost black stripe on 
each side. Horn yellow at the sides of its 
base, blue-black the rest of the way, and 
rough. 

August 2d they measured from i 3-4 
to 2 inches in length, and the first ones 



September 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



145 



turned purplish on head and dorsum, 
stopped eating, and began wandering 
about the tin for a place to spin. The 
brown ones turned duller in color. 

Aug. 3. The}- had spun slight co- 
coons. 

Aug. 7. They pupated. 

This account gives the dates of 
moults, spinning and pupation of the 
larvae first hatched. The others were 
later in nil their changes, and the last 
hatched did not grow so large or so 
rapidly as the first. 

These larvae were very voracious, 
and ate even the berries of the Lonicera 
and the stems down to the woody twig. 
They required food-supply three times 



a day, after the fourth moult, although 
the tins were large and but thirteen 
larvae were kept in one tin. 

They were very placid, slow, easy- 
going larvae, bore any amount of hand- 
ling, and were crawled over by each 
other without any of the petulant 
twitching and biting always shown, 
under such circumstances, by larvae of 
juglandis, astylus, abbotii, and other 
Sphingidae. 

Out of the 1 20 larvae we undertook 
to rear only two died, and those two 
were from the last eggs laid and died in 
moulting. 

Brooklixe, Mass. Aug. 8, iSgi. 



NOTES ON BOMBYCID LARVAE.— II. 



BY HARRISON G. DVAR, NEW YORK, N. Y 



Orgyia definita Packard. (For refer- 
ences, see above, p. in; to which add:) 

1890. Leifert, 5th rep. U. S. ent. comm. 
p. 561. 

First larval stage. Head pale testaceous, 
darker on the vertex; ocelli black, mouth 
brown; width 0.5 mm. Body pale whitish, 
the subdorsal warts on joint 2 larger than 
the rest, the dorsal warts blackish. Hair long, 
pale whitish. There are no pencils nor 
brush-tufts of hair and no retractile tuber- 
cles on joints 10 and n. As the stage ad- 
vances all the warts become dark. 

Tortricidia flavula Herrich-Schaffer. 

1854- Herr.-Sch., Sam. ausser. schmett, 
ng- 1S5. 

Mature larva. By its shape allied to the 
larva of Litkacodes fasciola H.-S. Head re- 
tracted beneath joint 2, which is in turn re- 



tracted beneath joint 3; greenish testaceous, 
mouth parts brown, ocelli black. Body el- 
liptical, the sides sloping from a slight sub- 
dorsal ridge, and contracted between joints 
12 and 13, giving the last segment a square 
appearance. Bright green, the dorsum 
largely covered by a patch of salmon color 
or purple brown bordered with a crimson 
line and a yellow shade. It begins somewhat 
broadly above the head on joint 3, narrows at 
once to a dorsal band on joints 4 and 5, 
widens twice, the second time passing down 
to the subventral edge of the body at joint 8, 
then narrows twice (this part of the outline 
varies in different examples), and tapers to a 
point at the anal extremity. The body is 
covered very minutely with translucent gran- 
ulations, the usual elliptical depressions 
hardly distinct, smooth, whitish in the dorsal 
patch, and containing a dorsal and lateral 
row of blackish spots. Length 9 mm. 



146 



PSYCHE. 



[September 1891. 



The cocoon and pupa do not differ from 
those of all the other Cochlidiae. 

Food plants. Deciduous trees. 

I have bred from these larvae four moths 
which are alike, and correspond with Her- 
rich-Schaffer's figure. Under a glass there 
can be distinguished a few brown scales rep- 
resenting the usual lines. In the Elliot col- 
lection, now in the American Museum of 
Natural History, is a fine series of a Tor- 
tricidia which represents both T. flavula and 
T. pallida, with a number of examples that 
appear to connect the two. In T. pallida the 
lines are present very much as in Limacodes 
Jlexuosa Grt.,* but the inner one is somewhat 
curved as Herrich-Schaffer figures it. T. 
pallida can be distinguished from L. Jlexuosa 
by the pale, flesh-color shading that is seen 
to overspread the basal half of primaries in 
certain lights, while in L,. Jlexuosa the wings 
are uniformly ochreous. The two species are 
closely related however. 

Apatelodes torrefacta Abbot & Smith. 
1797. A. & S., Lep. Ins. Ga., tab. 76. 

1889. Soule, Psyche, V, 148. 

1890. Packard, Proc. Bost, soc. nat. hist. 
XXIV, 519. 

More observations are needed to determine 
the number of larval stages of this species. 
Miss Soule finds five stages, and Dr. Packard 
has recorded six, but it is almost certain that 
both have found too few, and, as no measure- 
ments of the head are given, it is impossible 
to tell where the error is. 

I obtained the larva on July 30, apparently 
about half grown. It molted four times, and 
the measurements of the head for the five 
stages which/I observed were as follows : — 

1.3 mm,, 1.6 mm., 2.1 mm., 2.6 mm., 3.2 
mm. 

These correspond very well with the series 
derived with the ratio .80 by calculation from 
the last stage. But, if there are only six 
stages, the newly-hatched larva would have 

* I have elsewhere called attention to the probable 
synonymy of this species. 



a head 1.05 mm. wide, which would be very 
unusual for a larva as small as this. Of the 
species which I have recorded in Psyche, 
vol. 5, p. 420, et sea., the only larva hatch- 
ing with a head this size is Platysamia cecro- 
pia, which is, of course, a very much larger 
insect. If we calculate the series further 
back, say to ten terms, we have the following 
result : — 

0.42, 0.53, 0.66,0.83, !-05> I-3 1 ' 1-64. 2 -05, 
2.56, 3.20. 

In my opinion, 0.S3 mm. or 0.66 mm. would 
be about right for this larva in the first stage, 
and hence I conclude Apatelodes torrefacta 
has as many as seven or eight stages.* 

I shall be much interested to have this 
verified or disproved, which can be easily 
done by any one who can determine the 
width of the head of the newly-hatched larva 
from a living or an alcoholic specimen. 

Gluphisia trilineata Packard. 

1S64. Pack., Proc. ent. soc. Phil.. Ill, 
355- 

1S83. Edwards & Elliot, Papilio, III, 129. 

The larva of this species has been briefly 
described in its last stage by Edwards & El- 
liott. It is not uncommon on poplar in 
Dutchess and Ulster counties, N. Y., often 
associated with Rap/iiaf rater, which it much 
resembles in general structure, though it is 
more slender. It is unusually plainly marked 
and inconspicuous for a Ptilodontid larva; 
the anal feet are used for walking, and the 
body is smooth, without tubercles or proces- 
ses. The eggs are shaped like the upper 
third of a sphere, flat on the under side. 
Their color is pale yellowish green, very 
minutely and densely punctured. Diameter 
about 0.9 mm. They are probably laid singly. 

I believe there are five larval stages, though 
I have not observed the first. The second, 
third and fourth are so much like the fifth 

* If the width of the newly hatched larva is about one 
half the width of the egg, as seems in general to be the 
case, then 0.66 mm. would be right and the species 
would have eight stages. 



September 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



147 



as described by Edwards & Elliot, that I will 
not re-describe them. When young the 
larvae each rest on a little web on the under 
side of a leaf, the head held out quite flat. 
The mature larva is thickest at joint 9, and 
tapers slightly to the extremities. Beside 
the yellow subdorsal band mentioned by the 
describers there is a fainter white substigma- 
tal one on joints 2-4. 

The widths of head for the five stages, calcu- 
lated and actually found, are as follows : — 

Calculated. — 0.48,0.74, 1.14, 1.75, 2.7 mm. 
Ratio, 0.65. 

Found. — 0.7, 1.2, 1.7, 2.7 mm. 

The cocoon is formed of few threads, at 
the ground. The pupa is very dark brown, 
almost black; flattened on the ventral side, 
the dorsum evenly rounded ; finely punc- 
tured. The abdominal segments are closely 
appressed, motionless; cremaster none, anal 
segments evenly rounded. Length 10 mm., 
width 4.5 mm. 

There are two broods each year, and the 
winter is passed in the pupal stage. 



Edema albicosta Hi\b>ter.-\ 

Hiibn., Noct. 440. 

Herr-Sch., Syst. bearb. sch. Eur. fig. 131. 

1S71. Staudinger, Cat. Lep. Europ. (Note.) 

This larva has not such an abnormal de- 
velopment as I have supposed. I have re- 
calculated the series for the widths of head, 
and find the following much better than the 
one I gave in Psyche, v 5, p. 421, viz. : — 

Calculated. — 0.61, 0.85, 1.19. 1.66, 2.30, 3.2. 
Ratio, .72. 

Found. — 0.4, 0.7, 1.3, 1.7, 2.3, 3.2 mm. 

This fits the observed facts except in regard 
to the first two stages, and I may have 
measured them too small. All the measure- 
ments were taken from living larvae, and 
hence are liable to some discrepancy. 

The species has six larval stages, which is 
abnormal among the Ptilodontes if we ex- 
cept Ichthynra inclusa,% which seems to have 
also six stages, and the species of Apatelodes 
and Nadata, which probably have even 
more. 



THE NEW CATALOGUE OF EURO- 
PEAN COLEOPTERA.* 

This is in every way the most elaborate 
and important edition (No. iv) of the Cata- 
logue of the European Coleoptera yet pub- 
lished. It is on a somewhat new plan. The 
family arrangement is that usually followed 
in Europe. The sequence of the genera and 
species is that adopted by some monogra- 

* Catalogus Coleopterorum Europae, Caucasi et Ar- 
meniae Rossicae. Edited by Edmund Reitter. Ber- 
lin, MSdling, Caen. 1891. 

t I have erroneously referred to this species in 
Psyche, v. 5, p. 421, as E. albifrons S. & A. All 
the specimens which have occurred to me at Rhine- 
beck, N. Y., have been E. albicosta, as I have recently 
discovered. The species may readily be separated by 
the character of the projecting tooth of the white costal 



pher of the family, or genus, usually the 
latest, reference to whose work is made 
under the title. The name of the species, 
with the principal synonyms, and the author- 
ities for their creation, with other useful biblio- 
graphical references follow, as well as indi- 
cations of geographical distribution within 
the faunal limits laid down. In the preface 
it is stated that the work was parcelled out 
to Mr. L. Ganglbauer, Dr. L. v. Heyden, Dr. 

band, which in albijrons is regularly rounded, but in 
albicosta is sharply pointed or dentate. I strongly 
suspect that the larvae described by Mr. Beutenmuller 
in Ent. Amer. vol. 6, p. 75, and by Dr. Packard in 
Proc. Bost. soc. nat. hist. vol. 24, p. 525, as E. albifrons, 
are really those of E. albicosta. 

X Prof. French finds six stages for /. palla (=in- 
clusa) in Can. ent., v. 17, p. 42, and I have measure- 
ments which, as far as they go, corroborate him. 



148 



PSYCHE. 



[September 1S91. 



Ed. Eppelsheim, Mr. Edmund Reitter, and 
Mr. J. Weise, each of whom is responsible 
only for his own part, which is designated. 

In comparing it with the third edition of 
1883, a vast number of changes in specific 
names is notable, and many long familiar 
ones have been relegated to synonymy. 
Antiquity seems to have been extensively 
ransacked, and many entombed names have 
been stripped of their cerements and brought 
to the light. How science is to be benefited 
by all this is not evident, but if it has to be 
done, the quicker the better. Had the code 
of nomenclature adopted by the British asso- 
ciation in 1842 and again in 1865, and by the 
Association of American geologists and nat- 
uralists in 1845, making the XII edition of 
the Systema naturae (1766) of Linnaeus the 
limit of time from beyond which no name 
could be advanced, and according to which 
the specific names in both the European and 
American catalogues were first recorded, 
much of this confusion could have been 
avoided. But this being set aside, every one 
is free to do as he pleases, and frequently the 
brief and imperfect descriptions of the ante- 
Linnaeans are made to apply in an imaginary 
way to insects common and long known by 
other names, which are at once dropped, and 
the semi-imaginary ones substituted, to the 
intense disgust of many who fail to perceive 
how science is to be benefited. It is not 
beyond hope that in time a limit in this 
direction may be reached. A fire goes out 
when the fuel is all consumed. 

This catalogue is of some interest to Amer- 
ican coleopterists, as it advances many new 
names for species common to the two hemis- 
pheres, as for example : Our abundant Phi- 
lojithus aeneus must hereafter be called 
politus Linn., and our politus, fuscipennis 
Mann.; Orphilus glabralus, a world-wide 
name, must be replaced by niger Rossi ; 
Nitidala bipustulata, by bifunctata Linn.; 
Xestobium rnfo-villosum DeG., is to super- 
sede tessellatum; and the imported elm-leaf 
beetle, Galeruca xanthomelaena becomes 



luteola Mull, etc. Justice has been done Mr. 
Say in placing his Phylethus bifasciatus in the 
catalogue, but injustice in advancing Bru- 
chus ir resect us Fahr. over his obsoletus. 

It evidently requires immense labor, 
research, much entomological knowledge, 
and calm, unbiased judgment to produce a 
satisfactory work of this kind, and it can 
scarcely be doubted the authors have fairly 
succeeded. John Hamilton. 

TEMPERATURE EXPERIMENTS WITH 
MOTHS. 

The Transactions of the Entomological 
society of London for 1891, Part i, give some 
recent experiments made by Mr. F. Merrifield 
on two double-brooded species of Selenia. 
We extract the following general conclusions. 

1. That both the marking and the color- 
ing of the perfect insect may be materially 
affected by the temperature to which the 
pupa is exposed. 

2. That the markings are chiefly affected 
by long-continued exposure, probably prev- 
ious to the time when the insect has begun 
to go through the changes between the central 
inactive stage and emergence. 

3. That the coloring is chiefly affected 
during the penultimate pupal stage, i. e., 
before the coloring of the imago begins to 
show. 

4. That a low temperature during this 
penultimate state causes darkness, a high 
temperature during the same period having 
the opposite effect. 

5. That, in the species operated on, a dif- 
ference between 8o° and 75 is sufficient to 
produce the extreme variation in darkness 
caused by temperature, a further lowering of 
the temperature having no further effect on 
it. . . . 

6. That in these species dryness or moist- 
ure during the pupal period, whether during 
a low temperature or a high one, has little 
or no effect on the coloring of the imago. . . . 



Sept. 1S91. 



PSTCHE. 



149 



The results obtained appear also to indi- 
cate that probably some local climatic vari- 
eties, and even seasonal varieties, may be 
found to be, in part at least, temperature 
forms of the individual ; and, looked at from 
this point of view they appear to me to lend 
some support to Lord Walsingham's theory 
as to the advantages derived by an insect in a 
cold region from being of a dark color, for 
they show that, if that is an advantage, it is 
one that can be acquired, not only by a race 
for use in a cold locality, but by individuals 
for use in a cold season. I think it is quite 
clear that if a cool week supervened in south- 
ern England between the beginning and the 
middle of July, or a hot week in the middle 
of April, at either of which times many of the 
pupae of illustraria would be in what I have 
called the penultimate pupal stage, most of 
these insects which it found in that stage 
would have their coloring affected. It would 
appear that even two or three hot days, if 
they came exactly at the right period, would 
be enough for the purpose; and I need 
hardly observe that it is very unlikely that 
these are the only species that would be so 
affected. 

There is another general suggestion which 
I venture to make in concluding. If Prof. 
Weismann's theory is accepted, that the exist- 
ing forms of most European and some North 
American Lepidoptera have come to us from 
a glacial period or climate, and that icing the 
pupa causes the insect to "throwback" to its 
earlier form, then experiments of the kind 
tried on the pupae might assist us in tracing 
the evolution of the markings on the wings 
of some of the most highly developed forms. 

In a postscript he adds : — 

I am now able to add that the coloring of 
the spring emergence of illustraria is as much, 
or nearly as much, affected by temperature 
during the penultimate pupal period as is that 
of the summer emergence. This has been 
established in case of three different broods, 
portions of each having been subjected to 
temperatures of 6o° and 8o° respectively; the 



latter often in coloring very closely approach 
the light chestnut-orange summer type. • This 
is interesting in reference to Prof. Weis- 
mann's theory, that in cases of this kind, the 
moth from the summer pupa can be caused 
to resemble that from the winter pupa, but 
not vice versa, as it shows that either form is 
equally ready, oti the suitable temperature 
stimulus being applied, to assume the char- 
acteristic appearance of the other, so far as 
coloring is concerned. In other respects my 
observations are in accord with that theory. 
Thus, I have never been able to cause the 
moth from the winter pupa to take the mark- 
ings proper to the moth from the summer 
pupa, whereas the moth from the summer 
pupa can be made in markings to resemble 
almost exactly that from the winter pupa; 
nor have I been able to cause the moth from 
the winter pupa to emerge in a period 
approaching in brevity that of the summer 
pupa; indeed, in the great majority of cases, 
the early and continued exposure of the win- 
ter pupa to a temperature of So°, or even 6o c , 
caused its death. 

Some Abnormal Larvae. — One larva of 
Thyreus abbotii had a single, thick, stiff 
hairlike bristle, arising from the tip of the 
caudal tubercle, all through the third moult, 
the second and fourth moults being normal. 
Another larva of T. abbotii kept the 
whitish green coloring of the early moults 
until it pupated, the only change of marking 
being a vague lateral line slightly darker 
than the body, and the usual changes of anal 
tubercle. Caroline G. Soule. 

Another Deidamia inscripta.— On July 
13th on Ampelopsis veitc/u'i, I found a larva 
so like Everyx myron that I put it away as 
such, though it had no purplish spots on the 
back. It differed from last year's specimen 
in having faint yellow obliques, and in hav- 
ing the yellow lines from the head extending 
nearly to the eleventh segment. The pupa, 
formed on July 17th, was like that of last 
year, except that it lacked the spur near the 



150 



PSYCHE. 



[September 1891. 



tip of the anal hook, and was slightly larger, 
especially around the abdomen. The dates 
of finding this larva and of its pupation were 
the same with that of last year, and the place 
was within a foot of the spot where last 
year's larva was found ! Caroline G. Soule. 

Miscellaneous Notes. — With the me- 
thodical precision which marks the work 
of the entomologists of the Austrian capital, 
Redtenbacher, in the 2d part of the Ver- 
handlungen of the zoological-botanical 
society of Vienna for 1S91, gives a mono- 
graph of the locustarian subfamily Conoce- 
phalinae which extends to nearly 250 pp. and 
is accompanied by two excellent folding 
plates. Redtenbacher divides the group into 
four tribes : Conocephalini with 25 genera 
and 166 species (3 genera and 12 species 
from the United States) ; Agroeciini with 30 
genera and 94 species ; Xiphidiini with 3 
genera and 68 species (1 genus and 17 
species from the United States) ; and List- 
roscelini with 6 genera and 35 species. 
Conocephalus alone has 101 species and 
Xiphidium (including Orchelimum, separ- 
ated only as a subgenus) 66 species; the 
only United States species not contained in 
Conocephalus (7 sp.) and Xiphidium (17 sp.) 
are Belocephaliis subafiterus Scudd. and 
Pyri^ocorypka uncinate! {Conocep/ialits 
uncinatus Harr.). 

At the July meeting of the Entomological 
society of London, it was stated by Dr. T. A. 
Chapman, an excellent observer, that the 
larva of Micropteryx, one of the lower Lepi- 
doptera, possesses on each of the eight 
abdominal segments "a pair of minute jointed 
legs of the same type as the thoracic. There 
are also a pair of long jointed antennae." 

To an interesting and very thorough de- 
scription of an hermaphroditic spider, Bert- 
kau appends a catalogue of recent cases and 
states that 361 hermaphroditic Arthropoda 
are now known, of which 9 are Crustacea, 3 
Arachnida, and 349 insects, divided as fol- 
lows : 2 Orthoptera, 11 Diptera, 267 Lepi- 
doptera, 59 Hymenoptera, and 10 Coleop- 



tera. In 165 cases where the separation is 
lateral, 85 are males on the right side, 71 on 
the left, leaving 9 uncertain. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

14 March, 1890. — The I52d meeting was 
held at 156 Brattle St. Mr. S. Henshaw was 
chosen chairman. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited illustrations 
showing the work done by beetles in the 
staves of the Ottawa water works, described 
in a letter from Mr. James Fletcher, read at 
the last meeting. 

Mr. Scudder stated that he had completed 
his work on Fossil insects of the West, 
planned for Hayden's Survey some fifteen 
years ago. It contains descriptions of some 
612 species. He further showed a tintype of 
carboniferous cockroaches from the coal de- 
posits of Rhode Island. The'y were nearly 
all of them collected near Silver Spring, a 
suburb of Providence. 

11 April, 1890. — The 153d meeting of the 
Club was held at 156 Brattle St., Mr. S. Hen- 
shaw in the chair. 

Mr. Henshaw read a letter from Mr. Elli- 
son A. Smyth, Jr., on some southern Lepidop- 
tera. In this article mention was made of 
the capture of two specimens of Neouympha 
canthus near Charleston, S. C. (See Psyche, 
1890, v. 5, p. 34S.) A short discussion fol- 
lowed on some of our spring butterflies. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited specimens of 
some Gryllidae recently received from a cor- 
respondent in Spain, of the genus Platy- 
blemmus, in which the front of the head is 
prolonged and dilated into a flat plate, re- 
sembling somewhat the clypeus of some 
Scarabaeidae. 

Mr. Scudder recorded the occurrence of 
Pteromalus as parasitic on Jasoniades glau- 
cus, Euphoeades troilus, Papilio polyxenes, 
and Euphydryas phaeton. He also read a 
letter from Mr. James Fletcher, in which was 
noted the occurrence of several specimens 
of Erebia discoidalis at Sudbury, Ont. 



PSYCHE, 



a. cJOXJI^l^^J^I J of eisttoimo 




[Established in 1874.] 

Vol. 6. No. 186. 

October, 1S91. 



CONTENTS: 

Caddis-worms of Stony Brook (Illustrated). — Cora H. Clarke .... 153 
Halisidota caryae. — Caroline G. Soule 15S 

A LIST OF SOME OF THE CATALOGUES AND LOCAL LISTS OF NORTH AMERICAN Co- 

LEOPTERA. — I, A.-G. — John Hamilton, Samuel Henshatv ..... 160 

On THE SPECIFIC DISTINCTNESS OF HALISIDOTA HARRISII, WITH NOTES ON THE PRE- 
PARATORY STAGES OF THE SPECIES OF HALISIDOTA INHABITING NEW YORK. — 

Harrison G. Dyar ............ 162 

Food plants; Choice of food. — Caroline G. Soule 166 

Literary Notes (Announcements ; Moore's Lepidoptera Indica) .... 166 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club 166 



Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS. 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



152 



PSYCHE. 



[October 1S91 



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FOR SALE. 

The collection of insects made by the late Henry 
Edwards, consisting of about 300,000 specimens of 
all orders and well represented in large numbers of 
individuals and long suites of specimens, from all 
parts of the world. Is particularly rich in Pacific 
coast of North America species. A large number 
of Lepidoptera from this region were described by 
Mr. Edwards and his types are in the collection. In- 
stitutions or private persons wishing to purchase 
will please address Mrs Henry Edwards, 185 E. 116 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
by the Cambridge Entomological Club : 

Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Illinois. Trans. Dept. Agric. for 1876 (con- 
taining first report of Thomas, State Entomo- 
logist). Springfield 111., 1878 . . . 1.00 

Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged in- 
sects of America: a re-examination of the 
Devonian insects of New Brunswick, in the 
light of criticisms and of new studies of other 
paleozoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875. 1. 00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col. pi. Boston, 1883. .25 

Scudder, S. H. The fossil butterflies of 
Florissant, Col., Washington, 1889 . . 1.00 

Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Jahrg. 
42-46. Stettin, 1881-1885. . . . 5.00 

U. S. Entomological Commission. Bulletins, 
Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 1. 00 

— Third Report, Washington, 1883 . . 2.50 

— Fourth Report, Washington, 1885 . . 2.00 
Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

FOR SALE. 
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H. FRUHSTORFER, 

Care German Consulate, 

Soerabaia, Java. 



PSYCHE. 



CADDIS-WORMS OF STONY BROOK. 



BY CORA H. CLARKE, JAMAICA PLAIN, MASS. 



That part of Stony Brook in which I 
have made collections lies within the 
limits of the City of Boston. It is about 
eight feet wide, and its depth varies 
from two to twenty-four inches. In 
some places it flows slowly, in others 
rapidly ; here the bottom is muddy, there 
pebbly. Fresh-water algae of several 
species, a great variety of other water 
plants, and many different animals are 
found in it ; among the animals are 
fresh-water sponges, Polyzoa, plan- 
arians, mollusks, water insects of all 
kinds, and occasionally a fish, newt, or 
turtle. But the most interesting of all 
its inhabitants are the larvae of the 
Trichoptera or Caddis-worms. I have 
found in all about twenty distinct species, 
representing each of the seven families. 

Phryganeidae. Of this family I 
have found only only one representa- 
tive, a species of Neuronia. Possibly it 
is jVeurom'a stygipes, but the only 
imago which I have succeeded in rear- 
ing was imperfect. It emerged from the 
aquarium on April 5th. The larva has 
a yellow face striped with black, and is 
very restless and nervous in its move- 
ments, continually travelling about the 
aquarium, making sad havoc among its 
inhabitants, eating dragon-fly larvae as 
large as itself, other caddis worms, and 




Fig.i. 



indeed any insect which it can catch. It 
also devours raw beef with relish. The 
case of this larva (fig. 1*) is 
made of quadrangular pieces 
of leaves, fastened together 
by their edges and arranged 
in rings rather than in the 
spirals which M'Lachlan 
tells us is characteristic of 
the genus. Three or four or 
sometimes more of these rings, make 
the length of the case, which, when full- 
grown, may be 35 mm. long.f When 
the Neuronia larva is not satisfied with 
its case it bites off a ring at one end, 
replaces it with a freshly constructed 
ring, and then turns within the case, and 
does the same at the other end. If 
pushed out of its case, and deprived of 
it, it will make a new one in a night. 
Sometimes this species is tolerably abun- 
dant, and again for several years, it is 
quite scarce. 

Limnophilidae. I have found five 
or six species of this family. The 
commonest of these is Hallesus maculi- 
fiemiis, the larvae of which are very 



* All the cuts are of the natural size excepting fig. 2^ 
and the operculum in fig. S. 

f I have found that with most species of caddis- 
worms the case of the pupa or adult just before pupat- 
ing isjshorter than that of the growing larva. 



154 



PSTCHE. 



[October 1S91. 




abundant, crawling over the water 
plants in the brook. They 
can sometimes be seen under 
the ice in a submerged 
meadow. The cases (fig. 2) 
are made of little sticks and 
other vegetable bits, put 
on transversely, and those of 
the growing larva have a 
appearance, probably similar to those 
Isaac Walton calls " Ruff-coats," but 
the case of the pupa is a smooth cylinder. 
At this time it is about 15 mm. long, 
and is closed with a net at each end, as 
is also the case o&" Neuronia styglpes. 
These nets or disks which close the 
apertures, are indicated on some of the 
cuts. The larvae frequent rather quiet 
water, and therefore are comparatively 
easy to keep alive in an aquarium, but 
all species need especial care during 
pupation, which is the critical period 
of a caddis-worm's life. I have found 
them pupating in the brook at the end 
■ of May. 

A larva, which is probably 
that of Limnophilus pud/cus, 
makes a slightly curved case 
(fig. 3) of little, rounded, im- 
bricating bits of leaves. It is 
not very common, and I have 
never reared it. 

The larvae of Anabolia 
sordida are nearly as abun- 
dant as those of Halleszis 
maculipennis ; their cases 
(fig. 4) are composed of bits 
of bark and little sticks, 
to which are sometimes added 
Kig--4- fragments of moss, a little 



Fig- 3- 




sand or gravel or a few shells. I have 
never found a case of any species com- 
posed entirely of shells. When sticks are 
used they are put on longitudinally, and 
usually project beyond the ends of the 
cylinder. During pupation each end is 
closed with a net or grating. I have 
found a larva pupating at the end of 
May and also in June. The adult 
case is about 24 mm. long. 

I have found larvae similar to those 
of Anabolia, in cases made entirely of 
pieces of sedge leaves, arranged length- 
wise with long projecting ends, but 
though I once reared the imago, which 
also resembles that of Anabolia, I have 
not succeeded in obtaining its 
name. 

Another case of about the 
same size (fig. 5), w T ith an 
imago resembling that of Ana- 
bolia, appears to be rare. It 
is made entirely of leaves, and 
in cross section is three angled, \_/ 
with projecting corners. This V 
larva also is not unlike that of lg ' s ' 
Anabolia. 

A similar larva makes a 
case (fig. 6) of bark and 
sticks, about 20 mm. long but 
slightly flattened, with a little 
stick at each side, and imbri- 
cating bits of leaves between. 
I sometimes find in the brook 
the larva of a species of Steno- 
phylax. The case (fig. 7) is 
cylindrical, about 22 mm.long, 
and is made entirely of gravel. 
During pupation it is closed 
with a net at each end. F'g-7- 




October 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



155 



Sericostomatidae. I have found 
six species of Sericostomatidae, of 
which the most interesting belong to 
Helicopsyche. Species of this genus 
make small, snail-like cases of sand, 
gravel or mud. The one whose 
case is figured (fig. S) uses coarse *■© 
sand. I find it crawling on stones |S) 
or weeds where the current is Fig-, s. 
rapid. In pupation the mouth of this 
snail case is closed with an operculum in 
which is a small eccentric slit. At the 
apex of the spiral, which represents the 
back door of the larva, tnere is a lacunose 
disk. These larvae were found pupat- 
ing on June 2nd. 

A species of Brachycentrus is some- 
times common and sometimes 
scarce. It makes a quadrangular fl 
case (fig. 9) of a few square bits s 
of bark, fastened together at their Flg ' 9 ' 
edges. 

Once I found a number of empty 
~. cases (fig. 10) made of sand; 
l! they were small, club-shaped, 
and curved, and probably the 
lg ' I0 " makers belong in this family. 
One of the most abundant species in 
Stony Brook (and in other brooks 
where I have collected) belongs "near 
Mormonia or Trichostoma." 
The case (fig. n) is arched on 
the back, and fiat or slightly 
concave below, and is made of 
gravel, with small stones on each 
side, and is about 12 mm. long. I have 
found similar cases in Jamaica Pond. 
During pupation the cases are closed at 
each end with a small stone, but to in- 
sure a current of water through the case, 



Fig. 11. 



each of these little stones is attached to 
the case by a row of short threads, look- 
ing not unlike the teeth of a moss 
capsule. Fig. 12 shows their /J§|p 
appearance at the ventral side 
of the head end, where is the '"' ' 
point of attachment. 

Even more abundant than this species 
is one which makes cylindrical, slightly 
curved tubes of sand, (fig. 13), 
which, when their inhabitants are 
pupating, often are found attach- 
ed to each other in large masses. 
At this time each end of the case Fig. 13. 
is closed with a grain of gravel, and I 
cannot see what provision is made for 
the respiratory current. The larva, how- 
ever, has a small hole at the side of the 
sand grain which serves to close the pos- 
terior end of his case. The case of the 
growing larva flares somewhat at the an- 
terior end, but that of the adult is evenly 
cylindrical. I have an imago of this 
species which I reared from the egg, in 
the tranquil waters of my aquarium, but 
when the pupae are taken from the 
brook, they should be kept in running 
water to transform. On April 17th, 
1S90, I found multitudes of these cases 
in Stony Brook near the Mount Hope 
station. I supposed that the larvae had 
pupated, since both ends wei'e closed, 
but keeping out of water for a few min- 
utes one of the stones to which they 
were attached, most of the little larvae 
opened their front doors, and stretched 
far out to see what had become of the 
brook. By another month, however, 
they really had changed to pupae. 
Some of the imagos of this species, 



156 



PSYCHE. 



[October 1891. 



o 





■which I reared in my aquarium, came 
out with a large tubercle on each side 
of the head. These tubercles are sup- 
posed to be organs of scent. 

Another species of the same family 
makes a case (fig. 14) in 
shape so like the preceding 
that I at first confounded the 
two, but the larva of this 
latter species has a yellow 
head striped with black, while that of 
the former has a plain gray head. 
Moreover the yellow-faced one uses finer 
materials, and before pupation shuts 
itself in at each end with a disk, in- 
stead of a grain of gravel. One of the 
imagos emerged on June 15th. 

Leptoceridae. (Mystacidae.) I 
have found in Stony Brook four 
species belonging to this family, 
and another in Jamaica Pond. This 
last species makes small cases, 9 mm. 
long, of little sticks, arranged trans- 
versely like those of Hallesus. The 
imago is a pretty little gray spotted 
ci-eature, but I have not been able to 
ascertain its name. 

But the prettiest of my Stony Brook 
Leptoceridae is colored a soft yellowish 
brown, and has very long slender anten- 
nae, which indeed are characteristic of 
the family. It is said to belong "near 
Setodes ignita." The larva is most 
abundant on the plants of 
Callitriche verna or "water 
starwort" from the leaves of 
which it usually makes its 
case. This (fig. 15) is a deli- 
cate tapering cone, about 20 
mm. long, and the bits of leaf 

Fig. is- 




are arranged side by side in a spiral, 
which in some individuals winds to 
the right, in others to the left. In a 
tube 21 mm. long, there were 11 
turns to the spiral. The little larva pro- 
trudes its long slender legs from the 
case, and swims merrily about in the 
water. It pupates in June and July, 
and is easy to rear in confinement. 
The case of the pupa is about 10 mm. 
long, and is evenly cylindrical, each end 
being closed with a disk which has a 
small round hole in the centre. 

The larva of Mystacides nigra also 
swims with freedom and is abundant 
both in Stony Brook and Jamaica 
Pond. Its little case (fig. 16). 
about 10 mm. long, varies much, 
both as to materials and their 
arrangement, but is chiefly com- 
posed of bits of bark, and little sticks, 
sometimes filled in with fine sand. It 
is easy to rear, and the little black 
imago may be recognized by a pecu- 
liar bend in each of the upper wings, 
which makes them look as if broken. 

A species of Molanna, a genus con- 
sidered one of the most inter- 
esting of those found in 
Great Britain, is often quite 
abundant on the sandy bottom 
of the brook, but I have never 
reared it, though it does well Fi s- '7- 
in an aquarium, until it pupates ; it 
makes a flattened case (fig. 17), with 
an arched dorsal side, which projects 
far above the anterior end, so that 
nothing whatever is seen of the larva 
when it is crawling on the bottom. The 
appearance is as if some of the sand 




October 1891.] 



PSYCHE. 



157 



grains were walking oft* in a mass. 
This protecting portico disappears 
during pupation. 

A larva, which in some years is 
quite abundant, spins for itself a case 
of black silk, weighted with vegetable 
matter. It is about 15 mm. long, 
terete, tapering to the rear end, where 
there is a small hole. The cases of the 
young are quadrangular at the anterior 
end, which end during pupa- 
tion is closed with a thick disk, § (©) 
having in its centre a thinner cir- 
cular area perforated with holes- 
In the illustration (fig. iS) 
the adult case is represented too small. 
This species does not bear confinement 
well, and I have never reared it. 

Hydroptilidae. I have been dis- 
appointed at finding only one species of 
Hydroptilidae in my brook, and this I 
have not reared. The case (fig. 19) 
is flat, gray and seed-like, and is 
attached bv its edge to the stones Fig. 19. 
in the brook, where the current is rapid. 

Hydropsychidae. The most in- 
teresting species of the order found 
in Stony Brook, and also abundant in 
various smaller brooks, weaves for itself 
a little net, probably for the purpose of 
catching its food. This species, with its 
nets, has been found to be very com- 
mon in other parts of the United States. 
The net (fig. 20) is up- 
right, supported by a 
small vertical arch or 
ring of vegetable bits,^^^C 
and the opening of the Fig-. 20. 

larval house is always on the up-stream 
side of the net. In some places the 
nets and their accompanying houses 
are found singly on the bottom, or on 









the stones in the brook — in other places 
they are thickly clustered together, or, 
placed side by side, they may extend 
nearly across the brook. 

The larvae are gray, with an arcuate 
body, and tufted gills hanging thickly 
from the under side. They pupate in 
May. The nets disappear during pupa- 
tion, and the houses, which, while the 
larvae were active, were shiftless ar- 
rangements of loose vegetable bits, or 
grains of sand carelessly held togethei 
with silk, are now (fig. 
21) oblong domes, 
strongly constructed of 
little stones, and fastened 
at their edges to the 
rocks, pebbles or sticks in the brook. 
The whole is lined with silk, small 
openings being left at each end for the 
respiratory current. These larvae die 
almost immediately when transferred 
from the rapidly flowing streams which 
they affect, to the tranquil waters of an 
aquarium. But like many other sensi- 
tive species, the well-developed pupae 
can be make to emerge in a set-basin, 
which has a constant stream of water 
from the faucet flowing through it. 

Another species of this family, be- 
longing to the 
genus Plectroc- 
nemia, makes a 
tube of mud 
(fig. 22) which 
I at first thought 
must be manu- 
factured by 
some large 
worm. I saw 
the ends of 
these tubes projecting from the muddy 




Fig. 32. 



158 



PSYCHE. 



[October 1S91. 



ofto 



bottom of the brook, and by working 
my ringers about in the soft mud below 
them brought them out uninjured. But 
great was my astonishment on opening 
one of them to find within a slender, deli- 
cate, white larva, looking so small in pro- 
portion to the size of the tube that I could 
not believe it to be the maker, till re- 
searches into the other tubes revealed 
similar occupants in all of 
them. Fig. 23 represents 
the mouth parts of one of 
these larvae, enlarged. The Fi »- 2 3- 
tube in the centre is the labium (spin- 
naret) which spins the silken threads, 
the substance used by all caddis-worms 
to fasten together the materials of their 
houses, and fabricate 
the gratings or disks 
■which protect them 
during pupation. 

These Plectroc- 
nemia cases occur in 
colonies, but this 
■spring, 1891, I could 
not find any. They 
pupate in May, and 
the pupa may be 
found in a swelling 
of a vertical tube 




(fig. 24) . I do not understand what use 
the larvae make of the lateral chambers. 
Some in my aquarium, however, only 
constructed horizontal tubes, in which 
they lived and transformed. 

Rhyacopiiilidae. In this family 
the pupa is enclosed in a thin brown 
leathery cocoon. I have found two 
species, but I am not sure whether 
I obtained them in Stony Brook, or in 
its smaller tributaries. In one of them 
the case is of no regular shape, being 
composed of a very few stones, propor- 
tionately large. 

The other case (fig. 25) is 
quite peculiar. It is abundant 
in the Bussey Brook, and I 
have also found it in Brookline 
and Dedham. It is about 9 
mm. long, roundish oblong in Fi e- 2 S- 
shape, and strongly arched above, and 
made of coarse sand or gravel. On 
turning it over, one sees a shelf of fine 
sand, like the thwart of a boat, across 
the middle of the case. This dis- 
appears during pupation. In Bussey 
Brook I found one pupa on May 9th, 
1 891, though most of the cases were 
still occupied by the larvae. 



HALISIDOTA CARYAE. 



BY CAROLINE G. SOULE, BROOKLINE, MASS. 



A mat of eggs was found on the together, about one hundred in number, 

under side of a leaf rather high up in hemispherical, the flat side being on 

a thorn-tree, on June 28th, 1891, the leaf. When found they were of a 

Brookline, Mass. The eggs were close leaden color, and soon each showed a 



October 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



159 



red streak, then a black dot near the 
centre of the top, the dot being the 
head of the larva. On June 29th, they 
hatched. 

The young larvae were of a dull white 
color, with a black dorsal patch on the 1st 
segment, and a black dot below this on each 
side. The other segments had, on each side, 
two large black dots and a small one set in a 
triangle, and a smaller dot on the stigmatal 
line. Anal shield black. Head became 
black. Feet black ; props white; anal props 
dotted with black, very slender. Sparse 
black hairs all over the body. The black 
was very shining. 

The larvae fed and rested in a close 
crowd. They were very active, mov- 
ing very rapidly. They ate only the 
green pulp of the leaf, and wanted 
much water. July 3rd, they spun a 
web on the leaf and all settled on it in 
rows. 

July 5th, First moult. Head very large 
and black, conspicuous. Body as before, 
except that the sparse hairs were partly 
white, partly black; and the 2nd and 3rd 
segments had each two large black warts on 
each side of the dorsal line and one on the 
stigmatal line; anal segment had two large 
black warts instead of being all black. The 
spiracles were black, and showed clearly. 
The white color of the body was an opaque, 
glossy white, like porcelain, and the 2nd and 
3rd segments looked very white, having 
fewer black marks than the others. The 
hairs were longest near the head, and pro- 
jected over it. On July 10th they spun a 
web for moulting. 

July 1 2th, Second moult. As before, but 
larger, and with the hairs longer and denser. 

The larvae lived now in two crow r ds, 
one on each side of the hickory leaf 
which I substituted for the thorn, and 



still ate only the pulp. On July 16 
they spun a web on each side of the leaf. 

July iS, Third moult. Head round, 
slighth' bilobed at top, shining black. 
Body as before except the hairs. 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd segments as before. 4th and 10th 
segments had a longer pencil of black hairs 
arising from the black wart nearest the dorsal 
line, on each side, the hairs meeting over the 
line so as to give the effect of a single pencil. 
On each side, lower down, was a longer, 
single pencil, also black. The other seg- 
ments had the dorsal double pencil, and all 
had longer white hairs on the sides, these 
being longest over the head and anal seg- 
ment. 

The larvae now began to eat through 
the fibre of the leaves, and on July 
21st, spun a web. 

July 23rd, Fourth moult. As before, but 
larger. July 28th, spun a web. 

July 30th, Fifth moult. Head, feet, 
props and venter black. Body more speckled 
with black, the ground color being greenish 
white. Short, thick, white pencils on each 
side of the dorsal black ones, lay close against 
these, and formed with them a convex ridge 
along the dorsum. The lateral hairs were 
less dense and longer. Two thin long, white 
pencils on 1st, 2nd, nth and 12th segments, 
the first two pairs extending over the head, 
the last two over the anal end. 

The larvae ate enormously and 
moved very fast. When touched vigor- 
ously they curled up and rolled oft' the 
leaf, but did not mind being jarred or 
moved. Aug. 5, spun a web. 

Aug. 7th, Sixth moult. Length i| inches, 
though two or three measured 1^ inches. 
The hairs were denser on the dorsum, 
and had a grayer tinge. Otherwise as 
before. 

Aug. 16. They measured 1^ inches 



160 



PSTCHE. 



[October 1S91. 



in length, and began to spin cocoons. 
They spun first a slight net, and cov- 
ered it with their long hairs laid on 
lengthwise and lying smooth and 
flat. Through this net they pushed 
their short hairs at right angles, or 
nearly so, with the surface,- so that 
these hairs stood up as if growing on 
the cocoons, and gave them a rough 
surface — like that of a head whose hair 
has been cut very short, but not shaved. 
The cocoons varied in length from |- 
inch to ijj inches. They were of a 
regular ovoid shape, and of a gray 
color from the black and white hairs of 
the larvae. Some were spun on the 



side of the tin, some on the cloth over 
the top of the tin, and more on the 
under side of the leaves, though with 
no attempt to draw the' leaf over the 
cocoon. 

The hickory trees were so defoliated 
by these larvae this year, that I de- 
stroyed all but twenty of my brood, as 
soon I was sure what they were. Of 
the twenty none died. 

Aug. 20. The pupa cast the larva- 
skin. 

Pupa. I inch long, smooth, stout, larger 
around the abdomen than around the thorax; 
with ejes and antennae well marked. Its 
color was bright tan. There was no anal hook. 



A LIST OF SOME OF THE CATALOGUES AND LOCAL LISTS OF 
NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA.— I (A.-G.). 

BY JOHN HAMILTON AND SAMUEL HENSHAW. 



In studying the distribution of certain 
of our species of Coleoptera it has been 
necessary to go over a considerable part 
of the American literature ; when so do- 
ing a memorandum of all lists and cata- 
logues was made and is now published 
as an aid to others engaged in similar 
studies. 

Some of the lists contain so few 
species as at first sight to appear un- 
worthy of note, but frequently they 
include some of the most interesting and 
valuable records ; in fact the value of a 
local catalogue is often to be estimated 
not so much by the number of species 
contained as by the geographical position 
of the locality itself, and the accuracy of 
the determinations. 



We make no comments on the cor- 
rectness of the identifications in the 
various lists. The student can form his 
own estimate of them. 

All lists here quoted have been per- 
sonally examined unless noted to the 
contrary. 

Notice of any omission will be very 
welcome. 

1 Anon. List of Coleoptera [of Canada], 
n.p., 1867, 12 p. 

1 131 species are listed. 

2 Austin, E. P. Catalogue of the Coleop- 
tera of Mt. Washington, N. H. (Proc. Bost. 
soc. nat. hist., 1874, v. 16, p. 265-276.) 

221 determined and 13 undetermined species are 
listed ; new species are described by Leconte. 

3 Austin, E. P. Supplement to the check 
list of the Coleoptera of America, north of 
Mexico. Boston, 1880, 4 + 67 p. 



October 1891.] 



PS 1 CHE. 



161 



1520 species are added to the list raising the number 
to S970; many corrections in synonymy are made; in- 
cludes all species described till July 18S0. 

4 Beadle, D. W. List of coleopterous in- 
sects. Collected in the county of Lincoln, 
C. W. (Can. nat. and geol., 1S61, v. 6 p. 

383-3870 

172 species are listed ; some few are not fully identi- 
fied ; the collector was indebted to Dr. Leconte for the 
names of the species. 

5 Belfrage, G. W. Price list of Texan 
Coleoptera. (Psvche advertiser, 1876, v. 1, 
6 p.) 

467 species and varieties are listed. 

6 Bell, James T. Collection notes for 18S0. 
(Can. ent., 1SS1, v. 13, p. 58-60.) 

29 determined species of Coleoptera, 17 of which are 
new to the list of the Ent. soc. Ontario, are enumerated ; 
5 undetermined species are noted; all were taken at 
Belleville, Ont., in moss from March 1 to May 24. 

7 Bell, J. T. List of Staphylinidae taken 
at Belleville, Ont. (Can. ent., 1SS5, v. 17, p. 

49-50-) 

66 determined species are listed ; about 25 others are 
indicated. 

S Bell, Robert, Jr. Catalogue of animals 
and plants collected and observed on the 
south-east side of the St. Lawrence from 
Quebec to Gaspe and in the counties of 
Rimouski, Gaspe and Bonaventure. (Rep. 
progr. Can. geol. surv., 1858, 1859, p. 2 43" 
249.) 

69 determined and 4 undetermined species of Cole- 
optera are listed on p. 247-249. The species were iden- 
tified by Dr. Leconte. 

9 Blanchard, Frederick. A list of the 
Buprestidae of New England. (Entom. 
amer., 1S89, v. 5, p. 29-32.) 

62 species are listed with notes of capture and food 
habits. 

10 Bland, James H. B. Catalogue of the 
longicorn Coleoptera taken in the vicinity of 
Philadelphia. (Proc ent. soc. Phil., 1861, 
v. 1, p. 93-101.) 

A list of 12S species with notes on occurrence and 
abundance. 

11 Brodie, W. List of Coleoptera col- 
lected by Mr. Bruce Bailev in Kicking Horse 
Pass, Rocky Mountains, C. P. R., 1884. (Proc. 
Can. inst. Toronto, 1888, ser. 3, v. 5, p. 213- 
215.) Separate : 3 p. 

So determined and 5 undetermined species are listed. 

12 Brodie, W. and White, J. E. Check 
list of insects of the Dominion of Canada. 
Toronto, 1S83, 67 p. 

2490 species of Coleoptera are enumerated on p. 23-49. 



13 Carpenter, W. L. Report on the alpine 
insect fauna of Colorado. (Rep. U. S. geol. 
surv., [Hayden's 7th rep.], 1874, p. 539-542.) 

16 species of Coleoptera are listed. 

14 Carpenter, W. L. Report on the alpine 
insect fauna of Colorado and New Mexico, sea- 
son of 1S75. (Annual rep. chief engineers for 
1876, 1876, pt. 3, p. 521-525.) (Appendix JJ 
annual rep. chief engineers for 1876, 1S76, p. 
3 OI -3°5-) 

29 species of Coleoptera are listed. 

15 Cockerell, T. D. A. Notes on the in- 
sect fauna of high altitudes in Custer county, 
Colorado. (Can. ent., 1890, v. 22, p. 37-39; 
55-60; 76.) 

29 species of Coleoptera are listed; a few are not 
fully identified. 

16 Couper, William. List of Coleoptera 
and Diptera taken at Quebec and other parts 
of Lower Canada. (Trans, lit. and hist. soc. 
Quebec, 1864, n.s.,pt. 2, p. 75-93.) 

159 species of Coleoptera are listed, place and time of 
occurrence given ; some are not fully identified. 

17 Couper, William. List of Coleoptera 
taken at Quebec and other parts of Lower 
Canada. (Trans, lit. and hist. soc. Quebec, 
i865,n.s.,pt. 3, p. 27-36.) 

114 species are listed; a few notes are added. 

18 Couper, William. Anticosti Coleoptera 
collected on the island in 1873. (Can. ent., 
1874, v. 6, p. 137-138.) 

49 determined and 4 undetermined species are listed- 

19 Couper, William. Coleoptera found in 
the province of Quebec. (Can. sportsman 
and nat. 1882, v. 2 : ; 1883, v. 3 : .) 

Not seen ; 1012 species are listed. 

20 Cresson, E. T. Catalogue of the Ci- 
cindelidae of North America. (Proc. ent. 
soc. Phil., 1861, v. 1, p. 7-20.) 

1 iS species are listed; includes Mexico and the West 
Indies. 

21 Crotch, G. R. Check list of the Co- 
leoptera of America, north of Mexico. Salem, 
Mass., 1873, 136 p. 

7450 species are numbered, not including varieties : 
includes all species described till Sept. 30, 1S73. 

22 Doran, Edwin W. Catalogue of the in- 
sects of Tennessee. 

Not seen. 

23 D'Urban. W. S. M. Catalogue of Co- 
leoptera collected by Mr. Robert Bell, 1S58. 
(Can. nat. and geol., 1S59, v. 4, p. 242-244.) 



162 



PSYCHE. 



[October iSoi. 



A list of 73 species collected chiefly on the south- 
east side of the Gulf of St. Lawrence between Quebec 
and Gasp£; the species were identified by Dr. J. L. 
Leconte. 

24 D'Urban, W. S. M. A systematic list 
of Coleoptera found in the vicinity of Mon- 
treal. (Can. nat. and geol., 1859, v. 4, p. 307- 
320:494-496.) 

298 species are listed ; some are not fully identified; 
nearly all were named by Dr. J. L. Leconte; a list of 9 
species taken at Sorel but not yet met with near Mon- 
treal is appended. 

25 D'Urban, W. S. M. Catalogue of ani- 
mals and plants collected and observed in the 
valley of the river Rouge and the neighbor- 
ing townships in the counties of Argenteuil 
and Ottawa. (Rep. progr. Can. geol. surv., 
iSqS, 1S59. p. 226-243.) (Can. nat. and geol., 
1S60, v. 5, p. 81-S6.) 

99 determined species of Coleoptera are listed on p. 
233-237; several undetermined species are indicated and 
34 species from L'Orignal and Grenville are enu- 
merated on p. 237. 

26 D'Urban, W. S. M. Catalogue of Co- 
leoptera collected by George Barnston, Esq., 
of the Hon. Hudson's Bay Company, in the 
Hudson's Bay Territories. (Can. nat. and 
geol., i860, v. 5, p. 227-229.) 

SS species are listed ; a few are not fully identified; 
Dr. T- L. Leconte furnished the list. 



27 Dury, Charles. List of the Coleoptera 
observed in the vicinity of Cincinnati. (Journ. 
Cine. soc. nat. hist., 1879, v - 2 > P- 162-178.) 
Separate : 17 p. 

1443 species and varieties are listed. 

28 Dury, Charles. Coleoptera of the vicin- 
ity of Cincinnati. (Journ. Cine soc. nat. 
hist., 1S82, v. 5, p. ?iS-22o) 

167 species are added to the list. 

29 Dury, Charles. Notes on Coleoptera, 
with additions to the list of the Coleoptera of 
Cincinnati. (Journ. Cine. soc. nat. hist., 
1884, v. 7, p. 91-92.) 

12 species are added. 

30 Fay, H. T. On winter collecting. (Proc. 
ent. soc. Phil.. 1862, v. 1, p. 194-198.) 

129 species of Coleoptera are listed taken in the vicin- 
ity of Columbus, Ohio, during the winter months. 

31 Fletcher, James. List of diurnal Lepi- 
doptera and Coleoptera. (Rep. progr. Can. 
geol. surv., 1SS7-88, 1S89, p. 75 J.) 

21 species of Coleoptera taken on the south coast and 
islands ot James Bay are listed. 

32 Gardiner, F. Jr. Coleoptera of the 
White Mountains. (Psyche, 1879, v. 2, p. 
211-213.) Separate : 3 p. 

89 species are listed with localities and altitudes. 



ON THE SPECIFIC DISTINCTNESS OF HALISIDOTA HARRISII, 

WITH NOTES ON THE PREPARATORY STAGES OF THE SPECIES 
OF HALISIDOTA INHABITING NEW YORK. 



BY HARRISON G. DYAR, YOSEMITE, CAL. 



As is well known, two kinds of Hal- 
isidota larvae inhabit the Atlantic states, 
differing only in color and in their food 
plants. Both were noticed by Harris, 
and the form with black hair pencils 
was figured by Smith and Abbot as H. 
tessellaris. In 1S63, Walsh separated 
the forms as distinct species, indistin- 
guishable in the imago, and gave the 
name H. karrisii* to the form with 

*At first he gave the name antiphola to the form with 
black hair pencils, Proc. Bost. soc. nat. hist., IX, 2SS > 
but subsequently corrected this. Proc. ent. soc. Phil., 
111,413, 430. 



orange hair pencils that is found on the 
sycamore. In Grote's list of 18S2, har- 
risii is given as a dimorphic larval 
variety of H. tessellaris, and so it has 
been considered. However, it seems to 
be a fact that harrisii occurs only on the 
sycamore and tessellaris ne/er on that 
tree, so that if the former is a variety of 
the latter, the variation must be due to 
the influence of the food-plant ; but I 
have recently observed that the larvae 
differ in their first stage, and it is hardly 
to be supposed that the food-plant would 



■October 1S91] 



PSTCHE. 



163 



influence them before hatching. More- 
over, they differ in another important 
particular, which has not so far been 
recorded, namely, in the number of lar- 
val stages. Harrlsii has seven stages, 
with a width of head at maturity of 3.3- 
3.6 mm., while tessellarlshas nine stages 
and a width of head of 4.1-4.3 mm. 
These measurements were derived from 
a number of larvae I'aised in confinement, 
as well as from some found in nature, 
and correspond, varying only within the 
limits indicated. 

I have not been able to find any dif- 
ference in the markings of the imagos 
bred from these two forms of larvae, 
but an examination of the male genitalia 
reveals differences that appear to be 
constant. In harrisii, the side pieces 
are furnished on the lower side with two 
tapering, overlapping points, the lower 
one longer than, and projecting beyond 
the upper ; in tessellaris these points are 
also present, but the upper one is slightly 
longer than the lower, the two closely 
ovei lapping, almost appearing as a 
single point. The parts seem slighter 
and more transparent than the corres- 
ponding ones in harrlsii. From the 
above facts, I conclude that Halisidota 
harrisii Walsh, is a distinct species, 
entitled to stand as such in our lists. 

The fact that it is not to be distin- 
guished from H. tessellaris in markings 
can not militate against this conclusion, 
as there is no essential reason why two 
species should differ in markings except 
that they naturally would do so in most 
cases, owing to their not intercrossing. 
We can hardly suppose that the special 



markings of a species afford a means of 
recognition for the individuals of it, 
except in a general way, as this would 
imply too nice discrimination in these 
insects. But that they can discriminate, 
even in rubbed and faded examples 
which would be the despair of an ento- 
mologist, there can be little doubt, 
though I can not believe that they do 
this by the sense of sight alone. 

In New York state there are two 
other species of Halisidota, namely H. 
caryae and H. maculata, that stand to 
each other in much the same relation as 
H. tessellaris and H. harrlsii. but the 
differentiation seems to have progressed 
further, so that they are readily separable 
in the imago state. H. caryae has nine 
stages, as I have already recorded in 
Psyche, while H.tnaculata, has but seven 
to judge from the last two, which are 
all I have observed. In the last stage, 
caryae has a width of head of about 4.3 
mm., while maculata has one of 3.2-3.6 
mm. 

Halisidota harrisii Walsh. 

Egg. Rounded, obtusely conoidal, the 
base flat; very shiny pearly greenish white; 
diameter 0.7 mm. Laid in a mass of about 20 
on the under side of a leaf of the food-plant. 

First larval stage. Head pale whitish, 
eyes black, mouth brown; width 0.4 mm. 
Body whitish, the warts concolorous, each 
bearing a single blackish hair. 

Second stage. As before except that the head 
is 0.6 mm. wide and the hair is more abun- 
dant, several from each wart, longest near 
the head. It is whitish, mixed with shorter 
stiff black hairs. 

Third stage. Head as before, width 0.9 mm. 
Body whitish, with a row of blackish subdor- 
sal dashes on the middle segments. Warts 



164 



PSYCHE. 



[October 1S91 



concolorous with the body. Hair whitish, 
but black and shorter from the warts of row 
3 on joints 4, 5 and 12. Longer white 
hairs overhang the head. 

Fourth stage. Head pale whitish, labrum 
and antennae white, jaws brown, ocelli black ; 
width 1.3 mm. Body and warts whitish with 
a narrow, broken, black subdorsal line. Hair 
white with pencils of orange colored hair 
from the warts of row 2 on joint 4 and of 
white hair from row 3 on joint 12 besides 
short black ones from row 3 on joints 4, 5 
and 1 1. 

Fifth stage. As before; width of head, 1.7 
mm. The pencils of hair are now arranged 
as follows : mixed orange and white hair 
from row 2 on joint 3, all orange from row 

2 on joint 4, white from 3 on joint 12 and 
from 4 on joints 3 and 4, only slight on 
joint 3. Short black hairs from row 3 on 
joints 4, 5 and 11. Spiracles black ringed. 

Sixth stage. Width of head 2.5 mm. 
Body whitish, a row of black spots surround- 
ing the white spiracles and another subven- 
tral row. Hair white, forming a ridge like a 
keel along the dorsal line. Pencils as in the 
mature larva. 

Seventh stage. Head brownish testaceous, 
shiny, mouth and antennae white, eyes black, 
width 3.5 mm. Body sordid white, the warts 
arranged as in the other genera of the Arc- 
tiidae except that row 4 is situated stigmat- 
ally, posterior to the spiracles and the four 
ventral warts (row 7) are very small, situated, 
as usual, on the venter of the apodal segments 
(the 1st, 2nd, 7th, 8th and 9th abdominal 
segments). Some irregular black subdorsal 
marks on joints 2 to 4 partly surrounding the 
warts of row 3 and some slight marks above 
the bases of the legs. Spiracles white, in a 
narrow black border. Hair pale straw color 
or very pale grayish, keeled on the dorsal 
line. From warts 2 on joints 3 and 4 a pencil 
of orange colored hairs ; from warts 4 on 
joint 3 (slightly) and joint 4 and from warts 

3 on joint 12 a pencil of white hairs; a few 
long hairs from the large wart on joint 13. 



Cocoon. Composed of hairs and silk, of 
dense texture, but comparatively smooth, the 
hairs being laid on flat and not as with H. 
caryae. 

Pupa. Thorax and abdomen enlarged, the 
latter narrowing each way from the middle; 
abdominal segments appressed, motionless; 
cremaster represented only by 4 or 5 spiny 
hairs with their ends enlarged or curled. 
Body sparsely punctured, cases creased. Col- 
or shining dark mahogany. Length 15 mm., 
width 6.2 mm., height 5.7 mm. 

Food-plant. Sycamore {Acer fiseudo-filan- 
tantis). Larvae from Ulster county, N. Y. 

Halisidota tessellaris Smith and Abbot. 

Egg. Not observed. 

First stage. Head black, width 0.4 mm. 
Body whitish shaded with yellow dorsally on 
joints 3, 4 and 12. Cervical shield warts and 
anal plate black, each wart bearing a single 
hair. 

Second stage. Head 0.6 mm. wide. Body 
as before but the hair is more abundant, sev- 
eral growing from each wart. 

Third stage. Head black, labrum and 
antennae white; width 0.9 mm. Body as 
before, wart.s of rows 1, 2 and 3 black and 
a subdorsal blackish line centrally. Hair 
more abundant, especially at the extremities. 

Fourth stage. Head 1.3 mm. wide, colored 
as before. Body whitish, with large subdor- 
sal orange spots posteriorly on joint 3 and 
anteriorly on joint 4 and on joint 12. The 
warts are arranged as in the mature larva, 
rows 1, 2 and 3 are black, the rest pale. All 
the warts bear thin short, whitish hairs. 

Fifth stage. As before, but the head is 1.7 
mm. wide, and from warts 2 on joint 4 grow 
pencils of black hair, from row 1 on joint 12 
the same but the two converge over the dor- 
sum to form a single tuft. White pencils 
from wart 3 on joint 12. Other hair whitish, 
longer hairs overhanging the head and pos- 
terior extremity. The dorsal region of the 
body is blackish, the sides pale. Spiracles 
white, distinct. 



October 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



165 



Sixth stage. Head shiny black, labrum 
and antennae white; width 2.1 mm. Body 
black above, whitish below, the hair gray and 
the pencils now arranged as in the mature 
larva. 

Seventh stage. Head black, labrum and 
bases of antennae white; width 2.7 mm- 
Body black, obscured by the thick hair; ab- 
dominal feet whitish; spiracles white. From 
warts 2 on joints 3 and 4 and from warts 3 on 
joint 12 grow pencils of long black hair and 
from warts 4 on joints 3 and 4 and from the 
large wart on joint 13, thinner pencils of 
white hair. Other hair even and close, 
keeled on the dorsum, light drab or dull 
ochre. Warts gray, except warts 3 on joint 
12, which are pale and have orange about 
their bases. Only traces of the orange 
marks on joints 3 and 4. 

Eighth stage. As before. Head 3.5 mm. 
wide ; body velvety black, the hair on the 
■dorsal ridge appearing somewhat darker 
than elsewhere. 

Ninth stage. Head black and shiny, la- 
brum and antennae white; width 4.3 mm. 
Body black, marked as in the seventh and 
eighth stages. Spiracles white. Thoracic 
feet testaceous; the abdominal, pale. Cervi- 
cal shield black, bisected. Hair drab or dull 
ocher yellow, the pencils as before, but now 
11 mm. long. The warts are arranged as in 
H. harrisii. 

Cocoon. Composed of hairs and silk, of 
dense texture, but comparatively smooth, 
the hairs being laid on flat. 

Pupa. Like that of H. harrisii. 
Food plants Nearly all deciduous trees 
except the sycamore. The larvae here des- 
cribed in the first stage occurred on beech 
(Fagus) . 

Larvae from Dutchess county, New York. 
Halisidota maculata Harris. 

Sixth stage. As in the following stage 

except that the hair is less abundant, not 

obscuring the body. Width of head 2.3 mm. 

Seventh stage. Head rounded, smooth 

shiny black, labrum and bases of antennae 



white; a few hairs; width 3.4 mm. Body 
black, thoracic feet shiny black, the abdom- 
inal ones white with black hairs and whitish 
claspers, their minute hooks brown. Spira- 
cles white. The warts are black, arranged 
as in the other species of Halisidota, namely : 
row 1 a wart on joints 5-12 inclusive, situ- 
ated anteriorly ; row 2 subdorsal and row 
3 lateral on joints 2-13, small on joint 2 
and coalesced on joint 13 ; row 4 posterior to 
the spiracles; rows 5 and 6 in the subventral 
space, and row 7 four very small warts on 
the venter of the legless segments. All the 
warts bear spreading tufts of yellow feathery 
hair, brighter in color than that of H. tessel- 
laris. From warts 1 on joints 5-12 on the 
upper side, grow black tufts forming a row 
of square dorsal tufts as in H. caryae, 
those on joints 5 and 12 a little longer than 
the others; from row 5 on joints 5 and 11. 
centrally on the wart, a rather long black 
tuft ; from the upper parts of the warts of 
rows 3 and 4 grow a few long white hairs, 
as also from rows 2 and 3 on joints 5 and 11 ; 
from rows 2 and 3 on joints 12 and 13 ante- 
riorly a few more white hairs, those on joint 
12 have a number of hairs, the one from row 
3 on joint 12 forming a decided pencil, 
though rather thin. Length of white hairs 
10 mm. ; of larva 30 mm. 

Cocoon. Fastened by part of one side, 
elongate elliptical, much like that of H. 
caryae. It is rather thin, made of silk and 
hair, the fine larval hairs stuck through, 
making the cocoon appear something like 
velvet. Length 21 mm., thickness 10 mm. 

Pupa. Thorax and abdomen enlarged 
centrally with a depression between them ; 
ventral side straight, slightly flattened; ends 
obtusely rounded ; abdominal segments with- 
out motion. The cremaster consists of a 
tuft of spiny hairs. Color, shining dark 
brown. Length 15 mm. ; width 6 mm. 

Food plants. Various deciduous trees. The 
larvae were mostly found on maple (Acer). 
Larvae from the Catskill Mountains. 
Ulster county, N. Y. 



166 



PSYCHE. 



[October 1S91. 



Halisidota caryae Harris. 

Mv notes in regard to the number of 
stages of this species have already appeared 
in Psyche, and, as the latter stages are all 
essentially alike and the larva is well known 
and has often been described, I will omit 
further remarks upon it. 



Food-plants. — On Sept. nth I found sev- 
eral larvae of Papilio turnus on Carya glabra, 
on which I have not found them before. 
They were large, bright in color, and nearly 
full grown, and the leaves near them were 
much eaten. All were on one tree, and the 
onlv other tree very near was a chestnut. I 
have found them, in Brookline, on ash, wild 
cherry, lilac, maple, tulip-tree, plum; in 
Vermont on willow; in New York on mag- 
nolia. 

I found, on the same day, one larva of 
Apatela americana on rose acacia, and one 
on butternut. I have not found one on 
maple this year, though I have found many 
on elm and basswood. 
Brookline, Mass. Caroline G. Soule. 

Choice of food. — The larva oiPlatysamia 
ceanothi differs from all Bombycid larvae I 
have reared, in always preferring the young 
tips of twigs, instead of wanting older leaves 
to eat as they pass the second moult. A brood 
raised on wild cherry would not eat the 
older leaves at all, usually stopping with the 
sixth leaf from the tip of the twig, — these 
twigs were saplings, not pieces from a tree 
— and this habit they kept till they spun. 
C. promethea larvae refused the young tips 
as soon as they had moulted for the second 
time, and finished up the leaves refused by 
the cea?iothi\ Caroline G. Soule. 

Literary Notes. — Messrs. Reeve and 
Co., of London, announce their intended 
publication, if a sufficient number of sub- 
scribers can be obtained, of a work on the 
indigenous Heteroptera of Great Britain and 
Ireland, by Edward Saunders. It will be 



issued in eight parts at five shillings per 
part, with colored plates, the number of 
which is not stated. 

The American entomological society an- 
nounces the publication early in October of 
a Check list of the Lepidoptera of America, 
north of Mexico, by Prof John B. Smith. 
The low price of one dollar a copy will bring 
it within the reach of all. 

Seven parts of Moore's Lepidoptera Indica 
have now appeared and it is only in the last 
that the Euploeinae are completed. This 
family is divided, as previously by the author, 
into two groups : the Limnaeina of which 
there are here described 10 genera and 29 
species, of which 4 of as many species have 
illustrations of the larva and pupa; and the 
Euploeina with 16 genera and 50 species, 
only 4 of which (of 3 genera) have their 
early stages figured ; but let us be thankful ; 
it is the largest collection of illustrations of 
larval and pupal Euploeinae ever brought 
together, and certainly justifies some at least 
of the generic divisions made. In all there 
are 53 plates given up to Euploeinae, and 
they contain 225 figures of the imago (every 
species being figured) and 31 figures of cater- 
pillars and chrysalids. In the seventh part 
the Satyrinae are begun, but only carried as 
far as the key to the Indian genera. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

9 May, 1890 — The 154th meeting was held 
at 156 Brattle St. Mr. J. H. Emerton was 
chosen chairman. 

Mrs. L. J. Livermore was elected to active 
membership. 

Mr. Holmes Hinkley showed a structure 
found on a violet leaf in his garden. Some 
discussion followed as to whether it was made 
by an insect or was a mere fungus growth. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder showed a copy of the 
third volume of De Niceville's Butterflies of 
India, and read an extract from it on a lycae- 
nid butterfly, the larva of which feeds on the 
pomegranate. (See Canad. entom., 1890, v. 
22, pp. 243-248.) 



PSYC 




A. JOXJRIST^L OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

[Established in 1874.] 

Vol. 6. No. 187. 

November, 1S91. 



CONTENTS: 

Some old Correspondence between Harris, Say and Pickering. — IV . . 169 

The early stages of three Coleoptera. — Samuel H. Scudder .... 173 

A parasite of the fall web-worm. — C.H. Tyler-To-vnsetid ..... 176 

Notes on bombycid larvae. — III (Concluded). — Harrison G. Dyar . . • 177 

Bibliographical Notes. — I. Biologia Centrali Americana, Diptera. — Samuel 

Henshav.' .............. 180 

Clouds of insects. — J. La-wton Williams ......... 180 

Notes (Prize for essay on insect pests ; insect appreciation of insect song) . . 181 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club ..... 182 



Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS. 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



168 



PSYCHE. 



[November 1S91. 



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FOR SALE. 

The collection of insects made by the late Henry 
Edwards, consisting of about 300,000 specimens of 
all orders and well represented in large numbers of 
individuals and long suites of specimens, from all 
parts of the world. Is particularly rich in Pacific 
coast of North America species. A large number 
of Lepidoptera from this region were described by 
Mr. Edwards and his types are in the collection. In- 
stitutions or private persons wishing to purchase 
will please address Mrs Henry Edwards, 185 E. 116 
Street, New York, N. Y. 



The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
by the Cambridge Entomological Club : 

Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . i.oo 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Illinois. Trans. Dept. Agric. for 1876 (con- 
taining first report of Thomas, State Entomo- 
logist). Springfield. 111., 1878 . . . 1.00 

Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged in- 
sects of America: a re-examination of the 
Devonian insects of New Brunswick, in the 
light of criticisms and of new studies of other 
paleozoic types. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875. 1.00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col. pi. Boston, 1883. .25 

Scudder, S. H. The fossil butterflies of 
Florissant, Col., Washington, 1889 . . 1.00 

Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Jahrg. 
42-46. Stettin, 1881-1885. . . . 5.00 

U. S. Entomological Commission. Bulletins, 
Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 1.00 

— Third Report, Washington, 1883 . . 2.50 

— Fourth Report, Washington, 1885 . . 2.00 
Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

FOR SALE. 
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H. FRUHSTORFER, 

Care German Consulate, 

Soerabaia, Java. 



PSYCHE. 

SOME OLD CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HARRIS, SAY AND 

PICKERING.— IV. 



[HARRIS TO SAY.] 

Milton, Feb'y 21, 1S25. 
Dear Sir, 

Mr. Nuttall has just sent me your let- 
ter of Jany. Sth, with the insects which 
you committed to his charge. I feel 
myself under additional obligations to 
you for your attentions, and am highly 
gratified with the specimens which I 
have received from you. 

I have met with but one individual of 
the Diccelus elongatus\ and, since my 
last, have obtained the male of Boleto- 
fihagus cornutus ; Yourspecimen is the 
female, & is of a lighter colour, as is 
represented in the plate attached to 
Panzer's Prod[r]omus. Both these in- 
sects must be considered as rare in this 
section of the country. The Nemog- 
natha vittata & species of Lytta are 
exceedingly interesting to me. The 
other insects I have never discovered 
here ; they are therefore valuable ad- 
ditions to my small collection. 

Mr. Fuller purchased for me the first 
vol. of your American Entomology, 
which is executed in a most beautiful 
manner, & must add greatly to the liter- 
ary fame you already enjoy. You are 
entirely at liberty to quote my localities 
for any insects which you may hereafter 
describe, either in this work or the Jour- 
nal Acad. Nat. Sc. In your Entomol- 



ogy I find a species of Smeriiithus 
which I have never noticed : we have 
one however very much like it, which 
I have taken to be the ocellata ; whether 
it may be the myops or excaecata I can- 
not determine, having never seen the 
descriptions of those species. 

Feeling myself the great want of 
books on American entomology, & 
knowing the impossibility of our insects 
being determined without good descrip- 
tions, I have had it in contemplation to 
describe all the species which I have 
collected, with the view to publishing a 
small local Fauna of the insects in this 
vicinity. With this intention I have 
resolved to visit Philadelphia the ensuing 
spring, to request your assistance in deter- 
mining the genera & species. You have 
described so many of our insects which 
I had considered new, and your descrip- 
tions of many of them having never 
reached me, that I was quite surprised 
to find that, among those which I have 
sent you, there were so few nondescripts. 
I shall immediately obtain the Trans. 
Am. Philos. Soc. & if possible the 
Journal of the Lyceum. 

As you may publish your descriptions 
of Coleoptera before I have an opportu- 
nity of consulting with you, I will give 
the names of such of ours as now occur 
to me, with some remarks on those whose 
names you gave me in your last letter. 



170 



PSTCHE. 



[November 1S01. 



Cicindela purpurea is very common 
in dry pastures. C. hirticollis is rare.* 
C. sexguttata, & 2 varieties, one with 
an additional spot on the disc, the other 
without the terminal one, are found in 
sandy paths. The habitat of punctu- 
lata is the same. Elaphrus riparius 
is rare Carabus catenulartus is" scarce. 
Agra pensylvanlca I have found be- 
neath stones on sunny banks. Omo- 
phron limbatum Latr. inhabits near 
fresh water streams ; Dytiscus margin- 
alis in stagnant water. Several other 
species of Dytiscus, are found, but I 
have not made out the species. We 
have a Buprestis which appears to be 
the virginiensis, but my specimen has 
not the metallic lustre of yours. Elater 
oculatus is common ; I have not ascer- 
tained the habitat of its larva. We 
have your E. dorsalis, & E. corticinus. 
Lycus dimidiatus & L. reticulatus are 
generally taken on the wing in the day 
time, about bushes, & hedges. Mala- 
chius 4-maculatus? the male is distin- 
guished by having the 2d joint of the 
antennae (not the 3d joint, as in Fabri- 
cius) dilated, quadrate, & with a deep 
indentation. But what is most remark- 
able is that, even by aid of a powerful 
magnifier, I could detect only 4 joints 
to the anterior tarsi. Like others of 
the genus this species is furnished with 
with 4 retractile, tridigitated tentacula? 
or processes, one on each of the thorax 
& abdomen. Having fixed my speci- 
men to a card I cannot compare the 
colours beneath with those of your 

*In Prof. Peck's cabinet are the only specimens I have 
seen. 



vittatus ; but those of the superior sur- 
face correspond exactly, except the an- 
tenna, the first and 2d joints of wh'h 
are rufous, the remainder blackish. 
Length of the male just A inch. The 
female has the usual number of joints to 
the anterior tarsi. There some varieties 
particularly of this sex : In these the 
thorax is destitute of the black spots ; the 
dilated humeral portion of the margin is 
extended into a fascia which unites with 
the suture. This species of Malachius 
I have found in meadows, on the flowers 
of Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, in 
June & July. We have several species 
of Ips which are allied to the fasciata. 
Attagenus pelllo is very common in 
houses, & a species, or perhaps variety, 
without the white dot on the elytron. 
I have met with a Lucanus which 
corresponds with your parallelus, only 
that there is no small tooth "on the 
middle of the inferior inner edge" of 
the mandibles. Passalus interrup- 
tus is common. Diaperis macztlata 
Oliv. is found here upon fungi. 
Three species of Lytta are also found 
here, viz: L. cinerea on the potato-vine 
&c, L. marginata on the Clematis 

virginiana, & L. atrata on the Solid- 
ly 

ago. Bruchus pisi prevails every year. 
We have your Lamia aspersa, also L. 
nebulosa F. and Callidiuj)i bicolor, F. 
I will now recur to the insects which 
I sent you in box 1. If No. 2 be Calo- 
soma calidum of Fabricius (which I 
presume you intended when you wrote 
calida) that author was mistaken in 
describing it as apterous ; all the speci- 
mens which I have seen certainly have 



November 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



171 



wings. No. 4 I had taken to be the 
cisteloides of Schonherr, Jlctvipes of 
Pavkull. To No. 9 I had fixed the 
name of j^. cupreus, F. ; it is your 
Pcecilia lucubanda ; to No. 16, your 
Amara im punctata, I gave the name of 
Carabus dispar, Paylkull, or vulgaris, 
F. I should not have suspected your 
Harpalus rusticus (No. 11) to have 
belonged to the genus Harpalus, 
judging from a cursory view, it seems 
very unlike the other species of that 
genus. Your H. viridis, Nos. 12 and 
13. stand in my cabinet by the name of 
sEneus? F. proteus? Paykull. The 
latter name appears appropriate from 
the variety of shades which different in- 
dividuals exhibit. You will, I hope, 
excuse my confessing my mistakes, for 
such I presume they must be ; for you 
have the best means of knowing that 
these individuals had not been before 
described, or that I had not rightly made 
them out. No. 38 is not the female of 
Lampyris corrusca. I have obtained 
the sexes in coitu, & the female is not 
apterous. No. 41 which you mention 
as a variety of L. laticomis, F. I have 
found in great numbers on shrubs in 
July, & never in company with the 
laticomis, No. 42 : Hence I conclude 
it must be distinct, & therefore marked 
it as the ater? F. No. 47, your S. 
caudata, stands in my cabinet as the 
Silpha lapponica, to Fabricius' des- 
cription of which I thought it corres- 
ponded. I cannot discover teeth on the 
posterior thighs of No. 4S, S. surina- 
mensis F., as described by Fabricius. 
Is No. 59 the same as Dermestes 



marmoratus* Knoch, in Melsheimer's- 
catalogue? No. 66 answers the des- 
cription of Scarabaeus Hecate, Panzer, 
(Faun. Amer. Boreal. Prod[r]omus). 
No. 74i your.Sc. rel ictus is very common 
in certain localities. On May 21st 1S22 
I saw the ground covered with them at 
Hoboken, New Jersey ; & last summer 
great quantities were exhumed from be- 
neath a dung hill in this vicinity, in all 
their stages of larva, pupa, & imago. 
No. 75 Melolontha querciua, Knoch, 
is very injurious to fruit trees in June; 
the larva is equally destructive to the 
roots of grass. Can No. S2 be a variety 
of M. varians. It has not the ovoid form 
of the varians, & seems nearer allied 
to your iricolor. Trichius scaber dif- 
fuses so strong an odour that I have 
frequently discovered it by that alone, 
when at the distance of several yards. 
The larva in habits the trunks of decaying 
trees.* Melolontha elongata is found 
in profusion on oaks in June. To No. 
91 I gave the name of Troxnigritus, & 
to 92 that of T. pulverulent us. I omit- 
ted in course No. 22 which is my Cara- 
bus pusillus, & No. 33 Elater pumilus. 
No. 93, to which you assign the name 
of Tenebrio barbatulus, lives like the 
molitor about stables, granaries &c. 
The larva devours corn ; is elongated, 
depressed, corneous, & of a yellow 
colour, with 6 very small legs at the an- 
terior extremity, & a short tubercle be- 
neath the posterior to assist it in moving. 
In the pupa the segments of the ab- 
domen are produced, flattened & finely 

*Is Trichius eremicola, Knoch, the Scarabceusebenus 
of DeGeer? 



172 



PTSCHE. 



[November 1S91. 



serrated, & the tail bifurcated. No. 95 
is the only species of Meloe I have ever 
discovered ; it is not uncommon in pas- 
tures. I cannot reconcile the descrip- 
tions of Dlaperis viridipennis with my 
specimens of No. 94. They inhabit be- 
neath the bai - k of decaying trees. To 
99 I gave the name of Curculio hirtus 
in my collection. No. 103 I have al- 
ways taken to be the Megacepha marm- 
orata. No. 106 is the Scolytus cerasi 
of mv cabinet. Is it not of the 
genus Hyhirgns? No. 11 r you have 
marked as a variety of Callid. fenni- 
cittn. Fabricius describes that insect 
with violaceous elytra. I had marked 
in as the flavum, F. In the Steno- 
corus pntator, Peck, the 2d and 3d 
joints of the antennas are each termin- 
ated with one rigid spine ; & I agree 
with you in thinking that it is probably 
distinct from the bidens & villosus of 
Fabricius. 170 is my Donacia atten- 
uata. 127 Crioceris {Lema) trilineata 
is found on the vines of the potato & 
other Solani in June. The eggs are 
affixed to the leaves, & immediately on 
their being hatched the larvae enter the 
earth. No. 133 inhabits the leaves of 
the apple tree. The larva devours the 
parenchymatous substance of the leaf, 
the cuticle remaining untouched. Here 
it changes to a nymph, & emerges from 
its retreat only when it has assumed the 
imago. The larvas of 130 Imatidium 
argus, feed upon the leaves of the Con- 
volvuli ; those of 132, Cassida aurichal- 
cea, on the leaves of the sweet potato, & 
the Solanum dulcamara. Eumolpus 



auratus I have always found on the Apo- 
cymim androsoemifolium, and Chry- 
somela trimaculata on the Asclepias 
syriaca on which plant the larva & pupa 
of the latter are also found. Coccinella 
Q-notata, & C. abbreviata inhabit the 
leaves of the carrot, from which I have 
obtained the larva & pupa. Your C. 
bioculata is constantly found in all its 
stages on the Ligtistrum vulgare. 163, 
your Colas pis 10-notata, I have found 
only upon the leaves of the oak. No. 
175 is my Helops piceiis. 

The marine shells which I intended 
for you, were unfortunately mislaid or 
lost, & I have delayed this letter in the 
hopes of recovering & sending them by 
a private conveyance. They were not 
of much value for rareness or beauty, 
but were such as are common here, & 
which I can therefore replace in the 
course of the summer. 

With sentiments of respect, 
Yr. obed't friend 

T. Wm. Harris. 



[Endorsed with the following notes 
by Thomas Say] : — 

Malachius 4-maculatus Fabr. ; it is 
certainly the 3d j't. Fab. is right ; the 
ant'r tarsi have 5 very distinct joints. 
Mai. vittatus some of my spec's have 
the anten'a dusky at tip. Lucanus paral- 
lelus. the fern, has the tooth somet's 
hardly obvious. Calosoma calida and 
several others Fab. descr'd as apterous 
have wings. 



November 1S91. 



PSYCHE. 



173 



THE EARLY STAGES OF THREE COLEOPTERA. 



BY SAMUEL H. SCUDDER. 



Finding among some old papers 
notes of the early stages of certain Col- 
eoptera imperfectly known, I venture to 
print them. All the species were 
found upon sweet fern. 

MEGILLA MACULATA. 

The full grown larva has the head shining 
black, faint yellowish in centre. Body black 
above, brown beneath, except two yellow 
spots on the edge of the fifth abdominal seg- 
ment; first thoracic segment with transverse 
yellow bands at front and hind edges; the 
second and third with a yellow dorsal stripe; 
second abdominal segment, except the mid- 
dle third, yellow, fifth abdominal wholly 
yellow, and the other segments with a row 
of yellow spots on each side. Besides there 
are twelve longitudinal series of black pa- 
pillae, six on the upper and six on the under 
surface, one to a segment in each series, 
those on upper larger than those on under 
surface, each giving rise to a short black 
hair. 

The pupa is in general black. Head with 
a median yellow line. Thorax with a dorsal 
yellow stripe, a median transverse band and 
a stripe at the sides reddish yellow ; from 
these a dorsal and lateral stripe of the same 
color pass backward and broaden in the mid- 
dle of each segment, the first abdominal seg- 
ment thus entirely reddish yellow except a 
subdorsal black spot on either side; besides 
in the interstices of the abdominal segments 
are other minute yellow and black spots ; the 
thoracic appendages are black and the mark- 
ings of the elytra of the future imago cannot 
be seen ; ventral surface of abdominal seg- 
ments white. 

The hind legs protrude oddly on 



either side of the body beneath the 
elytra like two side horns, and the legs 
of the cast larval skin sprawl about the 
tail of the chrysalis, the last segment 
being immersed therein. When quiet, 
the chrysalis lies on the surface of rest, 
but if disturbed, it erects its whole body 
at right angles thereto, and then the 
interstitial markings of the abdomen are 
concealed. One individual changed to 
chrysalis on August 24. (Notes of 
1S59.) 

COCCINELI.A SANGUINEA. 

The full grown larva has a small black 
head and a dusky body; in the middle of 
either side of each thoracic segment is a 
large black spot, covering nearly the whole 
surface on the first segment which is bor- 
dered anteriorly with dull orange; there is a 
dull orange dorsal band of irregular width 
along the whole body, its limits vague, and 
besides, on the abdominal segments, subdor- 
sal, lateral and stigmatal series of black spots, 
one to each segment; on the sides of the 
first five abdominal segments are found some 
dull orange spots; the body beneath is dusky 
with a rather dull orange broad ventral band \ 
the legs are black. Length 9 mm. 

The pupa is in general of a dusky yellow; 
the head is black; thorax with a yellowish 
dorsal line and on either side of it at the 
posterior edge of each segment a black spot; 
the first thoracic segment has also another 
lateral black spot on posterior edge and a 
large black spot on the front edge ; the wings 
and all the thoracic appendages are black 
where exposed; but otherwise apparently 
dusky or pale yellow; the abdominal seg- 



174 



PSYCHE. 



[November 1S91. 



ments are dirty white or black with yellow- 
ish spots, the first two segments having a 
predominance of yellow, the others of black; 
the ventral surface is dirty white or yel- 
lowish. 

Two specimens changed to imago on 
September ioth at Cape Cod after eight 
days in pupa. (Notes of 1861.) 

The pupa is figured by Comstock 
(Rep. U. S. entom. for 1SS1 , pi. 18, 
fig. 4) and the larva by Candeze (Mem. 
soc. sc. Liege, vi, pi. 6. fig. 7.). 

CHLAMYS PLICATA. 

The larva of this beetle may be found 
abundantly the last of July and early 
in August hanging perpendicularly with 
its case from the under side of leaves of 
sweet fern. 

It has an orange yellow body, deepening 
In tint toward the tail with a delicate suffu- 
sion above of light olivaceous green, but the 
head and long legs are jet black, and the 
dorsum of the thorax and. the parts above 
the legs are of a dark testaceous. The whole 
bodv is sparsely covered with microscopic 
hairs, and one notes a depression in the 
middle of the dorsum of the last segment. 

When taken from its case the tail is 
curled under its body and this is evi- 
dently its normal attitude. 

The larval cases are from five to six 
millimetres long for the full grown 
creature, and at the most about three 
millimetres broad. They are smooth 
within but externally rough, blacky 
oval, the oblique open end generally 
minutely flaring with a more or less 
distinct notch above and below, and 
especially below, fur the better use of 
the legs ; it looks as if made of black 



papier mache and is evidently formed 
by accretion, as may best be seen by 
examining the under surface where there 
is an indistinct median groove, where 
the bands of accretions on either side 
seem to have been brought together. 
These accretions are laid on apparently 
at about ten or twelve times during the 
life of the larva, in an oblique course, 
broadest on the back and narrowest on 
the ventral side. According to Riley 
and Murtfeldt it has as its basis "a cov- 
ering of dark sticky excrementitious 
matter . . . somewhat bell shaped, the 
upper end being largest, squarely 
docked and slightly depressed so as to 
form a circular rim around the margin" 
which the female constructs to cover 
the egg, and which is cut away from 
its attachments by the larva when born 
and made the basis of its movable 
house. The manner of enlargement 
has yet to be told. 

The larva crawls with some rapidity, 
and when it retreats within its case it is 
wholly beyond the deepest cleft, the 
claws of the feet only projecting there- 
from. When one is forcibly removed, 
it seems unable to get back again ; at 
least such as I have experimented upon 
have failed to do so, though they tried 
hard to do so by going in head fore- 
most ; they succeeded in getting only 
the head and three of the legs inside, 
the length of the legs appearing a 
hindrance. 

Before changing to pupa they turn 
around in the sac so that the anal ex- 
tremity is toward the former opening, 
which is now closed, since in prepara- 



November 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



175 



tion for the change they glue this end 
tightly to the surface of a leaf, and with 
such a superfluity of substance as to 
make this end of the interior rounded. 

At first the pupa retains the bright yellow 
color of the larva, the eyes and tips of the 
mandibles being black, and the outer surface 
of the legs and wings and especially the in- 
cisures of the legs infuscated. Afterwards 
when nearing the final change, the pupa as- 
sumes the color of the beetle, a brilliant deep 
bronze, though the abdominal rings, espec- 
ially at the tip, still retain somewhat of their 
original yellow. 

The pupal state lasts nearly four weeks 
in Massachusetts, in one instance from 
Aug. 4 to Aug. 30. The pupa seems 
to be free, moving at least its head and 
hinder legs with ease ; in the change 
the old skin is thrown off as a thin 
transparent pellicle, which looks as if 
only large enough to cover the end of 
the abdomen, while the old larval skin 
may be discovered packed tightly away 
next the old opening. By using its 
jaws upon the end of the case with 
which they are in contact, the enclosed 
beetle succeeds in making little trans- 
verse cuts around the former bottom of 
the sac until finally the old egg-covering 
with a little more is lifted at the single 
part of the bitten circle remaining as at 
a hinge, and the beetle presents himself 
with all his fresh beauty to the world. 

I once found on July 15 a case glued 
to a fern leaf, and noticing a series of 
fine holes around the glued end I opened 
it and discovered the larva in position 



for change to pupa, but lying against its 
middle the pupa of a hymenopterous 
parasite of a uniform light amber color 
with deep amber eyes and about 1.75 
mm. long. Five days later I noted 
change in color and discovered that the 
body of the Chlamys larva was simply 
crammed with similar hymenopterous 
pupae, twenty-three in all ; three days 
later they emerged, but unfortunately 
were never determined and are now 
lost. When the pupae had gained their 
color, however, the dorsal portions of 
the abdominal segments were very dark 
brown, almost black, with a few indis- 
tinct transverse yellowish streaks and a 
similar streak across the thorax just 
behind the head ; there are three ocelli 
in a row on the top of the head between 
the eyes ; the hind legs just reach the 
tip of the abdomen but the other legs, 
like the hind legs appressed to the sides 
of the body, are short. 

Other larval cases similarly attacked 
were found where the parasites had left 
the case ragged at the end opposite to 
the glued part where they had made 
their escape. 

There are apparently at least two 
broods of this beetle which I have found 
in the latter part of July and in the 
latter part of August and early in Sep- 
tember. Probably the beetles hiber- 
nate. (Notes taken in 1859-1861.) 

The larva and its case are figured by 
Riley (Rep. ins. Missouri, vi, fig. 37 
on p. 130). 



176 



PSYCHE. 



[November 1891. 



A PARASITE OF THE FALL WEB-WORM. 



BY C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, LAS CRUCES, N. M. 



In this vicinity the cottonwoods 
{Populus fremontei') begin to be in- 
fested with the Fall Web-worm {Hy- 
fhantria cunea) about the first of July. 
On July 28 I placed an entire nest of 
good-sized web-worms in a breeding 
cage. Aug. 19 quite a number of 
moths had emerged, and one specimen 
of the Tachinid parasite described 
below. The earth was full of the web- 
worm cocoons and pupae, only a few 
stray ones having been formed in the 
leaves and twigs. The moth is the 
pure, snow-white form, with the thighs 
yellowish. Aug. 25 three more speci- 
mens of the Tachinid were secured. 
The following is a description of the 
latter. 

Meigenia hyphantriae n. sp. $ . Silvery- 
cinereous, and black. Eyes dark brown, ex- 
tending not quite so low as the vibrissae, 
thinly hairy on lower portions; front at 
vertex about one-third the width of head, a 
little wider at base of antennae, somewhat 
prominent, silvery on sides with a cinereous 
shade; frontal vitta narrow, not one-fifth the 
width of front, dark brown, the prongs on 
sides of ocelli rather faint, ochreous ; frontal 
bristles moderately strong, three posterior 
ones inclined backward, others inward, 
decussate except the divergent lower ones 
which extend as far down as base of third 
antennal joint; two orbital bristles on each 
side; face and cheeks silvery, face strongly 
receding, facial depression rather "wide, 
facial ridges bristly for some distance above 
the vibrissae which are decussate and in- 
serted considerably above the oral margin; 



sides of face moderately wide, bare; cheeks 
moderately narrow, bare, except bristles on 
lower border; antennae a little shorter 
than face, first two joints rufous, first joint 
very short, second slightly elongate, third 
narrow, black, rufous at base, about three 
times as long as the second; arista black, 
microscopically pubescent, rather long, 
thickened for one-third its length, apparently 
2-jointed, the second joint short; proboscis 
rufous, but little extended, fleshy, apparently 
very short, labella large, flavous or rufous; 
palpi well developed, slender, nearly cylin- 
drical, flavous or rufous, black hairy; occiput 
gray or cinereous, with whitish hair, except 
a wide black vitta from vertex to center, 
orbital margins fringed with black bristles. 
Thorax narrower than head and abdomen, 
widest in front, silvery, shaded with cinere- 
ous above, with two narrow well-defined 
black vittae and a lateral interrupted one, 
bristly and hairy; scutellum cinereous, with 
an apical very short, weak, decussate pair of 
bristles, a sub-apical decussate pair of macro- 
chaetae extending to base of third abdominal 
segment, two lateral and a discal pair of 
macrochaetae ; humeri and pleurae silvery, 
bristly. Abdome?i rather conical in outline, 
short, stout, first segment a little shortened, 
macrochaetae only marginal ; first segment 
black, without macrochaetae ; second and 
third broadly silvery at base, blackish on 
posterior border; second with a median pair 
of macrochaetae, and a single lateral one; 
third with eight macrochaetae ; anal more 
yellowish at base, armed with macrochaetae 
and bristles above and below. Legs black, 
coxae and femora silvery, tibiae slightly 
so, femora and tibiae bristly, hind tibiae 
with a fringe of bristles on outer edge; claws 
and pul villi a little elongate. Wiiigs rather 
broad, longer than the abdomen, without 



November 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



costal spine, grayish-hyaline, opaque gray at 
base; apical cell very narrowly open at some 
distance before the apex of the wing; fourth 
vein bent at an angle without stump or 
wrinkle, the bend not sharp, apical cross- 
vein a little concave ; hind cross-vein curved, 
nearer to bend of fourth vein; third vein 
spined at base; tegulae white, halteres yel- 
lowish grav. 

§ . Differs as follows : Front nearly one- 
half the width of head; frontal vitta broad, 
occupying one-third of frontal width ; three 
orbital bristles (on one side, on the other 
side only two) ; eyes more distinctly hairy, 
especially on upper portions; claws and 
pulvilli hardly shorter. 

Length of $ 6 mm.; wing 5^ mm. $ 
7 mm. ; wing 6 mm. 

Described from three $ specimens, 
and one 9 ■> bred from chrysalids of 



Hyphantria cunea, Las Cruces, New- 
Mexico. This species is best located in 
Meigenia. The face, however, is not 
almost perpendicular, the abdomen is 
short and stout, and the macrochaetae 
are only marginal unless on the anal 
segment. It cannot be referred to 
Mystacella, which has the eyes more 
decidedly hairy. 



Note on Phorocera promiscua Towns. 
Psyche, v. 6, 84. This species was wrongly 
referred to Phorocera, my reason for the ref- 
erence being that the facial ridges are bristly 
for fully half their extent. But the eyes are 
very indistinctly hairy, the species agreeing 
in this and its other characters with Mei- 
genia. It will be best, I believe, to refer to 
it as Meigenia promiscua Towns. 



NOTES ON BOMBYCID LARVAE.— III. 



BY HARRISON G. DYAR, NEW YORK, N. Y 



Schizura eximia Grote. 

1882. Oedemasia eximia Grt., Bull. U. S. 
geol. & geog. surv. terr. , Hayden, 6, 275. 

1891. Thaxter, Can. ent., XXIII, 34. 

I have for some time considered this spe- 
cies improperly referred to Oedemasia, but I 
have never found the larva. Dr. Thaxter, 
however, has bred it, and writes me as fol- 
lows : " Oedemasia eximia resembles Coelo- 
dasys leptinoides* in coloring, but structur- 
ally is perhaps more like biguttatus (ipo- 
meae). When at rest it is greatly hunched 
anteriorly, and the furcate prominence on 
segm. 4 is very long. I should say it was 
surely a Coelodasys" ( = Sc/iizura). 

I would place it next to 5. leptinoides and 
near Ianassa. 
Schizura badia Packard. 

1864. Oedemasia badia Pack., Proc. ent. 
soc. Phil., Ill, 361. 

♦Described in Ent. amer., vol. 6, p. 330. 



Larva. I have found this larva on Vibur- 
num lentago, and it is certainly not an Oede- 
masia. It is without the red hump and black 
tubercules of O. concinna, the body being 
smooth, with dorsal processes on the 1st, 
4th, and 8th abdominal segments; the sides 
of the thoracic segments are green, but the 
usual V-shaped mark is, I believe, absent. I 
have not been able to obtain the larva re- 
cently for more careful description. 

Oedemasia salicis Hy. Edw. 

1876. Heterocamfa salicis Hy. Edw., 
Proc. Cal. acad. sci., VII, 121. 

Larva. Third stage. Head black, with a 
few short hairs; cervical shield bisected, 
black, as is the anal plate. Body yellow, 
with short pale hairs growing from black 
tubercles; joint 5 has a slight dorsal hump 
somewhat orange tinted, and with four 
smooth black tubercles, these being part of a 



178 



PSYCHE. 



[November 1S91. 



transverse row of eight which each segment 
bears; joint 13 has a double row. The tu- 
bercles are not exactly in line, the two dorsal 
ones being placed anteriorly to the others. 
Faintly indicated geminate subdorsal and 
lateral brown lines; thoracic feet dark; 
length 12 mm. 

Fourth stage. Head mahogany red more 
or less shaded with black ; furnished with 
short hairs; jaws black. Body yellow, a 
single dorsal and geminate subdorsal, and 
lateral interrupted pale brown lines. Black 
tubercles as in the previous stage, but more 
elongated, the dorsal ones on the hump and 
the subdorsal ones on joints 3 and 4 especially 
so. There is also a slight hump on joint 12 
with two elongated tubercles. Besides the 
four tubercles on each side are two more 
above the bases of the legs. The lines are 
obsolete behind joint 11, and the arrange- 
ment of the tubercles is confused. Cervical 
shield elevated, bisected ; feet and anal plate 
black. Venter pinkish. The anal pair of 
feet are held elevated. 

As the stage advances the geminate brown 
lines become filled in with white, and a nar- 
row, interrupted brown line appears between 
the dorsal and subdorsal lines and between 
the subdorsal and lateral lines. The hump 
on joint 5 has a decided rose tint. 

Fifth stage. As in the preceding stage, 
but the black tubercles are still more pro- 
longed, especially the subdorsal ones and 
the dorsal on joint 5. The hump on joint 5 
is rose color, that on joint 12 yellow; the 
lines are black, except those that last ap- 
peared, which are brown, the geminate ones 
filled in with white, and all interrupted at 
the humps and obsolete on joint 13. Anal 
feet yellow, black at their bases. 

Food filatit. Maple {Acer). Larvae from 
the Yosemite Valley, California, in August. 

I did not succeed in obtaining any moths 
from these larvae, as the stage ride out of the 
valley was more than they could endure ; but, 
from a comparison with Mr. Edwards' de- 



scription, there is no doubt that they are O. 
salicis. 

This species is the California representa- 
tive of the Eastern O. concinna Sin. Abb., 
but seems specifically distinct. 
Heterocampa guttivitta Walker. 

1855. Cecrita guttivitta Walk., Cat. Brit, 
mus., V, 992. 

1890. Cecrita guttivitta Packard, Proc. 
Bost. soc. nat. hist., XXIV, 543. 

Larva. Closely allied to Heterocampa 
biuudata Walk., which I have elsewhere de- 
scribed.* Dr. Packard has described the 
present species, but the larvae that I have 
seen do not agree with his description. I 
give the last two stages. 

Fourth stage. Head higher than wide, 
conoidal in outline, flat in front; pale green- 
ish, a curved band from the vertex to anten- 
nae dark crimson, centered with and bor- 
dered posteriorly by whitish. Labrum and 
antennae yellow ; jaws red brown; width 2.1 
mm. Body thickest at joint 8 when at rest; 
feet normal, the anal pair elevated; on the 
anterior edge of joint 2 is a yellow line con- 
taining two brown points, which apparently 
represent horns of a previous stage. (In H. 
biundata the horns are present at this stage.) 
A narrow white dorsal line, edged with black 
on joints 2 and 3, obsolete on joint 13; a 
yellow, subdorsal line fading out anteriorly 
on joint 3, edged inwardly with dark brown 
on joints 12 and 13, and with white outwardly 
on the anal plate, narrowly and obliquely in- 
terrupted on the anterior part of joint 11. 
Between these two lines on each side is a 
supplementary dorsal line, which starts from 
the dorsal line on joint 5, and, running par- 
allel to it, joins it again on joint 8, imme- 
diately leaving it and running to the sub- 
dorsal line which it joins on joint 11, just 
posterior to the interruption. Faint traces ot 
a yellow stigmatal line. The green of the 



* By error as H. subrotata Harv., Ent. amer., VI 



209. 



November 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



179 



body is speckled with small black spots on 
the sides and on the back of the anterior seg- 
ments. Feet yellowish, the anal pair white 
with a narrow, longitudinal black line, and 
tipped with yellow. 

Fifth stage. Width of head 3.3 mm. Ver- 
tical lines geminate, somewhat pulverulent 
on a white ground; color green, labrum 
whitish, mouth parts purple-red ; ocelli black ; 
cervical shield narrowly yellow in front, 
smooth, without tubercles.* The body is 
marked as before, the dorsal lines white, the 
subdorsal yellow, the stigmatal absent. In 
one example the lines were partly obsolete 
especially in the fourth stage. As the pres- 
ent stage advances white shades appear in . 
the space enclosed by the anterior supple- 
mentary dorsal lines and below the subdor- 
sal line on joint 13 while the subdorsal line 
becomes partly white. The lateral region of 
the body is dark green with purple dots, the 
dorsal region yellowish green with a general 
faint white shading. On one, a pink spot 
appeared in the subdorsal band on joint 7. 

Cocoon. The larvae enter the ground and 
spin an extremely slight web of silk. 

Pupa. Of normal shape, cylindrical, the 
body punctured and cases creased; antennae 
cases prominent. The cremaster consists of 
two parallel spines, twisted a little near the 
snd and barbed, each bearing two little spurs 
the anterior one pointing inward, the poster- 
ior one outward. A curved row of six sub- 
cubical granulations is situated at the pos- 
terior edge of the thorax. Color shining 
mahogany red, darker on the cases. Length 
19 mm ; width 5 mm. 

The species is occasionally double-brooded 
and the winter is passed in the pupa state. 

Food plants. Oak (Que reus}, Witch-hazel 
(Hamamelis), Hickory (Carya), Chestnut 
(Castanea) and Birch (Betula). 

Larvae from Dutchess and Ulster counties, 
N. Y. 



Dryopteris rosea Walker. 

1S55. Walk., Cat. Brit, mus., V, 1164. Dre- 
fiana. 

1887. Grote, Can. ent., XIX, 50. 
18S8. Dyar, Ent. amer., IV, 179. 
1890. Packard. Proc. Bost. soc. nat. hist., 
XXIV, 4S9. 

This species is double brooded. The moths 
of the first brood appear about the middle of 
June and from eggs laid by them the sum- 
mer larvae are produced which develop into 
moths towards the end of August. The sec- 
ond brood of larvae hibernate exposed on the 
stems of the food plant in the fourth or fifth lar- 
val stages and complete their transformations 
in the following spring, emerging as perfect 
insects in June. There appear to be six 
stages. f There is not much change in col- 
oration except that during hibernation the 
color is of a uniform brown, resembling the 
color of the twigs of the food plants, and at 
maturity it is very variable, often decidedly 
greenish, resembling the leaves upon which 
the larvae rest. I have already noted how 
the larvae are protected from observation in 
their early stages. 

The cocoon is formed of silk inside of the 
rolled edge of a leaf. 

The pupa is cylindrical, a little flattened 
ventrally; eyes and wing cases prominent; 
blunt at both ends, the head almost square; 
the abdominal segments not tapering but the 
last square and blunt. Cremaster a short 
thick rounded prominence which is smooth. 
The body is punctured dorsally, the wing 
cases finely creased. Color brownish yellow, 
the head, thorax and anal segment heavily 
shaded with blackish brown while the cases 
and back are also shaded, but less heavily. 
Eyes black; spiracles dark brown. Length 
11 mm. ; Avidth 4 mm. 

Food plants — Viburnum acerifolium, V. 
lentago and V. dentation. 

Not uncommon on its food plants in Dutch- 
ess and Ulster Counties, New York. 



* Differing markedly from Dr. Packard's description- 



tSee Psyche, vol. 5, page 421. 



180 



PSYCHE. 



[November 1S91. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES.— I. 

BY SAMUEL HENSHAW. 

Biologia Centrali-Americana. — DlP- 

tera. Vol. I. By Charles Robert von Osten 

Sacken. 

gen. sp. 

Cecidomyidae, 1SS6, pt. 49, p. 1. 1 1 

Mycetophilidae, 1SS6, pt. 49, p. 1-2. 3 6 

Bibionidae, 1S86, pt. 49, p. 2-5. 3 22 

Simulidae, 1SS6, pt. 49, p. 5. 1 3 

Blepharoceridae, 1SS6, pt. 49, p. 5. 1 1 

Culicidae, 18S6, pt. 49, p. 5-6. 2 5 

Tipulidae, 1SS6, pt. 49, p. 6-20. 12 38 

Rhyphidae, 18S6, pt. 49, p. 20-22. 1 1 

Stratiomyidae, 1SS6, pt 49-50, p 

22-43. 2 7 9 2 

Tabanidae, iSS6,'pt. 50-51, p. 43-60. 8 74 

Chiromyzidae, 18S6, pt. 51, p. 60. 1 1 

Leptidae, 18S6, pt. 51, p. 60-62. 3 13 

Xylophagidae, 18S6, pt. 51, p. 62-63. 1 2 
Acanthomeridae, 1886, pt. 51, p. 

63-68. 2 3 

Midaidae, 1886, pt. 51-52, p. 68-73. 2 17 

Nemestrinidae, 1SS6, pt. 52, p. 73-74. 2 3 
Bombylidae, 1886-87, Pt- 52-55, 

p. 75-162. 24 107 

Therevidae, 1887, pt. 55, p. 162-163. 2 7 

Cyrtidae, 18S7, pt. 55, p. 163-167. 6 8 

Asilidae, 1887, pt. 55-57, p. 167-213. 39 167 
Dolichopodidae, 1887, pt. 57, p. 

213-214. 4 12 

Empidae, 18S7, pt. 57, p. 214-216. 2 10 

The above enumeration of 147 genera and 
593 species includes, in addition to those 
contained in the descriptive part of the work, 
all previously recorded from Mexico and 
Central America. 

Species of the following genera are fig- 
ured : — 

Tipulidae. — Epiphragma, 1. *Tany- 
premna, 1. 

Stratiomyidae. — Hermetia, 1. 

Tabanidae. — Chrysops, I. Tabanus, 1. 

Acanthomeridae. — Acanthomera, 3. 

Bombylidae. — Anthrax, 2, 3. Aphoeban- 
tus, 3. Argyramoeba, 2. Eclimus, 3. Exo- 



prosopa, 1. Hyperalonia, 1, 2. *Isopenthes, 
2. *Lepidanthrax, 2. Pantarbes, 3. *Stonyx, 
2. 

Cyrtidae. — Ocnaea, 3. 

Asilidae. — *Cophura, 3. Diogmites, 3. 
Laphria,3. Lastaurus, 3. Mallophora, 3. 
Proctacanthus, 3. 

The three plates contain 66 figures of 50 
species; new genera are marked (*) ; the 
figure following the name of the genus de- 
notes the number of the plate. 

CLOUDS OF INSECTS. 

On the night of Aug. 27th, Hornellsville, 
N. Y., was visited by a vast shoal of insects 
which came from the south, and, as long as 
observed, moved in a northerly direction. 
They made their appearance about sunset and 
on the following morning they had entirely 
disappeared. They were minute in size, pos- 
sessed four membranous, glossy wings, and 
the abdomen was separated from the thorax 
by a narrow constriction. They probably 
belonged to the same order as the bees and 
wasps. The afternoon preceding the even- 
ing of their appearance was sultry and op- 
pressive, and the sky was unclouded. Just 
before dusk a vast mound-like cloud became 
visible south of the city. It had an apparent 
altitude of about two thousand feet and was 
of the cumulus type. It shone with a rosy, 
semi-metallic lustre due to reflections from 
the western sky. A few minutes later the 
insects began to come from the direction of 
the cloud. It would be impossible to esti- 
mate their numbers. Probably there were at 
least hundreds of millions. There were 
places where they flew as thick as hail, and 
like hail in a common direction. When they 
had fully arrived the electric lights became 
the chief centres of their activity. They 
swarmed the stores and flew about the lights 
until exhausted, when they fell to the floors 
in such numbers that they were swept up by 
the merchants. 

Hornellsville is situated in a valley extend- 
ing approximately north and south. Now 



November 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



181 



one remarkable fact about this occurrence 
was that these insects occupied a limited belt 
in the centre of the valley, and did not ex- 
tend to the elevated portions of the town on 
either side. There were no insects about the 
electric lights on the hillsides, and farther 
down in the valley the lights were fre- 
quented only by Lepidoptera. Where the 
small insects were most abundant the Lepi- 
doptera were wanting. Probably the small 
insects drove them away. Looking from the 
hillsides a cloudy phosphorescence was seen to 
extend over the city in an irregular sheet, 
with here and there patches and protuber- 
ances rising high above the common mass. 
Comparing the position of this cloud at 
different times from seven until ten o'clock, 
it was evident that the centres of maximum 
density were moving northward, i. e., in the 
same direction that the insects moved in the 
early part of the evening. There was no 
perceptible moisture in the air so that this 
cloud could not be attributed to mist. It must 
have been caused by the reflection of the 
city lights upon the glossy wings of these 
insects. 

Prof. D. A. Saunders tells me that a very 
similar cloud passed over Alfred Centre, a 
village about twelve miles southwest of Horn- 
ellsville, on the evening of August 16. The 
insects in this case were flying ants with de- 
ciduous wings, so that, after the cloud had 
passed, their wings were found very abund- 
antly scattered over the ground. This cloud 
made its appearance about sunset and had 
passed over by dark. It came from a steep 
hill overlooking the town and swept across 
the town in a narrow belt, leaving the upper 
and lower parts unmolested. He has ob- 
served other clouds during the year in Flor- 
ida, and says the inhabitants there are quite 
familar with them. A rather remarkable 
cloud of this kind was particularly observed 
by him in the month of May at Sisco, Fla. 
The insects on this occasion were large, and 
had very glossy wings. The cloud began 
about eisrht o'clock in the morning and lasted 



for half an hour. They seemed to rise 
from a flat meadow densely overgrown with 
grass. They ascended to an altitude of about 
twenty feet, and continued the rest of their 
course in a horizontal direction. The cloud 
seems to have been confined chiefly to a 
twenty-acre lot and did not pass to adjacent 
parts. It was a warm, bright day, and the 
reflection of light upon their wings gave the 
cloud a striking resemblance to a snowstorm. 
Their wings were deciduous, and neighbor- 
ing pools were pretty much covered with 
them. J. Lawton Williams. 

Notes. — The Royal Society of New South 
Wales offers a prize of the Society's medal 
and £25 for the best essay containing the re- 
sults of original research on the injuries 
occasioned by insect pests upon introduced 
trees, the essay to be sent in before May 1, 
1893. The competition is in no way con- 
fined to residents in Australia, but is open 
without restriction to all. 

In Nature Notes for August Mr. R. T. 
Lewis, on the authority of a correspondent 
in whose trustworthiness he has entire confi- 
dence, gives a curious account of the appre- 
ciation with which the song of the Cicada is 
heard by insects other than those of its own 
genus. The correspondent has frequently 
observed in Natal that when the Cicada is 
singing at its loudest, in the hottest portion 
of the day, it is attended by a number of 
other insects with lovely, gauze-like, irides- 
cent wings, whose demeanour has left no 
doubt on his mind that the music is the at- 
traction. The Cicada, when singing, usually 
stations itself upon the trunk of a tree with 
its head uppermost, and the insects in ques- 
tion, to the number sometimes of fifteen or 
sixteen, form themselves into a rough semi- 
circle at a short distance around its head. 
During a performance one of the insects was 
observed occasionally to approach the Cicada 
and to touch it upon its front leg or antennae, 
which proceeding was resented by a vigorous 
stroke of the foot by the Cicada, without, 



182 



PSYCHE. 



[November 1S91 



however, any cessation of its song. The in- 
sects composing the audience are extremely 
active ; and so wary that they take flight at 
the least alarm on the too near approach of 
any intruder. Some of them, however, have 
been captured; and on examination these 
"proved to belong to the same family as that 
most beautiful of British insects — the lace- 
wing fly, which, indeed, they closely resem- 
ble except as to size, their measurement 
across the expanded wings being a little over 
two inches; they have since been identified 
by Mr. Kirby at the British Museum as 
Nothochrysa gigantea." — Nature. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

10 October, 1890. — The 155th meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St. Mr. S. 
H. Scudder was chosen chairman. 

The meeting was devoted almost entirely 
to informal remarks. Among other topics 
Mr. S H. Scudder discussed further damage 
by white ants in New England. Referring 
to remarks made by him at a previous meet- 
ing on the injuries to geranium cuttings in 
the forcing houses attached to Mt. Auburn 
cemetery, and to an article in the Canadian 
entomologist, by Dr. H. A. Hagen, on their 
abundance in Cambridge, he proceeded to 
describe the injuries done by Termes jlavipes 
to tree ferns growing in tubs at the Botanic 
Garden in Cambridge, as well as to the tubs 
themselves. This had been pointed out to 
him by Mr. F. A. Quinn and Mr. Cameron 
of the Botanic Garden. He suggested the 
practicability of using staves for the tubs 
made of galvanized iron, or some such ma- 
terial, in place of wooden ones. (See Psy- 
che, 1891, v. 6, p. 15.) 

Mr. Scudder also called attention to the 
issue of a work on the genus Ornithoptera 
by Robt. H. F. Rippon. 

Mr. J. H. Emerton exhibited a few sketches 
of A. polypkemus in process of expansion. 

12 December, 1S90. — The 158th meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St. Mr. 
S. Henshaw was chosen chairman. 



Mr. Henshaw read a letter from Mr. Mann 
in relation to vol. 4 of Psyche, action on 
which was necessarily postponed on account 
of the absence of a quorum. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder read the first of a series 
of letters from Dr. T. W. Harris to Mr. Thos. 
Say, and the latter's reply. These letters 
will be published later in Psyche (See v. 6, 
pp. 57-60). 

9 January, 1891. — The 159th regular meet- 
ing and 15th annual meeting (since incorpo- 
ration) was held at 156 Brattle St. Mr. S. 
H. Scudder was elected chairman. 

The annual reports of the secretary and of. 
the retiring librarian were accepted and 
ordered to be placed on file. 

The annual report of the treasurer was pre- 
sented and referred to the auditors. 

Owing to the absence of a quorum the reg- 
ular election of officers was postponed. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder then read the annual 
address of retiring President Woodworth. 
The address was entitled "On the relations 
between scientific and economic entomol- 
ogy," and will be published in full in Pysche 
(See v. 6, pp. 19-21). 

Mr. Scudder stated that by request of Mr. 
F. Bolles he had recently examined the con- 
tents of the stomach of three golden winged 
woodpeckers (Colaptes auratus) which he 
found to consist almost entirely of the re- 
mains of ants of several species. Consider- 
able discussion followed with regard to the 
insect food of several other birds, notably the 
English sparrow {Passer domesticus) and 
also the kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) and 
kildeer and golden plovers. It seemed to be 
the general opinion that insects eaten by 
birds would be better preserved, owing to the 
chitine in their composition, than seeds, 
berries, and other more soluble material, so 
that when a bird had eaten any insects, un- 
less it was shot immediately after its meal, 
the insect remains would appear in excess. 

The second letter from Dr. Harris to Mr. 
Say, and the latter's reply was read (See 
Psyche, v. 6, pp. 121-123). 




PSYCHE, 



A. <JOXJK,3Sr^.I_. OF ENTOMOLOGY. 
[Established in 1S74.] 

Vol. 6. No. 188. 

December, 1891. 

CONTENTS: 

Some old Correspondence between Harris, Say and Pickering. — V . . 185 

A TACHINID PARASITE OF THE OAK UNICORN PROMINENT. C. H. Tyler ToTVtiSend. 187 

A LIST OF SOME OF THE CATALOGUES AND LOCAL LISTS OF NORTH AMERICAN 

Coleoptera. — II, H-P. — John Hamilton , Samuel Henshaw .... 188 

Heteropacha rileyana. — Caroline G. Soule ........ 193 

Preparatory stages of Pheosia dimidiata H. S. — Harrison G. Dyar . . 194 

Temperature experiments. — F. Merrifield 19^' 

Choice of food. — Harrison G. Dyar. ......... 196 

Nadata gibbosa. — Caroline G. Soule ......... 197 

A correction. — Harrison G. Dyar .......... 197 

Notes (Catalogue of Elateridae; two interesting papers; Moore's Lepidoptera 
Indica; genera of Aeschnidae; new trap door spider; Macrolepidoptera of 
Buffalo; new works upon British insects; Kolbe's Introduction; October 

meeting of the Entomological society of London). ...... 197 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club ..... 198 

Published by the 

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Cambridge. Mass., U. S. A. 

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PSTCHE. 



eceinbei 1S91. 



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Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
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pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
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FOR SALE. 

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Soerabaia, Java. 



PSYCHE 



SOME OLD CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HARRIS. SAY AND 

PICKERING.— V. 



[HARRIS TO SAY.] 

Milton, May 15, 1S25. 

Dear Sir, 

By the enclosed letter you 
will see that I had not neglected to 
write in reply to yours of January last, 
though I have delayed to send my 
answer until this time. 

I regret that unforeseen obstacles 
have occurred, which will prevent my 
contemplated visit to Philadelphia this 
spring, and that I must relinquish, for 
the present, my project of consulting; 
you in person respecting a description of 
the insects of this vicinity. 

My collection contains nearly all the 
native species that are to be found in the 
cabinet of Prof. Peck, besides many 
others which are not there. I have also 
in keeping a small case of insects, col- 
lected near Boston by a friend. From 
these it was my intention to have 
selected, for your examination, speci- 
mens of all those which I had not 
already sent you ; in order both to indi- 
cate to you what species were natives of 
the environs of Boston, and to inform 
myself by what names they had been 
described. Although disappointed in 
nry wish of exhibiting these to you in 
person, I cannot feel contented to 
remain in my present state of ignorance, 



and perhaps incur the risk of publishing, 
as nondescripts, insects which you or 
other late entomologists have already 
described. I will therefore encroach 
still further on your goodness by send- 
ing the case containing these insects for 
inspection at your leisure, if any you can 
afford from the various pursuits in 
which you are engaged. I shall wait 
until I hear from you before I presume- 
to put your goodwill & patience to this 
test ; and, if your answer be favorable 
to my wishes, I will forward them by 
water, to be returned in the same way 
when you have completed your exam- 
ination of them. I would not request 
this of you were not many of the species 
unique specimens, or such as are en- 
trusted to me by my friend. Those, of 
which I have duplicates, I shall distin- 
guish in a particular manner, & shall beg 
of you to retain, if desirable. 

I have received from Northampton, 
(a town in Mass. on Connecticut River) 
an insect which I presume to be the 
Cremastocheilits casta lie cc of Knoch. 
In the month of September last great 
numbers appeared on a hill in that town 
which is wooded with Chestnut trees. 
The specimen is nine twentieths of an 
inch long, & nearly 5 twentieths of an 
inch across the humeral portion of the 
elytra. It is entirely black, scabrous. 



PSYCHE. 



[December i$9i. 



slightly pilose, & with two conspicuous 
tufts of short hairs on the posterior part 
of the thorax. 

There has been discovered in the 
state of Maine a species of the genus 
Condylura of Illiger, which presents 
characters distinct from those of the two 
species which have been described by 
naturalists. This animal has the teeth 
of the Condylura (Sorex) cristata, 
but not the knotted tail of that species. 
This species I have examined, & per- 
pared an account of it, for the Boston 
Journal of Philosophy & Arts, & have 
called it Condylura prasinata. Colour 
green : Length from end of the snout to 
origin of the tail 4^ inches: Length 
of tail 3 inches : c i re n inference of the 
tail ( \ inch from its insertion) 1 ± 
inch. Cai'uncles on the nose 22 in 
number, the two intermediate superior 
ones united at base, & situated a little 
anterior of the rest. On each of the 
phalanges of the fore-feet 3 acuminated, 
triangular scales or cuticular processes, 
situated on the inside, near the meta- 
carpo-phalangal articulation. Tail, 
nearly three quarters as long as the 
body, strangulated at its insertion, 
becoming abruptly very large, & taper- 
ing toward the extremity. The caudal 
vertebras not distinguishable through 
the mass of fat with which they are 
enveloped : No transverse folds or 
ridges on the tail, its surface being per- 
fectly uniform, & the hairs, with which 
it is thinly clothed, are not disposed in 
whorls. Such a structure of the tail 
shews the inaptitude of the generic 
name Condylura. Please inform me 



whether this species has fallen under 
your observation, & how you think it 
would answer to propose for it the 
generic name of Astromycter, from 
asTTip, a star, & fiVKTtjp, the proboscis. 

Is the cabinet of Mr. Melsheimer now 
in existence ? and have any descriptions 
been published of the insects, to which 
he has given names in his catalogue? 
(Of course I except yours in the Jour- 
nal Acad. Nat. Sc.) The catalogue 
can be of no service without such de- 
scriptions, or access to the original 
specimens. 

I wait with pleasant anticipations for 
the appearance of your second volume 
of American Entomology, and for your 
promised account of the Coleoptera, in 
the Journal of the Acad. Nat. Sc. 

Please let me hear from you soon ; & 
allow me to express, for your success in 
ail vour undertakings, the best wishes of 
Your much obliged friend, 

T. Wm. Harris. 



[DRAFT OF REPLY BY THOMAS SAY.] 

May 21, 1825. 

Dear Sir, 

As you have asked my 
opinion relative to the Condylura, I 
think it my duty to return you an 
answer without delay, in order to 
apprize vou that you have no time to 
lose in publishing an account of your 
species, as a person here is about to 
publish what he calls a Fauna Ameri- 
cana in which I suppose this animal 
will be included. Are you sure it is a 



December 1S91.J 



PSYCHE. 



187 



distinct species & not the female of the 
cristata ? I should have given an 
account of it long ago if I had been sat- 
isfied on this point, which, however, I 
do not suppose would deter the author 
of the expected Fauna Americana. If 
you have found a male having the 
swelled tail you are perfectly safe, & I 
should be glad to see your account of it. 
It is true that the generic name is an 
improper one, but I do not think it 
ought to be changed ; Desmarest com- 
plains of the name but he observes that 
he is afraid d'introduire une nouvelle 
denomination, & de contribuer ainsi & 
compliquer la synonvmie. 



My concerns here are so numerous 
that I cannot at present devote as much 
time to nat. hist, as I could wish, I 
must therefore defer a further answer to 
y'r letter for a future opport'y. 

In the cristata the hair has been incor- 
rectly stated to be in whorls, Desmarest 
notices this error. It has 22 caruncles 
on the nose. This author's fig. of 
cristata is very good (Jour, de physique, 
for Sept'r rStc)) he relies on Illiger's 
acumen in placing the Talpa longicau- 
data. Gmel. Long tailed mole of Pen- 
nant in this genus, but that species can- 
not be yours. 



A TACHINID PARASITE OF THE OAK UNICORN PROMINENT. 



BY C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, LAS CRUCES, N.M. 



The following Tachinid, which I de- 
scribe from four male specimens, was 
reared from Schlzura unicornis Sm. 
& A. by Mr. F. A. Marlatt, at Man- 
hattan, Kans. It has been bred by him, 
as he writes me, every year for several 
years past. The specimens are labelled : 
"From Oak Unicorn Prominent, Ks. 
Oct." 

Masicera schizurae n. sp. $ . Black, ciner- 
eous. Eyes brown, bare; front about one- 
third the width of head, a little narrower at 
vertex than before, rather prominent, ciner- 
eous, with a brassy tinge ; frontal vitta dark 
brown or blackish, about one-third the fron- 
tal width ; frontal bristles descending a little 
or considerably below base of third antennal 



joint, some short hairs outside them and oiv 
ocellar area; sides of face silvery, bare; face 
receding, facial depression with a golden 
tinge, cinereous on the sides of depression; 
facial ridges with a row of bristles extending 
nearly or fully half way up the face ; vibrissae 
decussate, inserted nearly on the oral margin ; 
cheeks almost wholly invaded by occipital 
area, cinereous, black hajry, with row of bris- 
tles on lower border ; antennae a little shorter 
than the face, black, second joint not elon- 
gate, bristly before, third joint about four 
times as long as the second; arista rather 
long and slender, a little thickened on its 
proximal half, microscopically pubescent, 
distinctly jointed at base (in one slightly 
immature specimen distinctly 3-jointed un- 
der a high-power lens), black; proboscis 
short, fleshy, brownish, with large Iabella; 



b 



PSYCHE. 



[December iSqi. 



palpi well developed, club-shaped, yellow 
with a reddish tinge, black bristly; oc- 
ciput cinereous, thickly gray hairy, a bare 
black band extending from vertex to cen- 
ter, and the orbital margins with a fringe 
of black bristles. Thorax cinerous, with 
four black vittae, hairy and bristly, pleurae 
silvery; scutellum blackish at base, the 
apical portion broadly pale ocherous, some- 
times almost wholly ocherous, with a short 
apical decussate pair of bristles, a sub-apical 
pair of macrochaetae more or less decussate 
and reaching the base of third abdominal 
segment, a discal pair, and two lateral pairs. 
Abdomen rather broad, ovate, covered with 
short bristles; first segment black, a little 
abbreviated, the other segments broadly or 
almost wholly silvery at base with hind bor- 
ders and median vitta shining black, second 
segment more or less broadly reddish on 
sides (an immature specimen has the ab- 
domen almost entirely pale reddish); first 
two segments without macrochaetae, except 
a lateral marginal one on second segment, 
but sometimes a median marginal pair also 
on second segment; third segment with 
about ten marginal, four to six of which are 
on upper side; anal segment armed with 



marginal macrochaetae and bristles; venter 
largely silvery, the segments black poste- 
riori}'. Legs black, femora and tibiae slightly 
silvery, femora bristly, middle tibiae with 
some strong bristles, the hind tibiae ciliate 
on outer edge with a longer bristle beyond 
middle and two before tip; claws and pulvilli 
very long, pulvilli smoky whitish. Wings 
much longer than abdomen, rather broad, 
without costal spine, grayish hyaline, hardly 
brownish on costo-basal portion, third vein 
slightly spined at base; apical cell open, end- 
ing distinctly before tip of wing; fourth vein 
bent in a short curve, without stump or 
wrinkle, apical cross-vein bowed inward; 
hind cross-vein more or less curved, much 
nearer the bow of fourth vein ; tegulae 
watery-white, halteres fuscous. 

Length 8.5 to 9 mm.; of wing 7.5 to 8 mm. 



Described from four specimens. 
Kans. This species wouhl belong in 
Bra tier and v. Bergenstamm's genus 
Argyrophylax, which is separated from 
Masicera almost solely on the character 
of the ciliate hind tibiae. 



A LIST OF SOME OF THE CATALOGUES AND LOCAL LISTS OF 
NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA.— II (H.-P.). 



BY JOHN HAMILTON AND SAMUEL HENSHAW. 



33 Haldeman, S. S. Catalogue of the 
carabideous Coleoptera of southeastern Penn- 
sylvania. (Proc. acad. nat. sci. Phil., 1843, 
v. 2, p. 295-298.) 

210 species are listed. 

34 Harrington, W. H. List of Ottawa Co- 
leoptera. (Trans. Ottawa field nat. club, 
1884, V. 2, p. 67-68.) 

1022 species and varieties are listed; the occurrence 
of about 100 additional species is noted. 

35 Harrington, W. H. Additions to Cana- 
dian lists of Coleoptera. (Can. ent., 1884, 
v. 16, p. 44-47 : 70-73; 96-98: 117-119.) 

122 species are listed ; a few are not fully identified. 



36 Harrington, W. H. On the lists of 
Coleoptera published by the geological sur- 
vey of Canada, 1842-1S8S. (Can. ent., 1890, 
v. 22, p. 135-140: 153-160: 184-191.) Sepa- 
rate: 21 p . 

The short lists published in the reports of the Ca- 
nadian geological survey are here collated; 4S2 spe- 
cies and varieties are enumerated. 



37 Harris, Thaddeus William. Insects. 
Hitchcock's Report on the geology, etc., of 
Massachusetts. Amherst, 1833. Second edi- 
tion ; Amherst, 1835. Separate; Amherst, 
1835. 



December 1891.J 



PSTCHE. 



189 



The Coleoptera are enumerated on p. 566-5S2 ed. of 
JS33, p. 553-575 ed. of 1S35 an d P- 33-55 of the separate 
of Edward Hitchcock's Catalogue of the animals and 
plants in Massachusetts : 994 species are in the list in 
the separate; many of these are however manuscript 
names. 

38 Haywaid, Roland and Savage, H. A 
catalogue of the Coleoptera of the Green 
Mountains. (Quart, journ. Bost. zool. soc, 
1S83, v. 2, p. 12-15; 24-29; 36-38.) 

431 species and varieties are listed from Camel's 
Hump and the northern range of the mountains. 
" Platynus brunneomarginatus = P. tenuicollis, and 
Hister ptinctifer and Hoplia equina are erroneous de- 
terminations" R. Hayivard in lift. 

39. Henshaw, Samuel. List of Coleoptera 
collected in the vicinity of Cliftondale, Mass.. 
June 12, 1873. (Psyche, 1874, v. 1, p. 17-18; 
22-23.) 

135 species are listed. 

40 Henshaw, Samuel. List of the Coleop- 
tera of America, north of Mexico. Philadel- 
phia, 1SS5, 2+161 p. 

923S species are enumerated; includes all species de- 
scribed till Sept. 1SS5. 

41 Henshaw, Samuel. First supplement 
to the list of Coleoptera of America, north 
of Mexico. (Entom. amer., 1887, v. 2, p. 
213-220.) Separate: Brooklyn, 1S87, 8 p. 

212 species are added; many corrections in synonymy 
are indicated; includes all species described till Jan. 
1,1887. 

42. Henshaw, Samuel. Second supple- 
ment to the list of Coleoptera of America, 
north of Mexico. (Entom. amer., 1889, v. 5, 
p. 127-138.) Separate : Brooklyn, 1886, 14 p. 

303 species are added; bibliographical references to 
recent monographs, synopses, etc. are added. 

43. Holland, W. J. Captures made while 
travelling from Winnipeg to Victoria, B. C 
(Can. ent., 1888, v. 20, p. S9-92.) 

60 species and varieties of Coleoptera are listed. 

44 Horn, George H. Catalogue of Cole- 
optera from southwestern Virginia. (Trans. 
Amer. ent. soc, 1868, v. 2, p. 123-128.) 

179 species are listed, some are not fully determined. 

45. Horn, G. H. A list of Coleoptera col- 
lected by C. Thomas, in eastern Colorado 
and northeastern New Mexico, during the 
survey of 1869. (Rep. U. S. geol. surv., 
[Hayden's 2d rep.], 1872, p. 469-470.) 

Enumerates 123 species; 2 are not fully identified. 

46 Horn, G. H. Coleoptera. (Rep. U. S. 
geol. surv., [Hayden's 5th rep.] 1872, p. 382- 

39 2 -) 

818 species are enumerated collected in Kansas, 
Utah, Idaho, Montana, California, Oregon, Xew Mex- 
ico, Nevada and Indian Territory. 



H. Coleoptera. (Rep. U. 
[Hayden's 6th rep.], 1873, 



47 Horn, G 
geol. surv 

7I7-) 

19 species are listed from Yellowstone Lake, S from 
Teton Basin and 13 from Snake River. 

4S Horn, G. H. Coleoptera. (Rep. sea 
fisheries New England [Baird's 1st rep.], 
X S73, P- 540-543.) (Rep. invert. Vineyard 
Sound, 1874, p. 246-249.) 

17 species are listed with notes on localities. 

49 Horn, G. H. Notes on the coleopte- 
rous fauna of Guadalupe Island. (Trans. 
Amer. ent. soc, 1S76, v. 5, p. 198-201.) 

23 species are listed; 4 species are peculiar to the 
fauna of the island; regions of previous occurrence are 
given. 

50 Horn, G. H. List of Coleoptera col- 
lected in 1875 in Colorado and Utah, bv A. 
S. Packard, Jr., M. D. (Rep. U. S. geol. 
surv., [Hayden's 9th rep.], 1877, p. 811-S15.) 

146 species are listed with localities of capture; sev- 
eral are not fully identified. 

51 Horn, G. H. Coleoptera [collected in 
1SS5, by Dr. Robert Bell, in connection with 
the Hudson's Bay expedition.] (Rep. progr. 
Can. geol. surv., 1885, 18S6, p. 27 DD.) 

5 species are listed from Stupart's Bay, 3 from Cape 
Chudleigh, 3 from Cape Digges and 3 from Blanc 
Sablon. 

52 Howard, L. O. A list of the inverte- 
brate fauna of South Carolina. Separate : 

47 P- 

Chapter 11 of a Handbook of the state of South Caro- 
lina published in 1SS3 by the state : a list of the genera 
of the more important families of Coleoptera found in 
the state is given on p. 1 1 - 16 ; estimates that some 4000 
species will probably be found by diligent collecting. 

53 Howard, L. O. Annotated catalogue 
of the insects collected in 1887-88 [by the U. 
S. fish commission steamer Albatross] 
(Proc U. S. nat. mus., 1SS9, v. 12, p. 1S5- 
216.) 

A few species of Coleoptera from Clemente Island 
and from Lower California are listed on p. 1S6-1S7. 

54 Hubbard, H. G. and Schwarz, E. A. 
The Coleoptera of Michigan. (Proc. Amer. 
philos. soc, 1S78, v. 17, p. 593-666.) 

From the Lake Superior region 12.51 species and va- 
rieties are listed ; the occurrence of more than 100 addi- 
tional species is indicated; from the lower peninsular of 
Michigan 17S6 species and varieties are listed and the 
occurrence of about 150 additional species is noted; 
many new species are described by Leconte. 

55 Jones, J. Matthew. Nova Scotian Cole- 
optera. Part 1. (Trans. Nova Scotia inst. 
nat. sci., 1869, v. 2, p. 141-000.) Separate: 
Halifax, 1870, 15 p. 

100 species are listed ; very many of them are not fully 
identified. 



190 



PSYCHE. 



[December 1S91 



56 Kilman, Alva H. Additions to the list 
of Canadian Coleoptera. (Can. ent. , 1SS9, 
v. 2i, p. 108-110: 134-137.) 

117 species are listed with notes of capture and abun- 
dance. 

57 Kirby, William. The insects. Rich- 
ardson's Fauna Boreali-Americana. Nor- 
-wich, 1837, v. 4. 

343 species of Coleoptera are enumerated and de- 
scribed on p. 8-24Q; contains species collected from 
Nova Scotia to the Rocky Mountains and northwest to 
65°. For a partial reprint of Kirby's descriptions etc. 
see Can. ent., v. 2-7; also in separate, London, Ontario, 
n. d., 1464-14 p. The synonymy of the Coleoptera by 
G. H. Horn (Can. ent. v. 8, p- 126-130; 150-159; 166-170; 
190-193) is also in the separate. 

58 Knaus, Warren. Additions to the 
catalogue of Kansas Coleoptera for 1883 and 
1884. (Trans. Kans. acad. sci., 1885, v - 9> P- 
57-6I-) 

148 species and 12 varieties are listed; this raises the 
total number of Kansas Coleoptera to 2059 species and 
varieties. 

59 Knaus, Warren. Additions for 1885 
and 1886 to the list of Kansas Coleoptera. 
(Trans. Kans. acad. sci., 1SS7, v - IO < P- 86-8S.) 

60 species and 1 variety are listed; the total number 
of Coleoptera from Kansas is now about 21 15. 

60 Leconte, John L. A descriptive cata- 
logue of the geodephagous Coleoptera inhab- 
iting the United States east of the Rocky 
Mountains. (Annals lye. nat. hist. N. Y., 
^848 v. 4, p. 172-474.) Separate: 144 p. 

616 species are enumerated: the pages succeeaing p. 
'333 are numbered 100 too high. 

61 Leconte, J. L. General remarks upon 
the Coleoptera of Lake Superior. Agassiz's 
Lake Superior, Boston, 1850, p. 200-242.* 

816 snecies are enumerated and many of them de- 
scribed for the first time. This collection was made 
from Sault de Ste. Marie, skirting the eastern and north- 
ern shores of Lake Superior and westward to Fort 
William on Thunder Bay. 

62 Leconte. J. L. Descriptions of new 
species of Coleoptera from California. (An- 
nals lye nat. hist N. Y., 1851-52, v. 5, p. 
125-216.) 

Descriptions of 335 new species from California and 
Oregon; a few species from other parts of the United 
States are described in the foot notes. 

63 Leconte. J. L. Report upon insects 
collected on the survey. (Rep. expl. and 
surv. from Miss, river to the Pacific ocean, 
1S57, v - I2 ' Pt- 3' P- *"7 2 -) Separate: 72 p. 

1 173 species of Coleoptera are listed from California, 
Oregon, Washington and Alaska; a few undetermined 
species are noted : contains remarks on distribution and 
the following tables, 1, genera common to the eastern 
and western continents ; 2. genera peculiar to America; 
3, species common to the Atlantic and Pacific slopes 
of the continent; 4, species found in Russian America 
and in the eastern continent, not introduced and not 
found in Atlantic America. 



64 Leconte, J. L. Catalogue of Coleop- 
tera of the region adjacent to the boundary 
line between the United States and Mexico. 
(Journ. acad. nat. sci. Phil., 1858, ser. 2, v. 4, 
p. 9-42.) 

993 determined species are listed from Texas, Kan- 
sas, Colorado, Arizona, Frontera, Mexico, California, 
and Lake Superior; the occurrence of 11 additional 
species is noted ; contains the following tables, 1, dis- 
tribution of genera across the continent; 2> species ex- 
tending across the continent; 3> genera common to the 
eastern and western continents ; 4, genera peculiar to 
America. 

65 Leconte. J. L. Descriptions of new 
species of Coleoptera, chiefly collected by the 
United States and Mexican boundary com- 
mission, under Major W. H. Emory, U. S. A. 
(Proc. acad. nat. sci. Phil., 1858, p. 59-89.) 

Describes 147 new species from Texas, Sonora and 
California. 

66 Leconte, J. L. Catalogue of the Cole- 
optera of Fort Tejon, California. (Proc. 
acad. nat. sci. Phil., 1859, p. 69-90.) 

147 species are listed; 44 species from the Pacific 
coast are added as a supplement. 

67 Leconte, J. L. Additions to the cole- 
opterous fauna of northern California and 
Oregon. (Proc. acad. nat. sci. Phil., 1859, 
p. 281-292.) 

116 species are listed. 

68 Leconte, j. L. The Coleoptera of 
Kansas and eastern New Mexico. (Smithso- 
nian contr. knowl., 1859, v. 11, 6-I-58 p.) 
Separate : N. Y., i860, 6-J-58 p. 

Enumerates 939 species from Kansas and Nebraska 
and 227 from eastern New Mexico; many of these are 
not fuily identified; contains a map of the entomolog- 
ical provinces of North America. 

69 Leconte. J. L. Notes on Coleoptera 
found at Fort Simpson, Mackenzie river, 
with remarks on northern species. (Proc. 
acad. nat. sci. Phil., i860, p. 315-321.) 

25 species are listed from Ft. Simpson, followed by 
notes and descriptions of species from Russian Amer- 
ica, Saskatchewan and Oregon. 

70 Leconte, J. L. Notes on the coleop- 
terous fauna of Lower California. (Proc. 
acad. nat. sci. Phil., 1S61, p. 335-338.) 

Notes the occurrence of more than 500 species in 
Lower California ; relations between the fauna of Lower 
California and that of California, Arizona, New Mex- 
ico and Texas. 

71 Leconte, J, L. New species of Coleop- 
tera inhabiting the Pacific district of the 
United States. (Proc. acad. nat. sci. Phil., 
1861, p. 338-3590 

Describes 96 new species from California, Oregon, 
Washington, Utah, New Mexico and Kansas. 



December 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



191 



72 Leconte. J. L. List of the Coleoptera 
of North America. Part I. (Smithsonian 
misc. coll., 1863-1866. v. 6, 78 p.) Separate: 
Washington, 1863-1866, 78 p. 

Enumerates 5422 species and 50 races; gives full 
synonymy. 

73 Leconte, J. L. List of the Coleoptera 
collected in the mountains of Lycoming 
county, Pa. (Proc. acad. nat. sci. Phil., 
1866, p. 347-348.) 

151 species are listed; several are not fully identified. 

74 Leconte. J. L. List of Coleoptera col- 
lected near Fort Whipple, Arizona, by Dr. 
Elliott Cones, U. S. A., in 1864-65. (Proc. 
acad. nat. sci. Phil.. 1S66. p. 348349.) 

8S species are listed ; several are not fully identified. 

75 Leconte. J. L. List of Coleoptera col- 
lected in Vancouver's Island by Henry and 
Joseph Matthews, with descriptions of some 
new species. (Annals and mag. nat. hist., 
1869, ser. 4. v. 4. p. 369-385.) 

1S6 species are listed. 

76 Leconte. J. L. New species of Cole- 
optera collected by the expeditions for geo- 
graphical surveys west of one hundredth 
meridian in charge of Lieut. Geo. M. 
Wheeler, United States engineers. (Annual 
rep. chief engineers for 1876, pt. 3, p. 516- 
520.) (Appendix J J annual rep. chief en- 
gineers for 1S76, 1S76. p. 296-300.) 

Appended to the descriptions are lists of 1, California 
Coleoptera. 76 species with localities. 2> Coleoptera 
of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. 224 
species. 

77 Leconte. J. L. List of Coleoptera. 
(Rep. progr. Can. geol. surv.. 1875-76. 1S77, 
p. 107-109.) 

List of 145 determined and ii undetermined species 
collected in British Columbia. 

78 Leconte. J. L. The Coleoptera of the 
alpine regions of the Rocky Mountains. 
(Bull. U. S. geol. and geog. surv., 1S78, v. 4, 
p. 447-4S0.) 

222 species and varieties collected in the Rocky 
Mountains of Colorado, Wyoming; and Utah, at an ele- 
vation of 6000 feet and upwards are listed with locali- 
ties of capture; 30 species are listed as peculiar to the 
Rocky mountain region and 154 species collected at 
Atlanta, Idaho (7S00') are enumerated; a few of the spe- 
cies are not fully identified. 

79 Leconte. J. L. The Coleoptera of the 
alpine Rocky Mountain regions. — Part II. 
(Bull. U. S. geol. and geog. surv., 1S79, v. 5, 
p. 499-520.) 

659 species and varieties are listed some of which are 
not fully identified; all were collected in Colorado, 
Wyoming and Idaho at an elevation of 6000 feet and 
upward. 



So Leconte. J. L. List of Coleoptera col- 
lected by Dr. R. Bell in 1S79 on the Nelson 
and Churchill rivers. (Rep. progr. geol. 
surv. Can. 1878-79, 18S0, p. 65C-66C.) 

36 determined and 2 undetermined species are listed. 

Si Leconte, J. L. List of Coleoptera col- 
lected in 1SS0 in Manitoba and between Lake 
Winnipeg and Hudson's Bay. (Rep. progr. 
geol. surv. Can. 1878-80, 18S1, p. 70C-74C). 

Contains the following lists : 1, from York Factory 
Hudson's Bay, 23 determined and 4 undetermined spe- 
cies ; 2, from Norway House to Oxford House, 39 de- 
termined and 2 undetermined species; 3, from Lower 
Fort Garry, Manitoba, 3S determined species ; and 4, 
from Cross Lake, Nelson River, 35 determined and 1 
undetermined species. 

82 Leconte, J. L. List of Coleoptera col- 
lected in 18S1 by Dr. Bell and others in the 
Lake Superior district and in the north-west 
territories, east of the 112th meridian and 
south of the 60th parallel. - (Rep. progr. 
geol. surv. Can., 1880-81-S2, 18S3. p. 29c- 

39C-) 

Contains the following lists : 1, from Sault Stc. Mane, 
between Lakes Huron and Superior. Lat. 46°3i', Long. 
84° 20', 96 species ; 2, from moulh of Michipicoten Hiver, 
Lake Superior, Lat. 47° 56', Long. 84° 51', 9 species; 
3, from head waters of the Michipicoten River, Lake Su- 
perior. Lat. 4S 30', Long. 84° 00' to Lat. 4S 30', Long. 
84° 10', 28 species; 4, from Missinaibi House, north- 
east of Lake Superior, to Flying Post. Lat. 4S 29', 
Long. S3° 35 to Lat. 48° 02', Long. S2° 20', iS determined 
and 2 undetermined species; |j, from Oba and Kabiua- 
kagami lakes and rivers, northeast of Lake Superior, 
Lat. 48° 30'-, Long. 84° 27' to Lat. 49 45', Long. 83' 45 , 
43 species; Q, from Thunder Bay to Lake-of-the- 
Woods, west of Lake Superior, Lat. 48° 25', Long. S9° 
10', to Lat. 49 25 . Long. 95 00', 23 species; f, from 
Oxford House, between Lake Winnipeg and Hudson's 
Bay, Lat. 54 53' Long. 95° 44', 67 determined and 2 un- 
determined species; g, from Nelson River House, near 
Churchill River, Lat. 5 q° 50', Long. 99° 30', 51 species; 
9, from Cross Lake, on the Nelson River, to Cumber- 
land House on the Saskatchewan, Lat. 54° 40', Lone. 
9S 00', to Lat. 54 00', Long. 102° 22', 19 species; 10, 
from Cumbenand House to Reindeer Lake, Lat. 54° 
00', Long. 102 22 to Lat. 5S° 30', Long. 101° 00', 19 spe- 
cies ; and U, from the north end of Reindeer Lake to 
the west end of Athabaska Lake. Lat. 5S 30', Long. 
101° 00' to Lat. 5S 30', Long. 101 00', S species. 

83 Lugger. Otto. List of Coleoptera 
found in the vicinity of Baltimore. (Johns 
Hopkins Univ. circ. 1884, v. 3. no. 30, p. 78- 
79-) 

Abstract; number of families (71) genera (837) and 
species (2259) found in the vicinity of Baltimore, Md. 

84 von Mannerheim, Carl Gustav, Graf. 
Beitrag zur kaefer-fauna der Aleutischen 
Inseln, der Insel Sitkha und Neu-Californi- 
ens. (Bull. soc. imp. nat. Mosc, 1843, v. 16, 
p. 175-314)- Separate : 142 p. 

Enumerates and describes 300 species from Califor- 
nia and the Alaskan Islands; many of the species are 
described as new. 



192 



PSYCHE. 



[December 1891. 



85 von Mannerheim, Carl Gustav, Graf. 
Nachtrag zur kaefer-fauna der Aleutischen 
Inseln und der Insel Sitkha. (Bull. soc. 
imp. nat. Mosc, 1846, v. 19, p. 501-516.) 
Separate : 16 p. 

Enumerates and describes 16 species. 

86 von Mannerheim, Carl Gustav, Graf. 
Zweiter nachtrag zur kaefer-fauna der Nord- 
Atnerikanischen laender des Russischen 
Reiches. (Bull. soc. imp. nat. Mosc, 1852, 
v. 25, p. 283-3S7.) Separate: 107 p. 

Enumerates and describes 180 species ; also lists the 
Russian American species of this and previous contri- 
butions ; excluding the species from California the 
Alaskan species number 332. 

87 von Mannerheim, Carl Gustav, Graf. 
Dritter nachtrag zur kaefer-fauna der Nord' 
Amerikanischen laender des Russischen 
Reiches. (Bull. soc. imp. nat. Mosc, 1853, 
v. 26, p. 95-273.) Separate : 184 p. 

Enumerates and describes 265 species ; many of these 
were enumerated in preceding- contributions; elimin- 
ating these the number of Alaskan species is 540 ac- 
cording to Mannerheim. 

8S Melsheimer, Friedrich Ernst. Cata- 
logue of the described Coleoptera of the 
United States. Washington, July 1S53, xvi 

+ 174 P- 

Revised by Drs. S. S. Haldeman and J. L. Leconte; 
published by the Smithsonian Institution ; 4750 species 
are enumerated; contains all the Coleoptera known till 
Jan. 1, 1S52 with the bibliography and considerable 
"synonymy. 

89 Melsheimer, F. V. A | catalogue | of 
I insects | of | Pennsylvania | By Fred. Val. 

Melsheimer | Minister ot the gospel. | Part 
first I Hanover, York County : | Printed for 
the author, by W. D. Lepper. | 1806. | vi-f- 
60 p. 

1363 species (all Coleoptera) are enumerated; many 
of the names are catalogue names. This is the first 
list of American Coleoptera and is extremely rare. 

90 Osborn, Herbert and Wickham, H. 

F. Fragment of a catalogue of the Coleop- 
tera of Iowa. Abstract. (Proc Iowa acad. 
sci., for 1887-9. 1890, p. 44.) 

2^9 species are mentioned as included in "the frag- 
ment." 

91 Packard, A. S., Jr. List of Coleoptera 
collected by A. S. Packard, jun., at Caribou 
Island, Labrador, Straits of Belle Isle. (Can. 
ent., 1870, v. 2, p. 119.) 

20 determined and 5 undetermined species are listed. 

92 Packard, A. S., Jr. List of Coleoptera 
collected in Labrador. ■ (4th ann. rep. trus- 
tees Peab. acad. sci., 1872, p. 92-94.) Sepa- 
rate : 3 p. 

46 determined and 11 undetermined species are listed 
with localities; the collection was made along the 
coast of Labrador from Caribou Island to Hopedale. 



93 Packard, A. S. List of the spiders, 
myriopods and insects of Labrador. (Can. 
ent., 188S. v. 20. p. 141-149.) 

54 determined and 9 undetermined species of Coleop- 
tera are listed with localities of capture. 

94 Pettit, J. List of Coleoptera taken at 
Grimsby, Ontario. (Can. ent., 1869, v. 1, p. 
106-107 : v. 2, p. 7 : 17-18 : 1S70, p. 53-54 : 65- 
66: 84-86: 102-103: 117-118: 131-133: 151: 
1871, v. 3, p. 105-107: 1872, v. 4, p. 12-14.) 

1225 species are listed; a few of the weevils are not 
fully identified. 

95 Pettit, J. Coleoptera taken at Grimsby. 
(Can. ent., 1872, v. 4. p. 98-99.) 

65 species are added to the previous list. 

96 Popenoe, Edwin A. A list of Kansas 
Coleoptera. (Trans. Kans. acad. sci.. 1S77, 
v.5. p. 21-40.) 

1 179 species and 30 varieties are listed ; about 75 un- 
determined species are indicated as occurring in the 
state. 

97 Popenoe. E. A. Additions to the cat- 
alogue of Kansas Coleoptera. (Trans. Kans. 
acad. sci., 1S78, v. 6, p. 77-86.) 

435 species and varieties are enumerated; some are 
not fully identified. 

98 Provancher, L. Liste des coleopteres 
pris a Portneuf, Quebec. (Le nat. canad., 
1869, v. 1, p. 232; 255-256; 279-280; v. 2, p. 
12; 1S70, p. 60-61: 11S: 178-179: 249; 271- 
272; 343; 367-369; v. 3, p. 25-26; 1871, p. 57- 
59-) 

699 species are listed. 

99^Putnam, J. D. List of Coleoptera 
found in the vicinity of Davenport, Iowa. 
(Proc. Davenp. acad. nat. sci., 1876, v. 1, p. 
169-173.) 

222 determined and 3 undetermined species are listed. 

ioo^Ptitnam, J. D. Coleoptera collected 
at Monticello, Iowa, June 12th, 1872. (Proc. 
Davenp. acad. nat. sci., 1S76, v. 1, p. 173.) 
A list of 34 determined and 3 undetermined species. 

101 Putnam, J. D. Coleoptera collected 
near Frederic, Monroe Co., Iowa, August, 
1869. (Proc. Davenp. acad. nat. sci., 1876, 
v. 1, p. 173.) 

A list of 19 species. 

102 Putnam, J. D. List of Coleoptera 
collected in the Rocky Mountains of Colo- 
rado, in 1872. (Proc. Davenp. acad. nat. 
sci., 1S76, v. i, p. 177-182.) 

236 determined and 24 undetermined species are listed. 



December 1S91.] 



PSYCHE. 



193 



103 Putnam, J. D. Report on the insects 
collected by Captain Jones's expedition to 
northwestern Wyoming in 1S73. (Proc. 
Davenp. acad. nat. sci., 1S76, v. 1, p. 1S7- 
191.) 

44 identified and 1 unidentified species of Coleoptera 
are listed from Green River Basin: Fort Bridger; 3S 
identified and 2 unidentified from Wind River Basin: 
Stinking-water River; and 21 species from Yellowstone 
National Park. 



104 Putnam. J. D. Report on the insects 
collected' in the vicinity of Spring Lake 
Villa, Utah Co.. Utah, during the summer 
of 1875. (Proc. Davenp. acad. nat. sci.. 
1876, v. 1, p. 193-205.) 

From the Mount Nebo alpine region 52 determined 
and 3 undetermined species of Coleoptera are listed; 
from Salt mud flat near Utah Lake 38 determined and 1 
undetermined and from the Sage brush region 105 de- 
termined and 7 undetermined. 



HETERO PACHA RILEYAXA. 



BY CAROLINE G. SOULE, BROOKLINE, MASS. 



Eggs laid July 1, 1891, at Columbus, Ohio. 

Eggs globular, opaque white mottled with 
dark green, a dot of green on top. 

July 11, 1.30 P.M., they hatched. 
Young larvae 1-8 inch long. Head very 
large, round, horn-colored mottled with 
brown. Body gray, striped longitudinally 
with dark brown on each side of the dorsum, 
nth segment black on top. Body covered 
with short, gray hairs. Feet and props 
gray. Anal props very slender and spread 
far apart. The body tapered from head to 
anal end. The larvae moved very fast, and 
were flat instead of cylindrical. 

Three days later they had changed some- 
what in color, the head being dull white 
barred with brown ; the body dull white on 
dorsum with a black dorsal line, and a black 
dash on each side of this line. From each 
dash arose a small, dark wart with short 
spreading hairs. The sides were dark gray 
with a dull white line from 5th segment to 
anal props. The hairs were most abundant 
over the head and feet, and were grayish. 
Each segment had a few warts, with sparse 
short hairs. 

Jul}' 16. First moult. Head darker, hairy, 
mottled with white, the dark and -white lines 
extending back over the first segment, the 
body, as before, giving the effect of black and 
white stripes. The tapering from head to 



anus was very noticeable, as was the flat, 
leech-like shape. The hairs were long over 
the feet, shorter along the stigmatal line, and 
very short on the sides and dorsum. 

July 19. Second moult. Length 1-2 inch. 
Head dark barred with white hairs. Bodj' 
tan-colored on dorsum with two black dashes 
on each segment. Lateral and stigmatal 
lines, nearly black. A black patch on top of 
the nth segment. Feet and props dark 
gray. Hairs sparse and short except over 
feet and props, where they seemed to "fringe" 
the whole edge of the larva. 

July 23. Third moult. Length one inch 
or a trifle less. Head black with two short 
yellow lines on top, and a yellow spot near 
the mouth, hairy. Body brown on dorsum, 
yellow between the segments, with black 
dashes. Two yellow dashes on 12th segment. 
No black patch on nth segment. Lateral 
and stigmatal lines of black and pale brown. 
Feet and props dark, overhung by long gray 
hairs in tufts. Very short hairs on the dor- 
sum, and very sparse. 

July 27th. Fourth moult. 1 1-2 inches 
long. Head as .before. The body was 
marked with brown, black, tan, and yellow 
or white, in a sort of "oil-cloth pattern" very 
difficult to describe, and varying with indi- 
viduals. The dorsal hairs were unnoticeable 
without a lens, but the stigmatal fringe 



194 



PSYCHE. 



[December 1S91. 



remained, and the general look of the larvae 
was like Tolype laricis except in color. 

The larvae moved very rapidly, and when 
at rest lay closely adhering to the twig of 
honey-locust, so flat as to be inconspicuous. 
The cast skins seemed to be thicker and 
more leathery than those of most Bombycid 
larvae. These larvae drank less than most 
that I have reared. 



Cocoon. Aug. 5. The first one spun athin 
parchment-like cocoon, 3-4 of an inch long, 
oval, slender, of a red-brown color mottled 
with gray. It spun very slowly, taking over 
two days. 

Pupa. Aug. 11. The pupa was formed. It 
was 3-4 of an inch long, slender, dark brown, 
and had a white chalky substance all over it, 
which fell oft" when the pupa was touched. 



PREPARATORY STAGES OF PHEOSIA DIMIDIATA H.S. 



BY HARRISON G. DYAK. 



Pheosia dimidiata Herrich-Sch'Offer. 

1854 — Herr-Sch., Saml. ausser. schmett. , 

p. 66, fig. 515, Drymonia. 
18S2 — Grote, New check list, p. 19, Phe- 
osia. 
rimosa Packard. 

1864 — Pack., Proc. ent. soc. Phil., v. 3, 

P- 358. 
1877 — Lintner, Ent. cont., iv. p. 76 = dic- 

taea. 
1878 — Tepper, Bull. Brook, ent. soc, 

v. 1, sp. dist. 
1882 — Goodhue, Can. ent. v. 14, p. 73. 
1890 — Packard, 5th rept. U. S. ent. coram., 

P- 455- S J>- dist. 
1891 — Dy*ar, Psyche, v. 6, p. 128. 
califomica Stretch. 

1873— Stretch, Zyg. & Bomb. N. A. v. 1, 
p. 116, pi. 4, fig. 5, larva, pi. 10. Noto- 
donta. 
1S77 — Lintner, Ent. cont., iv. p. >j6, pr. 

sy/i . 
Egg. Hemispherical, 'the base flat, smooth, 
sublustrous, white. Under the microscope it 
appears closely covered with dense, very 
small, rounded granulations, which are of 
about uniform size, but fused into a small 
white spot at the micropyle. Diameter 1.1 



mm. Laid singly, usually on the under side 
of the leaves of its food-plants. The larva 
hatches by eating a hole in the side of the 
egg, but leaves the rest of the shell intact. 

First stage. Head slightly bilobed, black 
and shiny; labruni white; a few hairs; width 
.6 mm. Joint 12 is slightly enlarged dor- 
sally, otherwise the body is uniformly cylin- 
drical. There is no trace of the caudal horn 
so conspicuous in the last stage. Body pale 
white; cervical shield, anal plate and tho- 
racic feet black. From the minute elevated 
dots arise blackish hairs which are appar- 
ently not glandular but pointed at tip. A 
subventral broken blackish band which later 
changes to purple. Legs normal, the anal 
pair not elevated, all black outwardly. Near 
the end of the stage a purplish patch appears 
under the skin on joint 12 dorsally in the 
location of the piliferous dots of row 1, indi- 
cating the origin of the caudal horn. The 
piliferous dots of row 1 are close together on 
joint 12, more normal on joint 11 and almost 
in line with those of row 2 on the anterior 
segments. Row 3 are large, lateral; rows 4 
and 5 small ; row 6 distinguishable only on 
the legless segments and row 7 normal, on 
the venter of the apodal joints. In the latter 






December 1S91] 



PSYCHE. 



195 



part of the stage the body is greenish white, 
the dots distinct and black. 

Second stage. Head large, slightly bilobed, 
narrowing to the vertex, flattened in front; 
shining straw yellow, brown on the vertices 
of the lobes; month parts whitish; ocelli 
black; width 1.1 mm. Body slightly en- 
larged at joint 12 with a dorsal rounded 
conical process bearing two divergent setae; 
otherwise slender. Pale whitish green, the 
horn dark red brown, not shiny; a faint stig- 
matal yellowish band, bordered below by an 
interrupted dark red band. Thoracic feet 
black, the bases of the four anterior pair of 
abdominal feet black outwardly. The pilif- 
erous dots are absent, but the setae remain 
rather short, fine, blackish. The cervical 
shield is absent and the anal plate obscure. 

Third stage. Head rounded, pale green, 
not shiny ; mouth, antennae and ocelli brown- 
ish ; a few short blackish hairs; width 1.7 
mm. Body cylindrical, with a slight sub- 
ventral ridge; joint 12 enlarged dorsally and 
continued into a process like a tapering horn, 
pointing straight upward, nearly 1 mm. 
long. Cervical shield and anal plate not dis- 
tinct, concolorous with the body. Bodv 
whitish green, not shiny; an obscure yel- 
lowish stigmatal shade, below which is a 
dark red subventral band, somewhat inter- 
rupted ; feet all dark red. The process on 
joint 12 is rounded at the tip and bears two 
minute divergent black setae. Similar setae 
arise from the obsolete piliferous dots. Spir- 
acles brown, whitish centrally. The seg- 
ments are faintly transversely creased. 

Fourth stage. Head large, flattened in 
front, very slightly bilobed and uniform yel- 
lowish green in color; width 2.4 mm. Bodv 
cylindrical, slender, enlarged dorsally at 
joint 12 and bearing a conical nutant process, 
1 mm. long, which bears two small divergent 
setae before the tip. The other setae on the 
body are also very minute. Color yellowish 
green ; a substigmatal yellowish band and 
below it a dark red one, staining the bases of 
the legs. Thoracic feet dark red, the anal 



feet green. Spiracles large, white, narrowly 
ringed with black. The horn is red. As the 
stage advances the body becomes tinged 
with purplish except on the sides of joint 2. 
The spiracles are broadly surrounded by 
white. 

Fifth stage. Head large, rounded, flat- 
tened in front, smooth, shiny pea green 
with a faint brownish tinge and obscurely 
mottled with little yellowish spots; mouth 
parts brownish ; width 3.8 mm. Body long, 
slender at first, joint 12 produced upwards 
into a long conical horn, very thick at base. 
Anal plate large, nearly circular, but slightly 
excavated anteriorly with a knob-like eleva- 
tion in the center and coarsely granulated. 
The body is at first green with a strong 
brownish purple tinge, especially in the 
middle of the segments; joint 2 clear green 
anteriorly. On each joint centrally a black- 
ish purple transverse shade band, absent on 
joints 2, 5, and 11, complete on joint 3, ting- 
ing the bases of the legs on joint 4, most dis- 
tinct on the bases of the legs on joints 7-10 
and on joint 12 running posteriorly to the 
spiracle and broadly to the vertex of the horn 
which is pinkish posteriorly. Anal plate 
green, with a broad red-brown border. 
Spiracles large, black, surrounded with 
white and outside this by a purplish shade, 
the pair on joint 2 pale with a black border. 
A broad medio-ventral pale green band. 
Thoracic feet red-brown. 

As the stage advances, the entire head and 
body become very shiny light purple, except 
the thoracic feet which are red and the anal 
plate which is colored as before. The black- 
ish bands and ventral band remain as does 
also the coloration of the spiracles. There 
are no setae distinguishable except on the 
anal feet, but very slight ones can be made 
out with a lens in certain places. There are 
two orange spots on the feet on joints 7-10, 
separated by a black line; the anal feet are 
orange centrally. Some examples almost 
entirely lack the black bands except the one 
on the horn which is always present. 



196 



PS 2 LHE. 



[ December 1891. 



Cocoon. The larvae turn bluish and enter 
the ground to pupate, forming a cell lined 
with silk. 

Pupa. Cylindrical, rounded at both ends, 
long in comparison with its width ; uniform 
shiny black. The wing cases are wrinkled. 
The cremaster consists of two very short 
spines, some distance apart, and projecting 
almost laterally from the last segment, which 
nevertheless hold to the silken web with 
considerable firmness. 

Length 26 mm. ; width S mm. 

Food plants. Poplar (Populus) and willow 
(Salix). 

Larvae from Yosemite Valley, Cal. Two 
broods a year, the winter being passed in the 
pupa state. 

Temperature experiments. 
24 Vernon Terrace. Brighton. 

10 Sept., iSgi. 

Editor of Psyche. Dear Sir: — I have to 
thank you for the number of Psyche contain- 
ing an abstract of one of my papers on the 
temperature experiments I have been making 
on some Lepidoptera. Will you permit me 
to point out a typographical error which 
maybe misleading. In "general conclusion" 
no. 5, the figures "7" and "5" have been trans- 
ferred, making my figures "57°" read as "75 ." 
I may perhaps add that in order to bring out 
the full deep colouring in the spring emer- 
gence of illustraria, a somewhat lower tem- 
perature than 57 seems necessary, though 
that 57 is very effective. I find both emer- 
gences of all three of the English Selenias 
affected by temperature in the pupal stage, in 
colour, — as to markings I am not yet quite 
sure as regards lunaria and illunaria. 

I am very glad you have seen fit to publish 
the experiments in America. I have always 
thought a country with such an abundance of 
Lepidoptera and such extremes of heat and 
cold would be especially productive of ma- 
terials for such experimentation. Your dis- 
tinguished naturalist, Mr. W. II. Edwards, 
has done much, and indeed I have onlv en- 



deavoured to follow in his footsteps and work 
out results that he has not been able to follow 
out. We want such experiments also on 
single brooded species, some of which (e. g. 
Ennomos autumnaria) are certainly affected ; 
and as to these it remains to be ascertained 
whether Prof. Weismann's theory applies (I 
by no means say it does not). Then the 
pupal period when the application is effective 
wants ascertaining. I have reason to think 
that (as in the Ajax experimented on by Mr. 
Edwards) the earliest stage is the sensitive 
one, and this makes it difficult to get in Eng- 
land American pupae in the proper stage. 
Hoping that some of your readers will take 
up this very interesting question- — which will 
offer them the compensation for their labours 
certainly of presenting them with some beau- 
tifully coloured and probably not before seen 
varieties, and thanking you, I beg to remain, 
Yours very truly, 

F. Merrifield. 

Choice of food. — In Psyche for October, 
page 166, is a note with the above title con- 
cerning Platysamia ceanothi. The habit 
mentioned does not appear abnormal when 
the species is observed in its native country, 
as many, if not most species in California 
seem to prefer the tender leaves at the ends 
of the twigs. This is true, not only of Bom- 
bycids, but of many butterflies. It is, prob- 
ably, due to the fact that the leaves of many 
of the native trees become quite hard when 
mature, as for example, the live oak upon 
which the larvae of Thecla grunus feed. 
These larvae are unable to eat the nearly 
mature leaves, anil starve if not furnished 
with growing tender ones. The principal 
food plants of P. ceanothi as observed by me 
in Yosemite were Ceanothus integerrimus 
and Rhatnnus calij r or 'nica. The leaves of the 
former are very thin and tender, even when 
old, and the larvae readily ate them ; of the 
latter, they preferred the young leaves at the 
ends of new shoots. 

Harrison G. Dyar. 



December 1S91.] 



PS 2 CHE. 



197 



Nadata gibbosa. — Eggs laid Jul v ^oth. 
They were small, hemispherical, the flat side 
attached to the leaf; opaque yellow with a 
white bloom all over them. 

Aug. 5th they hatched, the young larva 
being not quite ] 3 6 inch long, clear yellow in 
color, with short, sparse hairs, and very 
slender anal props. The head was very 
large, and the body tapered from it to the 
anal props. 

Aug. 9. First moult. \ inch long, taper- 
ing as before. Head large, round, green. 
Body green with yellow lateral line. Sparse 
hairs visible only with a lens. Feet and 
props green. 

Aug. 13. 2nd moult, -i inch in length. 
Head very large, round, bilobed, very yellow 
green. Body tapering to anal props, white- 
green in color, with a pale yellow lateral 
line, or band. Sparse hairs. Feet and props 
green. The colors grew paler. 

Aug. 19. jd moult. : i inch in length. 
Anal shield edged with yellow. Otherwise 
as before. 

Aug. 25. 4th moult. \\ inches long. Head 
large, round, with a deep suture, white-green, 
lighter on top. Body blue-green, dotted 
with white, and so thirklv dotted on the 
dorsum as to look almost white. Lateral 
line yellow in some specimens, almost white 
in others. Anal shield edged with yellow. 
Feet and props green. Spiracles white en- 
circled with tan-color. They grew to i£ 
inches in length, were stout, and had the 
general shape of the "cut-worms." Sept. 
4th the first one stopped eating, grew a little 
purplish on the back and sides, and spun a 
thin web on the bottom of the tin. 

Sept. 9th. Pupa appeared. It was \ inch 
long, stout, shining, very dark brown, a 
little lighter between the segments. Abdom- 
inal segments pitted. Eye-cases very smooth 
and prominent. Anal hook short, bifur- 
cated. 

Caroline G. Soule. 



A correction. — I have referred to the 
sycamore in my description of Heierocampa 
unicolor and again in that of Halisidota 
karrisii (Psyche, v. 6. p. 164) as Acer 
pseudo-plat anus. This is a mistake for Pla- 
tanus occidentalis. 

Harrison G. Dyar. 

Notes: — Candeze has just issued at Liege 
a systematic catalogue of Elateridae known 
in 1S90. The price is six francs. 

The last number of the Canadian entomol- 
ogist is especially valuable from its contain- 
ing two interesting papers read to the Ento- 
mological club of the American association 
for the advancement of science, in August; 
viz., Mr. II. G. Hubbard's account of Insect- 
life in the hot springs of the Yellowstone 
National Park, and Mr. E. A. Schwarz's Pre- 
liminary remarks on the insect-fauna of the 
Great Salt Lake. Utah. 

The 8th part of Moores Lepidoptera In- 
dica contains a table of the genera of Indian 
Satyrinae. 56 in number, and descriptions of 
the species of seven of the genera, together 
with the usual eight plates. It is interesting 
as figuring a considerable number of dry and 
wet season broods of Indian Satyrinae distin- 
guished by de Niceville. The early stages of 
two species only are given. The notes upon 
the distribution of the species are interesting 
and extensive, as usual. We notice one typ- 
ographical error in the incorrect t\pe used 
in the heading for Virapa radza. 

The September number of the Entomologi- 
sche nachrichten is entirely given up to a new 
systematic arrangement and svnoptic table 
of the genera of Aeschnidae. by Dr. F. 
Karsch, in which he criticises the previous 
system of de Selys. 

W. A. Wagner publishes in the Bulletin of 
the Moscow society of naturalists (1890, 626) 
a full description of the structure and habits 
of a new trap-door spider, Tarentula opiphex, 
which is specially interesting as being the 



198 



PSYCHE. 



[December 1891. 



-first known instance of a spider making an 
operculate burrow, outside of the Territel- 
ariae ; the paper is accompanied by an ex- 
cellent plate. 

Mr. E. P. Van Duzee has published in the 
Bulletin of the Buffalo society of natural 
sciences an annotated list of the Macrolep- 
idoptera of the vicinity of Buffalo, number- 
ing 777 species. The relative abundance and 
station of most of the species are given. 

Two mire new works upon British insects 
are now under way. Mr. Charles G. Barrett, 
one of the editors of the Entomologist's 
monthly magazine, is publishing through 
Reeve and Company a descriptive account 
of the families, genera, and species of Lepi„ 
doptera of the British Islands with an ac- 
count of their preparatory stages, habits, and 
localities. It is to be issued by parts in a 
large and small paper form for 54 and 10 
shillings respectively. The second work is 
an account of British flies by F. B. Theobald, 
which is published by Elliot Stock. Six 
parts are to appear annually at a shilling 
each, but the extent of the work is not indi- 
cated in the advertisement of the same. 

The seventh part of Kolbe's Introduction 
to the knowledge of insects completes in 
about twenty pages the account of the ab- 
dominal appendages by sections on the ex- 
ternal male organs of generation, the fleshy 
legs of many larvae, and a few minor topics, 
besides a bibliography of the subject which 
itself extends over half a dozen pages ; this 
and the other special bibliographies, of which 
this part has several of much value, would 
be more convenient if more orderly; they 
appear to be neither alphabetical nor chrono- 
logical and to have been somewhat hastily 
compiled. The internal organs occupy the 
rest of the part; first the hard parts and then 
the muscles, though in this the order of the 
prospectus is slightly violated. All the sub- 
jects are treated in the same excellent man- 
ner as in the earlier parts, but at the present 
rate the work will not be finished for several 
years. 



At the October meeting of the Entomo- 
logical Society of London Mr. Johnson ex- 
hibited a specimen of Nabis killed while 
holding its prey, a very hard species of Ich- 
neumon ; Mr. Saunders thought that from 
the nature of the Ichnumon the only chance 
the Nabis had of reaching its internal juices 
would be through the anal opening. Mr. 
Wailly exhibited larvae of Citheronia regulis 
in various stages bred from eggs received 
from Iowa and thought to be the first bred in 
England; Prof. J. B. Smith of New Jersey 
took part in a discussion which followed 
upon the habits of the larva. Dr. Sharp 
showed a weevil, Ectopsis ferrugalis of New 
Zealand, the ends of the elytra of which bore 
a close resemblance to the section of a twig 
cut with a sharp knife. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 
Cambridge entomological club. 

13 February. 1891. — The 160th meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St. Mr. 
S. H. Scudder was chosen chairman. 

Mr. S. II. Scudder showed two of the 
specimens of Zopherus mentioned by him in 
Psyche (v. 5. p. 406) which were still living. 
He also exhibited some interesting figures of 
fossil Rhynchophora from Florissant, Col. 

13 March, 1891. — The 161st meeting of 
the Club was held at 156 Brattle St. Mr. 
S. Henshaw was chosen chairman. 

Remarks were made concerning the recent 
death of Mr. Holmes Hinkley, one of the 
more active members and a member of the 
Executive Committee. 

An informal discussion followed on the 
monstrosities of Coleoptera, in which all par- 
ticipated. Mr. S. H. Scudder showed one 
specimen each of Galerita janus, Chlaenius 
tomentosus, Lachiiosterna /wsrrt, and Trichius 
figer. all of which exhibited some curious 
malformations. (See Psvche, v. 6. p. S9-93, 
pi. 2.) 




PSYCHE, 

A. JOXJK,lSrA.I_. OF E3STT03yE03L.001T. 

[Established in 1874.] 

Vol. 6. No. 189. 

January, 1892. 

CONTENTS: 

The Life History of Spalgis s-signata Holl. (Plate 4) — W. y. Holland 
Life History of Orgyia cana Hy. Edw. — Harrison G. Dyar 

A LIST OF SOME OF THE CATALOGUES AND LOCAL LISTS OF NORTH AMERICA! 

Coleoptera. — III, R-Z. — John Hamilton, Samuel Henskaw . 

Miscellaneous Notes (Reprint of vol. 1 of Psyche ; Labrador insects; Sharp eves 
amber 'insects ; Gundlach's Entomologia cubana ; new list of American 
Lepidoptera) ............. 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club .... 



201 
203 

209 



Published by the 

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Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS. 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



200 



PSYCHE. 



January 1S92 



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FOR SALE. 
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Psyche, 1892, Vol. 



Plate4 



■It 






\ 



** k./ ! 




IS: 











#' 



PSYCHE. 



THE LIFE HISTORY OF SPALGIS S-SIGNATA HOLL. 



BY W. J. HOLLAND, PH.D., PITTSBURGH, PENX. 



In November of last year I published 
in Psyche, vol. 5, p. 426, a description 
of a new species of Spalgis Moore, from 
Kangwe, upon the Ogove River, West 
Africa, and gave to it the specific name 
s-signata . 

I have recently received the larva and 
chrysalis of the insect, accompanied by 
a note from the collector, Rev. A. C. 
Good, Ph.D., which shows that we are 
dealing with a species, which is in its 
habits closely related to our own Feni- 
seca tarquinius Fabr. The creature is 
aphidivorous in its larval state, as Mr. 
Good shows. We thus have knowl- 
edge of four species of Lycaenidae, the 
caterpillars of which are characterized 
by carnivorous propensities. They are 

Feniseca tarquinius Fabr., 

Spalgis epius Westw r ood, 

Liphyra brassolis Westwood, 

Spalgis s-signata Holland. 

The life history of Feniseca tarquin- 
ius has been thoroughlv worked out by 
Miss Emily Morton and Mr. W. H. 
Edwards. The life history of Spalgis 
epius, as given by Mr. E. E. Green, of 
Pundul-oya, Ceylon, and incorporated 



in vol. 2 of the kt Butterflies of India, 
Burmah, and Ceylon," by De Niceville, 
finds confirmation in the discovery of 
Rev. Mr. Good. Mr. Green calls 
attention in loc. cit. to the fact that 
there must have been an error made in 
assigning to S. epius the larva and chry- 
salis which are attributed to that species 
in Mr. Moore's great work upon the 
Lepidoptera of Ceylon. That the larva 
of Liphyra brassolis is aphidivorous is 
an inference of the writer, and is based 
upon grounds, which he has fully de- 
tailed in the Canadian entomologist, 
vol. 19, p. 61. Undoubtedly, as we 
come to a fuller knowledge of the habits 
of the Lycaenidae of the tropics of the 
old world, we shall find that there are 
several genera besides those which have 
been named that have similar habits. I 
strongly suspect that the larvae of Lach- 
nocnema and of Euliphyra mihi, are 
like the larvae of Spalgis and Feniseca 
in their food habit. 

I give upon Plate 4 the figure of the 
larva, the chrysalis, and the imago of 
Spalgis s-signata, and have also given 
a magnified representation of the dorsal 



202 



PSYCHE. 



[January 1S92. 



aspect of the chrysalis, which excited 
very naturally the surprise of Mr. Good, 
as his note which I append to this brief 
account shows. It is worthy of remark 
that the same strange likeness to a 
human face which is found in S. s-sig- 
nata, is observable in Feniseca tarquin- 
ius. In the notes sent to Mr. Edwards 
by Miss Morton, and published in the 
Canadian entomologist, vol. iS, p. 
147, she asks "Have you noticed the 
ape's face which the chrysalis shows?" 
While Mr. Good regrets that he was 
unable, in inflating the larval skin, to 
preserve the white matter adhering to 
it, there is, nevertheless, a good deal of 
it clinging to it. Examined under a 
powerful microscope this adhering 
matter is se^n to present a peculiar 
shining appearance, and to thickly 
cover the hairs with minute granula- 
tions as if each hair had been dipped in 
some substance like a solution of sugar 
or salt, and then had been dried. I 
herewith give Mr. Good's notes : 

January 19th, 1S91. 
'•Today I stumbled upon the queer- 
est object which I think I ever saw. 
On the underside of the leaves of a 
fragipanni I saw a number of small 
chrysalids which bore a most absurd 
resemblance to a human face. I found 
a few of the larvae still unchanged. 
Their color was dark brownish, but I 
have inflated one, and that will be better 
than any description. The body was 
all covered over with a whitish sub- 
stance, not a part of the body, and 
which I took to be the remains of plant 
lice with which the underside of the 



leaves on which the larvae were found 
abounded. I think that these caterpillars 
must have fed upon these white plant 
lice, for I could not detect that they had 
eaten the leaves. Almost all of the 
white foreign substance is rubbed ofl 
of the specimen which I inflated, and 
I regret that I did not succeed better 
in preserving the specimen just as it 
appeared. The chrysalis is attached to 
the leaf by the back of the head,* and 
presents to view what mimics in a won- 
derful way the face of a man or a chim- 
panzee. Especially do the eyes and 
the well-marked brows overhanging 
them present a startling resemblance to 
the human face. The natives notice 
and are surprised at the resemblance as 
much as I am. Here is mimicry, but 
to what possible purpose? Or has 
Dame Nature for once laid aside her 
usually practical character and decided 
to amuse herself? I hope I may be 
able to preserve and send a chrysalis 
intact." 

January 24th, 1S91. 
"Today two of No. 10 have emerged, 
and I am pleased to find that we are 
dealing with a rare butterfly. The 
empty shells show nothing of the 
resemblance to a human or monkey 
face of which I have spoken previously. 
I have therefore dried a chrysalis, and 
have succeeded well, except that one 
eye looks a little bloodshot. I hope 
that you can make out the exact appear- 
ance of the chrysalis." 

* Mr. Good, when speaking of the "head" in this 
connection, is not employing- technically accurate lan- 
guage, but is accommodating his phrase to the appear- 
ance of the chrysalis. The mode cf attachment is pre- 
cisely like that to be observed in Feniseca tarquinius. 



January 1892.] 



psrciiR. 



203 



Later. 

"Fourteen butterflies emerged from 
the chrysalids, but some of them did 
not disclose the imago, but dried up in 
the box, retaining their natural appear- 
ance. I send these in a roll of paper." 



Explanation of Plate 4. 

Fig. 1. Spalgis s-signata Holland. 
Chrysalis enlarged. 

Fig. 2. Same. Chrysalis, nat. size. 
Fig. 3. Same. Larva. 
Fig. 4. Same. Imago. 



LIFE HISTORY OF ORGYIA CANA HY. EDW. 



BV HARRISON G. DYAR. 



Orgyia caxa Hy. Edzv. 

1SS1. — H. Edwards, Papilio, v. 1, p. 62. 

Egg. Slightly conoidal though almost 
spherical, smooth, shiny, opaque white, with 
a faint brownish spot and ring at the flat- 
tened end; diameter 1 mm. The eggs are 
laid in a mass on the cocoon of the female 
moth, fastened together by a slight amount 
of froth and thickly covered with the faintly 
brownish down from the body of the moth. 
The winter is passed in this stage, the little 
larvae hatching in the spring and emerging 
as mature moths in July and August. There 
is but one brood a year. 

First larval stage. Head shining black, 
labrum a little paler; width 04 mm. Body 
sordid purplish black, a dorsal yellowish 
shade on joints 3. 4 and 9 and a whitish stig- 
matal line. Warts black, the subdorsal ones 
on joint 2, large; hair thin, but several hairs 
grow from each wart, black. There are no 
brush-like tufts, hair pencils nor retractile 
tubercles, but the places of the latter are in- 
dicated by a dorsal red spot on joints 10 and 
11 respectively, not elevated. 

Second stage. Head brownish black, 
shiny ; width 0.7 mm. Body and warts black, 
hair thin, bristly and black. The subdorsal 
warts on joint 2 are large, but there are no 
brush tufts nor pencils. The retractile tub- 
ercles are present on joints 10 and 11, small, 
and colored dull blood red. The dorsum is 
paler on joints 3. 4 and 9. 



Third stage. Head black with a brownish 
tinge, labrum white; width 1.1-1.3 mm. 
Body black except on the dorsum of joints 3 
and 4 where it is yellowish white with a 
black dorsal line, and also a yellowish sub- 
dorsal spot on joints 9 and 10 (anteriorly). 
Warts all black; hair long, black with pen- 
cils of short, plumed, black hairs from the 
subdorsal warts of joint 2 (none on joint 12). 
There are small, dorsal, black, brush-like 
tufts on joints 5 and 6 and a few short tufted 
white hairs on joints 7 and S. The warts of 
row 2 on joint 9 are a little tinged with 
red. Retractile tubercles red. Length of 
larva about 9 mm. 

Fourth stage. Head brownish black, la- 
brum and antennae sordid white; width 1.7- 
1.8 mm. Body greenish black below, gray 
on the sides, a black subdorsal and yellow 
subventral line. Dorsum largely sordid j'el- 
low; cervical shield, a dorsal line on joints 
3 and 4, a shade surrounding the tufts on 
joints 5-8, and a broad band from joint 9 
posteriorly to joint 12, all black; joint 13 
dark gray. The warts of rows 1-5 and the 
retractile tubercles are all blood red, concol- 
orous, except those on joint 2 which are 
black. The plumed pencils on joint 2 are 
2.5 mm. long, and there is now also one on 
joint 12 dorsally. The brush-like tufts on 
joints 5 and 6 are brown, those on 7 and 8 
white. The other hair is long and black but 
whitish subventrally. 



204 



PSYCHE. 



[ [amiary 1S02 



Fifth stage. Head shining black with a 
Faint brownish tinge, labrum and antennae 
pale yellow; width 2.1-2.6 mm. The body 
is colored as in the previous stage but the 
black shade surrounding the brush tufts fills 
in nearly all the dorsal space; hair pencils 
from joints 2 and 12, 3 mm. long. Spiracles 
black, a white dot posterior to each. The 
arrangement of the warts is as follows: row 

1 anteriorly next to dorsal line on joints 5- 
12; 2 subdorsal; 3 suprastigmatal ; [4 absent, 
represented by the white dots posterior to 
the spiracles;] 5 subventral ; 6 also subven- 
tral, just above the bases of the legs and a 
little posterior to the other warts ; and row 
7 consists of four small warts on the venter 
of the legless segments. On joint 2 warts 

2 and 3 are on the cervical shield, small; 4 
is large, subdorsal; 5 also large, lateral. On 
joints 3 and 4 all are present but 1 and moved 
up somewhat. On joint 13 there are but 
three warts, the upper two large besides very 
minute ones on the anal plate. The brush 
tufts arise from wart 1 and the upper part 
of 2. 

Sixth stage (all $ and some 2 mature 
larvae). Head brown-black, shiny, clypeus 
pale centrally, labrum and antennae white ; 
width, 3.1-3 6 mm. Body velvety black, a 
broken buff subdorsal line on joints 3 and 4, 
represented by buff or yellow spots on joints 
5 and 8-1 1 a little farther down the sides; a 
similar smaller subventral row running the 
whole length. Cervical shield pale, shaded 
with black, its warts crimson. The warts of 
rows 1-5 are fine dark crimson, large, the 
hair long and black. Plumed pencils black, 
7.5 mm. long, showing a marked difference 
from the previous stage. Retractile tuber- 
cles crimson, a little brighter than the warts. 
Brush tufts large, ail unicolorous, brownish 
silver gray, darker along the crest, showing 
another marked difference. Feet reddish, 
black at their bases. As the stage advances 
the brush tufts become black centrally, the 
side hairs remaining white. 

Seventh stage (some, $ larvae only). Head 



round, brownish black, shinv, a pinkish 
white line above the mouth ; antennae red- 
dish, ocherous at base; width 4 mm. Body 
dark gray, black dorsally, a broken subdor- 
sal band nearly covering the dorsum on 
joints 3 and 4 and a broken substigmatal 
band. All the warts of rows 1, 2, 3 and 5, 
retractile tubercles and cervical shield fine 
crimson, the tubercles a little brighter. The 
warts of row 4 are present but very small, 
situated back of the spiracles and colored 
ocher yellow. 

Cocoon. Oval, regular, nearly opaque, 
composed of hair and silk. 

$ pupa. Robust; wing and antenna-cases 
prominent; abdomen tapering, cremaster 
long, terminating in minute hooks; sparsely 
covered with rather short fine whitish hairs. 
Color rather light brown; spiracles black. 
Length 12 mm.; width 5 mm. 

$ pupa. Very large and robust, thorax 
and cases small, wing-cases of moderate size ; 
abdomen nearly cylindrical, cremaster flat- 
tened, ending in many hooks. Smooth very 
shiny pale brown, with a few sparsely dis- 
tributed pale hairs; spiracles black. Length 
22 mm. ; width of abdomen 9 mm., of thorax 
4.5 mm. 

Food plants. Species of oak (Quercus 
kelloggii and «^>. chrysolepis) also wild coffee 
(Rhamnus calif omica) and willow (Salix). 

Larvae from Yosemite, Cal. 

$ moth. Primaries dark gray, whitish 
scales thickly scattered on a nearly black 
ground; an obscure black basal line and a 
brownish patch outside this, covering the 
lower half of the wing before the t. a. line, 
edged above by a black line and narrowly 
separated from the t. a. line. Transverse 
anterior line broad, black, gently waved and 
slightly produced outwardly above m. vein; 
a reniform discal spot, outlined in black, 
filled in with a yellowish white shade and 
narrowly bordered with whitish. Transverse 
posteriorline starting from costa almost above 
reniform, passing outward and around the spot 
and continuing to internal margin parallel 



January 1S92.J 



PSYCHE. 



205 



to t. a. line. On the costa beyond t. p. line 
a black patch from which proceeds the whit- 
ish subterminal line, almost parallel to the 
t. p. line and most strongly marked just be- 
fore its junction with internal margin, almost 
forming a white crescent. A black terminal 
line. Fringes blackish, interrupted with 
paler. 

Secondaries blackish with a chestnut tint, 
especially centrally. Below nearly uniform 
dark blackish gray with a slight chestnut 
tint; discal dot and t. p. line indicated in 
black. 



$ moth. Abdomen extremely large, tho- 
rax small, legs slender, wings larger than 
usual, 6 mm. long. Color white with a faint 
brownish tinge; down dense, especially on 
the under side of abdomen ; dorsum broadly 
dark cinereous, both on thorax and abdomen; 
wings faintly brownish ; eyes black. Anten- 
nae shortly pectinated. Length 18 mm. ; 
width of abdomen 12 mm. 

Habitat probably the Sierra Nevada of 
California. Recorded from Havilah, Kern 
Co., (Hy. Edw.) and Yosemite, Mariposa 
Co. 



A LIST OF SOME OF THE CATALOGUES AND LOCAL LISTS OF 
NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA.— Ill (R.-Z.). 

BY JOHN HAMILTON* AND SAMUEL HENSHAW. 



105 Rauterberg, Fr. Coleoptera of Wis- 
consin. (Proc. nat. hist. soc. Wis., 1SS5, p. 
10-25.) 

A list of 269 species and varieties of Cicindelidae and 
Carabidae with notes on the locality and time of occur- 
rence. 

106 Reed, E. B. Coleoptera taken in the 
neighborhood of London, Ont. (Can. ent., 
1S69, v. 1, p. 69-70.) 

Number of families (31) genera (129) and species 
(1S0) found in the vicinity of London, Ont. ; over 130 
undetermined species additional to the above have 
been collected. 

107 Reinecke, Ottomar. Additional list 
of Coleoptera. (Bull. Buff. soc. nat. sci., 
18S2, v. 4, p. 55.) 

44 species are listed from the vicinitv of Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

Reinecke, Ottomar. See: Zesch, Frank 
H. 

10S Ritchie, A. S. On the Coleoptera of 
the Island of Montreal. (Can. nat. and geol., 
iS69,ser. 2, v. 4, p. 27-36.) Separate: 11 p. 

215 species are listed from the Island of Montreal and 
31 Canadian species taken outside the Island of Mon- 
treal. 

109 Sahlberg, John. Coleoptera och 
medlemmar a Berings Sunds Amerikanska 
Hemiptera insamlade af Vega-expeditionens 
kust. (Vega-exped. vetens. iaktt., 1S85, bd. 
4- P- 59-7 1 •) 

16 species of Coleoptera are listed from Port Clarence, 
Grantley Harbor and Bay of Iman-Ruk. 



no Saunders, W. Entomological notes 
during a trip to Saguenay. (Can. ent., 
1868, v. 1, p. n-13.) 
18 species are listed with localities. 

Savage, H. See: Hayward, R. 

hi Say, Thomas. Descriptions of cole- 
opterous insects collected in the late expedi- 
tion to the Rocky Mountains, performed by 
order of Mr. Calhoun, Secretary of War, 
under the command of Major Long. (Journ. 
acad. nat. sci. Phil., 1823, y. 3, p. 139-216; 
1S24, p. 238-282; 298-331 ; 403-462 ; 1S24, v. 4, 
p. 83-99.) Ed. Leconte, v. 2, p. 89-236. 

Describes 354 species. 

112 Schaupp, F. G. The Cicindelidae of 
the neighborhood of New York. (Bull. 
Brooklyn ent. soc, 1S7S, v. 1, p. 28.) 

A list of 15 species with localities and times of ap- 
pearance. 

113 Schaupp, F. G. [Florida Coleop- 
tera.] (Bull. Brooklyn ent. soc, 1S7S, v. 1, 
P- 34-) 

Adds 13 species to those listed by Schwarz. 

114 Schaupp, F. G. List of Carabidae 
found in the neighborhood of New York 
city. (Bull. Brooklyn ent. soc, 1SS3, v. 6, 
p. 29-32; 71-72.) 

212 species are listed witli localities and times of ap- 
pearance. 



206 



PSYCHE. 



I January 1S92. 



115 Schmelter, H. Coleoptera of the 
neighborhood of New York. Chrysom- 
elidae. (Bull. Brooklyn ent. soc, 1878, v. 

1. P- 55-) 
96 species are listed. 

116 Schwarz, E. A. List of Coleoptera 
collected in Michigan in 1874. (Psyche, 
1S76, v. 1, p. 145-148.) 

102 species are enumerated with notes and localities. 

117 Schwarz, E. A. The Coleoptera of 
Florida. (Prbc. Amer. philos. soc. 1S78, v. 

17. P- 353-47*0 

1386 species and varieties are listed on p. 434-469; the 
occurrence of more than 200 additional species is noted ; 
many new species are described by the author and by 
Leconte. 

118 Schwarz, E. A. On a collection of 
Coleoptera from St. Augustine, Florida. 
(Proc. ent. soc. Washington, 1889, v. 1, p. 
169-171.) Separate: 2 p. 

General remarks on a collection of 600 species of 
Coleopteia collected in. the vicinity of St. Augustine, 
Fla. ; 2400 species known to occur in Florida. 

Schwarz, E. A. See : Hubbard, H. G. 

119 Smith, John B. List of Coleoptera 
collected by J. R. Spencer at Fort Churchill. 
(Rep. piogr. Can. geol. surv.. 1SS2-83-84, 
1S85, P.62DD.) 

12 determined and 2 undetermined species are listed. 

120 Smith, J. B. Catalogue of insects 
found in New Jersey. (Final rep. state geol- 
ogist, 1S90, v. 2, 486 p.) 

2167 species and varieties of Coleoptera are listed on 
p. 69-271 ; localities and collectors are given when 
known. 

121 Snow, F. H. List of Coleoptera col- 
lected in Colorado in June, July and August, 
1876, by the Kansas University scientific ex- 
pedition. (Trans. Kans. acad. sci., 1S77, v. 
5' P- 15-20.) 

304 species and 12 varieties are enumerated; chiefly 
identified by Dr. J. L. Leconte. This list also appeared 
in the Kansas collegiate 1S77, v. 2. 

122 Snow, F. H. The insects of Wallace 
county, Kansas. (Trans. Kans. acad. sci., 
1S78, v. 6, p. 61-70.) 

Includes captures in Gove county; 316 species and 
varieties of Coleoptera are listed on p. 62-70 with 
county localities of capture. 

123 now, F. II. List of Coleoptera col- 
lected near Dome Rock, Platte Canon. Colo- 
rado, by the Kansas University scientific ex- 
pedition for 1878. (Trans. Kans. acad. sci., 
1878. v. 6, p. 75-770 

99 species and varieties are listed; a few are not 
fully identified. 

124 Snow, F. H. List of Coleoptera col- 
lected in Santa Fe Canon, N. M., by the 
Kansas University scientific expedition for 
1SS0. (Trans. Kans. acad. sci., 1S81, v. 7, 

p. 70-77- ) 
237 species are listed. 



125 Snow, F. II. Douglas county addi- 
tions to the list of Kansas Coleoptera in 1879 
and 1SS0. (Trans. Kans. acad. sci., 18S1, v. 
7, p. 7S-79.) 

144 species are listed. 

126 Snow, F. H. Lists of Lepidoptera 
and Coleoptera, collected in New Mexico by 
the Kansas University scientific expedition 
of 1881 and 1882. (Trans. Kans. acad. sci., 
1S83, v. 8, p. 35-450 

525 species and varieties of Coleoptera are listed on 
p. 39-45; some are not fully determined. 

127 Snow, F. H. Additions to the list of 
Kansas Coleoptera in 1881 and 1S82. (Trans. 
Kans. acad. sci., 1883, v - 8, P- 5§0 

49 species are listed; a few are not fully determined. 

128 Snow, F. H. Lists of Lepidoptera 
and Coleoptera collected in New Mexico by 
the Kansas University scientific expeditions 
of 1883 and 1S84. (Trans. Kans. acad. sci., 
1885, v. 9, p. 65-69.) 

149 species and varieties of Coleoptera are listed on 
p. 66-69; some are not full}' identified. 

129 Sprague, P. S. Insect fauna of 
Camel's FLnwp, Vt. (Arch, sci., 1871.) 

55 species of Coleoptera are listed. 

130 StreCkSr, Herman. Coleoptera. (An- 
nual rep. chief engineers for 187S, 1S7S, p. 
1 864- 1 866 ) 

A list of 33 species collected in the San Juan region 
of Colorado. 

131 Summers, S. V. List of Coleoptera 
of St. Louis countv, Missouri. (Can. ent., 
1873, v. 5, p. 132-134: i45-M7 : 168-170: 190- 
192: 1874, v. 6, p. 52-55.) 

59S species and varieties are listed; the list was not 
completed beyond the Colydiidae. 

132 Summers, S. V. Catalogue of the 
Coleoptera from the region of Lake Pont- 
chartrain, La. (Bull. Buffalo soc. nat. sci., 
1S74, v. 2, p. 7S-99.) Separate : 21 p. 

906 species and varieties are listed; a few are not 
fully identified. 

133 Taylor, George W. The entomology 
of Vancouver Island. Notes on seventy-six 
species of Cicindelidae and Carabidae col- 
lected near Victoria, Vancouver Island. (Can. 
ent., 1886, v. 18, p. 34-37 

Notes of capture and frequency are given. 

134 Townsend, C. H. T. A list of Cole- 
optera collected in Louisiana, on or south of 
parallel 30 . (Can. ent., 1SS5, v. 17, p. 66- 
730 

113 species and varieties are listed, with localities 
and notes of capture. 

135 Townsend, Tyler. Contribution to a 
list of the Coleoptera of the lower peninsula 
of Michigan. (Psyche, 1SS9, v. 5, p. 231-235.) 

166 species and varieties are listed; a few are not 
fully identified. 



January 1S9J.] 



rsrcHE. 



207 



136 Uhler, P. R. Report upon the insects 
collected by P. R. Uhler during the explora- 
tions of 1S75, including monographs of the 
families Cydnidae and Saldae, and the He- 
miptera collected by A. S. Packard, Jr., M.D. 
(Bull. U. S. geol. and geog. surv., 1877, v. 3, 
P- 355-475; 765-801.) 

95 species of Coleoptera from the plains and moun- 
tains of eastern Colorado are listed on p. 770-779. 

137 Uhler. P. R. List of animals observed 
at Fort Wool, Va. (Studies biol. lab. Johns 
Hopkins Univ., 1879, v. 1, no. 3, p. 17-34.) 

7 species of Coleoptera are recorded on p. 29-30. 

138 Ulke, Henry. List of species of Cole- 
optera. collected by Lieut. W. L. Carpenter, 
United States army, for the United States 
geological survey of Colorado. 1873. (Rep. 
U. S. geol. surv., [Hayden's 7th rep.]. 1874, 

P- 567-57I-) 
164 species are listed. 

139 Ulke. Henry. Report upon the col- 
lections of Coleoptera made in portions of 
Nevada, Utah. California, Colorado, New 
Mexico, and Arizona, during the years 1871, 
JS72, 1S73 an ^ J S74- (Rep- geogr. and geol. 



expl. and surv. west 100th men, 1875, v - 5' 
Zoology, p. 809-827.) 

3S2 species are listed with locality, date of capture, 
collector and range of habitat. 

140 Walker, Francis. List of Coleoptera. 
Lord's Naturalist in Vancouver Island and 
British Columbia. London, 1S66. v. 2, p. 
309-311. 

94 species are listed. 

White, J. E. See: Brodie, W. 

141 Wickham, H. F. A list of the Cole- 
optera of Iowa City and vicinity. (Bull. lab. 
nat. hist, state Univ. Iowa, 1S88, v. 1, no. 1, 
p. Si-92. 

S61 species and 10 varieties are listed; a few species 
are not fully identified. 

Wickham, H. F. See: Osborx, Her- 
bert. 

142 Zesch, Frank II. <7«<7Reinecke, Otto- 
mar. List of the Coleoptera observed and 
collected in the vicinity of Buffalo. (Bull. 
Buffalo soc. nat. sci., 18S1, v. 4, p. 2-15.) 
Separate : 14 p. 

1424 species are listed. 



INDEX OF LOCALITIES. 



Alaska, 63, 69, S4, 85, 86, 87, 109. 

Anticosti, 18. 

Argenteuil, Ca., 25. 

Arizona, 64, 70, 74, 139. 

Athabaska Lake, S2. 

Atlanta, Id., 78. 

Baltimore. Md., 83. 

Bay of Iman-Ruk, Alaska, 109. 

Belleville, Ont., 6, 7. 

Berings Straits, 109. 

Blanc Sablon, H. B. T., 51. 

Bonaventure, Quebec, 8. 

British Columbia, 11. 43, 77, 140. 

Buffalo, N. Y., 107, 142. 

California, 46, 53, 62, 63, 64. 65, 66, 67, 70, 

71, 76, 84, 86, 139. 
California, Lower, 53, 70. 
Camel's Hump, Vt., 38, 129. 
Canada, 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 12, 16, 17, 19, 23, 24. 25, 

3 1 . 34. 35' 36, 5 6 > 57> 82. 94- 95> 98- Io6 - 

108, no. 
Canada, Lower, 16, 17 
Canada We6t, 4. 
Cape Chudleigh, H. B. T., 51. 



Cape Digges, H. B. T., 51. 

Caribou Island, Labrador. 91, 92. 

Churchill River, H. B. T., 80, 82. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, 27, 28, 29. 

Clemente Island, Cal., 53. 

Cliftondale, Mass., 39. 

Colorado, 13, 14, 15, 45, 50, 64, 76, 78, 79, 

102, 121, 123, 130, 136, 138, 139. 
Cqlumbus, Ohio, 30. 

Cross Lake, Nelson River, II. B. T.. 81, S2. 
Cumberland House, Sask., 82. 
Custer Co., Col., 15. 
Davenport, Iowa, 99. 
Dome Rock, Col., 123. 
Douglas County, Kansas, 125. 
Florida, 113, 117, 118. 
Flying Post, Ont., 82. 
Fort Bridger, Wy., 103. 

Churchill, H. B. T., 119. 

Simpson, N. W. T., 69. 

Tejon, Cal., 66. 

Whipple, Ariz., 74. 

William, L. Sup., 61. 

Wool, Va., 137. 



208 



PSTCHE. 



[January 1S92. 



Frederic, Iowa, 101. 

Frontera, 64. 

Gaspe\ Quebec, 8, 23. 

Gove County, Kansas, 122. 

Grantley Harbor, Alaska, 109. 

Green Mountains, Vt., 38. 

Green River Basin, Wy. , 103. 

Grenville, Ca., 25. 

Grimsby, Ont., 94, 95. 

Guadalupe Island, 49. 

Hopedale, Labrador, 92. 

Hudson's Bay Region, 26, 51, 80, 81, 82, 119. 

Idaho, 46, 47, 78, 79. 

Indian Territory, 46. 

Iowa, 90, 99, 100, 101, 141. 

Iowa City, 141. 

James Bay, 31. 

Kabiuakagarni, Lake Superior, 82. 

Kansas, 46, 58, 59, 64, 68, 71, 96, 97, 122, 

125, 127. 
Kicking Horse, Pass, B. C, 11. 
Labrador, 91, 92, 93. 
Lake Huron, 82. 

Pontchartrain, La., 132. 

Superior, 54, 61, 64, 82. 

Winnipeg, 81, 82. 

of the Woods, 82. 
Lincoln, C. W., 4. 
London, Ont., 106. 
L'Orignal, Ca., 25. 
Louisiana, 132, 134. 

Lower Fort Garry, Manitoba, 81. 

Lycoming Co., Pa., 73. 
Mackenzie River, N. W. T.,69. 
Manitoba, 81. 
Maryland, 83. 
Massachusetts, 37, 39. 
Mexico, 20, 64. 
Michigan, 54, 116, 135. 
Michipicoten River, Lake Superior, 82. 
Missinaibi House, Lake Superior, 82. 
Missouri, 131. 
Montana, 46. 
Monticello, Iowa, 100. 
Montreal, Canada, 24, 108. 
Mount Washington, N. H., 2. 
Nebraska, 68. 



Nelson River, 80, 81, 82. 

Nelson River House, S2. 

Nevada, 46, 139. 

New England, 9, 48. 

New Hampshire, 2, 32. 

New Jersey, 120. 

New Mexico, 14. 45, 46, 68, 70, 71, 76, 124, 

126, 128, 139. 
New York, 107, 112, 114, 115, 142. 
New York (City), 112, 114, 115. 
North America. 3, 20, 21, 40, 41, 42, 60, 72, 

88. 
North West Territory, 69. 
Nova Scotia, 55, 57. 
Norway House, Lake Winnipeg, 81. 
Oba, Lake Superior, 82. 
Ohio, 27, 2S, 29, 30. 
Ontario, 6, 7, 82, 94, 95, 106. 
Oregon, 46, 62, 63, 67, 69, 71. 
Ottawa, Ca., 25, 34. 
Oxford House, H. B. T., 81, 82. 
Pennsylvania, 10, 33, 73, 89. 
Philadelphia, Pa., 10. 
Platte Canon, Col., 123. 
Port Clarence, Alaska, 109. 
Portneuf, Quebec, 98. 
Quebec, 8, 16, 17, 19, 23, 98, no- 
Reindeer Lake, H. B. R., S2. 
Rimouski, Quebec, S. 

Rocky Mountains, 11, 57, 78, 79, 102, in. 
Rouge, Ca., 25. 

Russian America, 63, 69, S4, 85, 86, 87. 
Saguenay, Quebec, no. 
Saint Augustine, Fla., 118. 

Lawrence, 8, 23. 

Louis Co., Mo., 131. 
San Juan, Col., 130. 
Santa F^ Canon, N. Mex. , 124. 
Saskatchewan, 69, S2. 

Sault de Ste. Marie, Lake Superior, 61, 82. 
Sitkha, 84, 85. 
Snake River, Wy., 47. 
Sonora, 65. 
Sorel, Ca., 24. 
South Carolina, 52. 
Spring Lake Villa, Ut. . 104. 
Stinkingwater River, Wy., 103. 



January 1S92.] 



PSYCHE. 



209 



Straits of Belle Isle, Labrador, 91. 

Stuparfs Bay. H. B. T. , 51. 

Tennessee. 22. 

Teton Basin. Id., 47. 

Texas, 5, 64, 65. 70. 

Thunder Bay, Lake Superior. 61, S2. 

Utah, 46. 50, 71, 7S, 104, 139. 

Vancouver Island, 43, 75, 133, 140. 

Vermont. 38, 129. 

Victoria, Vane. 43. 133. 

Virginia, 44, 137. 



Wallace Co., Kansas. 122. 

Washington. 63, 71. 

West Indies, 20. 

White Mountains, N. II.. 32. 

Wind River Basin. Wv., 103. 

Winnipeg, 43. 

Wisconsin, 105. 

Wyoming, 47, 78, 79, 103. 

Yellowstone Lake, Wv.. 47. 

Yellowstone National Park. W T v.. 103. 

York Factory. H. B. T., Si. 



Miscellaneous Notes. — A portion of 
volume 1 of Psyche which has long been out 
of print is now being reprinted and the vol- 
ume can shortly be furnished for five dollars. 
Complete sets of Psyche or anv one or more 
of the volumes can therefore be obtained at 
five dollars per volume. The number of cop- 
ies on hand, however, is extremely limited 
and persons desiring to secure full sets or 
complete their series are advised to make 
early application to the treasurer. Samuel 
Henshaw, Cambridge. Mass. 

A list of Labrador insects will be found in 
Dr. A. S. Packard's recent book The Labra- 
dor Coast (N. Y., Hodges) on pp. 385-396 
and 446-447. He catalogues 233 species di- 
vided as follows: Arachnida 11, Myriopoda 
1, Orthoptera 1. Odonata 2. Hemiptera 4, 
Platyptera 1. Plectoptera 3, Trichoptera 2, 
Coleoptera 63. Diptera 11. Lepidoptera 108, 
and Hymenoptera 26. Notes of distribution 
and a few dates are added. 

Entomologists should not overlook a holi- 
day book of unusual interest for them, no- 
ting the out-door and in-door observations of 
a rambler who knows how to use both eyes 
and pencil, not to say pen. It is a volume 
by the artist William Hamilton Gibson, 
called "Sharp eyes, a rambler's calendar of 
fifty-two weeks among insects, birds, and 
flowers" (Harper's, $5.00). Both text and 
illustrations, the latter on nearly every page, 
are by the same hand; better, more living 



pictures of our insects have never been 
given, especially where they are represented 
in flight, when they rival the pictures by 
Giacomelli ; and yet all are "process cuts." 
The volume is excellent reading as well, and 
tells the stories of the lives of our common 
insects in a charming way. It is an admir- 
able book to stimulate the young observer. 

In a superb monograph of the trees which 
furnished the Baltic amber, with eighteen 
finely colored quarto plates, Conwentz of 
Danzig publishes some notices of amber in- 
sects, especially of such as were injurious to 
the species of Pinus which yielded amber; 
among other things he figures the borings of 
a beetle referred by Kolbe to Anthaxia and 
the larval burrows in the dead wood which 
Brischke looks upon as the work of a Sciara. 

Dr. Juan Gundlach has just finished the 
printing of the second volume of his Ento- 
mologia Cubana which contains the Hymen- 
optera, Neuroptera, and Orthoptera. 

Prof. John B. Smith's promised List of 
Lepidoptera of Boreal America has been 
issued by the American entomological soci- 
ety; it extends to 124 pages and includes 
6020 nominal species, of which 640 are but- 
terflies. 229 Sphingidae and Sesiidae, 590 the 
families allied to Lithosiidae and Bomb\ci- 
dae, 1861 Noctuina, 651 Geometrina, 63^ 
Pyralidina, 429 Tortricina. and 986 Tineina. 
It follows the style of Grote's Check list of 
American moths. 



210 



PSYCHE. 



[January 1S92. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

10 April 1891. — The i62d meeting of the 
club was held at 1^6 Brattle Street. Mr. J- 
H. Emerton was elected chairman. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited a series of 
over thirty specimens of the acridian Bryo- 
dema tuberculata collected many years ago 
bv Parschine in the Trans-Baikal and Amur 
regions of eastern Siberia, namely at Irkutsk, 
Verschine-Udinsk, the desert of Khorinskaya 
in southern Siberia, Khabarowka, and Sara" 
pol. They showed an extraordinary amount 
of variation in the intensity and extent of the 
band crossing the hind wings as well as in 
the depth of the basal tint, some being 
almost or quite vitreous, while others at the 
other extreme were a deep rose ; the apex of 
the wing in some was entirely infumated so 
as to connect completely with the transverse 
band, while others showed a broad vitreous 
space outside the transverse band, darkened 
by the veins only ; similarly a great variation 
was seen in the depth and extent of the mot- 
tling of the tegmina and no little difference 
in the surface sculpture of the dorsum of the 
pronotum and the vertex of the head. In all. 
the anterior sulcus of the prozona was far 
less deeply impressed than in European spec- 
imens of the same species. Mr. Scudder 
also showed specimens of the allied B. bara- 
bensis collected by Parschine at Verkhni- 
Udinsk, Verschine-Udinsk, Strelinsk, and 
the desert of Khorinskaya. 

Mr. J. H. Emerton remarked on the New- 
England species of Attidae. He stated that 
thirty-three species of this family are repre- 
sented in his collection, of which eight are 
undescribed. Of these, eight belong to 
Phidippus and Dendryphantes, seven to the 
short bodied genera allied to Attus pulex and 
A. falustris of Hentz, and three to the ant- 
like genera. The classification of the re- 
maining species is still undecided. Four 
species are represented by only one, and 
three others by only two or three specimens 
each. Mr. Emerton showed a number of 



drawings illustrating the variations in this 
family. 

Mr. R. Hayward recorded the capture in 
Arizona by Mr. H. K. Burrison of Af/iodius 
pu in Hits, a species described by Dr. Horn in 
his recent Revision of Aphodius from New 
Mexico, but which has also been taken by 
Mr. Bowditch and Mr. Hayward in northern 
New Mexico. 

8 May, 1S91. — The 163d meeting of the 
Club was held at 156 Brattle Street. Mr. J. 
H. Emerton was chosen chairman. After 
the additions to the library had been an- 
nounced the Club proceeded to the election 
of officers for 1891 which had been post- 
poned. The following were elected : Presi- 
dent, Prof. F. II. Snow, of Lawrence, Ks. ; 
Secretary, Roland Hayward; Treasurer, 
Samuel Henshaw; Librarian, Samuel H. 
Scudder ; members at large of Executive Com- 
mittee, J. H. Emerton and T. W. Higginson. 

Rev. W. J. Holland and Mr. A. P. Morse 
were elected to active membership. Mr. S. 
H. Scudder communicated some notes on 
Oeneis (see Psyche, v. 6, p. 99-100). Mr. J. 
H. Emerton remarked briefly on certain crab- 
spiders (Thomisidae) comparing them with 
the Attidae, an allied family. 

12 June, 1891. — The 164th meeting was 
held at 156 Brattle Street. Mr. J. H. Emer- 
ton in the chair. Mr. S. Henshaw was 
chosen Secretary fro tern. Mr. F. C. Bow- 
ditch was elected a member. 

Mr. J. H. Emerton showed some plates of 
New England Attidae, and remarked upon 
the character and distribution of a number 
of the species; 16 or 17 genera and about 55 
species are known from New England. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder showed drawings by 
Mrs. Peart of the terminal segments of the 
young larvae of Oeneis brucei, Oe. jutfa, and 
Oe. macounii, and said that his proposed di- 
vision of the genus, as given at the last 
meeting, into two groups for which the sub- 
generic names of Oeneis and Chionobas 
were suggested, appeared to be well founded. 
Mr. Scudder also showed the early stages of 
several European butterflies. 



^ L.- ' 




PSYCHE, 

A. JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOG-Y. 
[Established in 1874.] 

Vo!. 6. No. 190. 

February, 1S92. 

CONTENTS: 

Notes upon the Transformations of some African Lepidoptera. (Plate 5) 

— W.J. Holland 213 

Concerning the Blood-tissue of the Insecta. — I. — W. M. Wheeler . . 216 

Description of a Sarcophaga bred from Helix. — C. H. Tyler Tovjnsend . 220 

Edwards's North American Butterflies 221 

Dryocampa riversii Behr. — Harrison G. Dyar ....... 222 

Recent literature (Buckton's British Cicadae; succession of wing colors in'chrys- 

alids of butterflies ; a cyclopean honey-bee) ....... 222 

Published by the 

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Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

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212 



PSYCHE. 



February 1S92 



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Psyche, 1892, Vol 6 



Plate 5 



■ . 








PSYCHE. 



NOTES UPON THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF SOME AFRICAN 

LEPIDOPTERA. 



BY W. J. HOLLAND, PH.D., PITTSBURGH, PENN, 



From among the mass of material il- 
lustrating the life-history of various 
species of West- African lepidoptera in 
my possession, and for which I am 
largely indebted to my indefatigable co- 
adjutor, Mr. Good, I have culled a few- 
notes, which are likely to prove inter- 
esting to the student of entomology. I 
have in all cases sought to elucidate by 
presenting sketches of the objects them- 
selves, which I have drawn at moments 
of leisure, and which may be relied 
upon to do even more than the verbal 
accounts which I herewith give to make 
the subject plain. 

Saturnia arnobia Westw. 

In the Proceedings of the Zoological 
society of London for the year 18S1, p. 
142, Prof. Westwood described a large 
bombycid moth to which he gave the 
name Saturnia arnobia. The specimen 
upon which he based his description 
came from Old Calabar, and is in the 
collection of T. Chapman, Esqr., Glas- 
gow. 

From Mr. Good I have received sev- 
eral males which correspond in the 



main with the figure and description of 
Prof. Westwood, who does not, by the 
by, indicate the sex of his type. The 
females differ quite materially from the 
males, and there is evidently a dry sea- 
son brood, which differs in both sexes 
quite considerably from the wet season 
form. But the most remarkable fact in 
the life history of this great moth, 
which equals in expanse of wing the 
largest Bombycidae of North America, 
is the fact that the chrysalis is sus- 
pended, and while the caterpillar 
weaves a few stout silken threads about 
the spot where it undergoes its transfor- 
mations, the chrysalis hangs pendulous 
from its support like the chrysalis of the 
Nymphalidae. This is best understood 
from the figure given upon Plate cj- 

Before giving a description of the va- 
rious forms of the species, I give the 
notes sent me by the collector : — 

"No. 43. This number designates a 
very large moth which emerged from a 
very large chrysalis. The first of these 
large chrysalids was handed to me at 
Elovi, a town fifteen miles down the 
river from Kangwe. This chrysalis has 
not yet disclosed the imago, (May 14th, 



214 



PSYCHE. 



[February 1892. 



1SS8). Two weeks or more afterwards 
(April 30) , I obtained six more chrysa- 
lids at the same place, and one of the 
flies which had come out in the hands 
of the natives and is not perfect. One 
of the lot secured upon April 30th came 
out during the night of May 12th and 
damaged itself slightly before I discov- 
ered it. I send it in the envelope 
marked 43, and the empty pupa-case in 
a box marked with the same number. 
Is not this an anomaly ? I have never 
before obtained a moth from a chrysalis 
hanging suspended as this one was. 
When I got the chrysalis first I thought 
now I have the chrysalis of Papilio an- 
timachus or zalmoxis, and I'll get the 
female sure. I had been led to suppose 
from my reading that chrysalids so sus- 
pended and comparatively unprotected 
always produce diurnal butterflies. The 
chrysalis is dark green in color, begin- 
ning to change before disclosing the 
moth to a pale green, and later to the 
yellow of the empty shell." 

Mr. Good sent me of this brood six 
perfect specimens, male and female, 
and several chrysalids which had failed 
to disclose the imago, and from one of 
which the figure on Plate 5 is drawn. 
Later he sent me three of the second 
brood, and a chrysalid, which in form 
is identical with the chrysalids of the 
first brood, but smaller. This last 
sending was accompanied by the fol- 
lowing note : — 

"No. 43. — I designate these speci- 
mens by the same mark, No. 43, as 
those which I sent you in the summer. 
The chrysalid appears to be identical in 



form and color, but the moths are very 
different in color. If this is the same 
species then the larvae bred in the dry 
season do not produce as fine moths as 
those that feed in the latter part of the 
rainy season. These specimens emerged 
Oct. 15th, iSSS, the rainy season, 
which is late this year, having just 
commenced." 

Rainy season brood. $ . Not dif- 
fering materially from the figm-e and 
description of Prof. Westwood. The 
ground color is a bright yellow, with 
the darker markings ochraceous rufous. 
Expanse 6 1-2 inches. 

9 . Wings very broad, and not nearly 
as pointed at apex as in the male. Gen- 
eral color tawny ochraceous, with 
darker markings deep burnt sienna. 
Expanse of wings 7 — 7 1-4 inches. 

Dry season brood. The general 
color of the two sexes is the same, and 
may be described as Mars brown, with 
the darker markings of a livid purplish 
cast. Expanse of wings : $ , 4 3-4 
inches; 9 5 — 5 1-2 inches. 

Idiomorphus vala Ploetz. 

Under this name Dr. Ploetz described 
from a single female a species of Idio- 
morphus (genus of Satyridae,) which 
had been collected by Dr. Buchholz 
upon the West African coast. The 
species is very common upon the Ogove 
River, at all events I have received 
from Mr. Good many scores of exam- 
ples, male and female. The larval 
stages of this genus, which is peculiar to 
the hottest parts of tropical Africa, have 



February 1S92.] 



PSYCHE. 



215 



never been described, as far as I am 
aware. Unfortunately the inflated 
caterpillar of the species did not turn 
up in the sending in which it was in- 
cluded. Whether it was destroyed by 
the carelessness of custom-house offi- 
cials, or in some other way was lost, I 
do not know. The chrysalids sent me 
by Mr. Good came safely to hand and 
are outlined upon Plate 5. In speaking 
of the habits of the larva the collector 
says : — 

''The larvae are very peculiar look- 
ing creatures, gregarious, feeding spar- 
ingly upon a low and very coarse grass, 
which grows in open ground and forms 
great bunches. The leaf of this grass 
is from a foot to a foot and a half in 
length, and from an inch to an inch and 
a half in width. When not feeding 
these caterpillars are always to be seen 
on the under side of the leaf, lying to- 
gether as closely as possible, and pre- 
senting a very queer appearance. They 
increase in size very slowly. The chry- 
salids I send you were suspended from 
the lid of the box, but in nature they 
hang from the underside of a leaf or 
blade of grass. The first of the butter- 
flies emerged Dec. 24th, and the last 
Dec. 29th. The time during which 
they remain in the pupal state is about 
a week." 

There are five species of Idiomorphus 
which are found at Kangwe, of which 
the species before us seems to be the 
most common. They are the follow- 
ing :— 

I. vala Ploetz. 

I. hewitsonii Doumet. 



I. italus Hewitson. 

I. zinebi Butler. 

I. sebetus Hewitson. 

Of the latter species I have thus far 
received but a single specimen. It ap- 
pears to be the rarest of the five. 

Harma caems Drury. 

Of this species Mr. Good sends me 
an inflated larva, and several chrysalids, 
from which the figures on Plate 5 are 
taken. 

The female of this species is polymor- 
phic. There is a female which very 
closely resembles the male, and in fact 
cannot be separated from it, except by 
an examination of the sexual organs. 
This form is not common. I have but 
one specimen. Then there is a dark fe- 
male, which is the common form and is 
figured accurately in Staudinger's work 
upon the Exotic Butterflies, and was 
also figured by Cramer as Harma am- 
phiceda. Then there is still another 
form in which the basal area of both 
wings upon the upper side is more or 
less suffused with red. Both of these 
latter forms are before me bred in nu- 
merous examples from the same batch 
of larvae. 

In a letter received from Mr. Good 
several years ago he stated that this spe- 
cies is in the habit of migrating in great 
swarms. Apropos of his account of 
the migration of Harma caenis the fol- 
lowing note giving some details as to 
the migration of another species may 
not be inappropriately reproduced here. 

"Oct. 14th, 1S90. To-day at Batanga 
I saw Crenis amulia flying in great 



216 



PSYCHE. 



[February iSg2. 



swarms just as some years ago I saw 
Harma caenis in the Ogov6 region. 
They seemed to come from nowhere in 
particular, they flew in no order, no 
two even keeping company. Some- 
times only a dozen were visible, at 
other times hundreds seemed to fill the 
air. They flew a little E. of N. E. 
This has no particular significance, 
however, as this is the general direction 
of the coast here. Even upon the beach 
the migratory movement was easily ob- 
served, and as far as I went back, (about 
half a mile) the air seemed full of the 
flies. None were returning, and all 
flew as if they had a definite purpose in 
view. A native remarked it, and ven- 
tured, in calling my attention to the 
movement to add 'Sometimes they fly 
so, and sometimes they fly in the oppo- 
site direction.' "... 

"I am utterly at a loss to account for 
the phenomenon. The explanation 
which I suggested for the migration of 
Harma caenis, which this exactly re- 
sembles, will not apply here. That 
took place near the end of the dry sea- 
son and was toward the approaching 
rains. But here the rains are frequent 



now, and if these flies are seeking any- 
thing to northward it must be dry 
weather." 

Chrysopsyche mirifica Butler. 

I have received from Mr. Good sev- 
eral specimens of this exceedingly beau- 
tiful bombycid, and also a specimen of 
the cocoon, which is very tough and 
dark chocolate brown in color and 
studded all over as are many of the 
cocoons of the African Bombycidae 
with minute spines, which are derived 
from the epidermis of the caterpillar. 
The figure upon Plate 5 will serve 
better than a description to give an idea 
of the form of the cocoon. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE 5. 

Fig. 1. Chrysalis of Saturnia arnobia 
Westw. 

Fig. 2. Chrysalis of Idiomorphus vala 
Ploetz. (lateral view). 

Fig. 3. Chrysalis of Idiomorphus vala 
Ploetz. (dorsal aspect) . 

Fig. 4. Larva of Harma caenis Drury. 

Fig. 5. Chrysalis of " 

Fig. 6. Cocoon of Chrysopsyche miri- 
fica Butler. 



CONCERNING THE "BLOOD-TISSUE" OF THE INSECTA.— I. 

BY WILLIAM MORTON WHEELER, WORCESTER, MASS. 



Hitherto little attention has been de- 
voted to the study of the blood, fat-body, 
and allied structures in insects. We 
have extensive monographs on the eyes 
and other sense-organs, on the muscu- 



lature and nervous system, and even on 
the alimentary tract and its various sub- 
divisions, but few serious attempts have 
been made to fill the gaps in our knowl- 
edge of the physiologically highly im- 



[February 1892. 



PSYCHE. 



217 



portant tissue, so intimately concerned 
with the nutrition of the organs. Of 
these attempts two, however, are wor- 
thy of special attention — one by Wie- 
lowiejski, 1 who approaches the subject 
from the anatomical side, and another 
by Graber, 2 who contributes some valu- 
able observations of an embryological 
nature. 

Wielowiejski includes under the term 
blutgewebe (blood-tissue) the follow- 
ing structures: 

1. The blood corpuscles; 

2. the fat-body proper ; 

3. the pericardial fat-body ; 

4. the oenocytes, of which he 

distinguishes three varieties in 
some insects. 
To this list I would add : 

5. The garland-shaped cord of 

Muscid larvae ; and 

6. a peculiar organ, which I may 

call the suboesophageal body, 
and which I have found in the 
embryos and young larvae of 
Blatta and Xiphidium. 
Wielo\Aejski is careful not to main- 
tain a common origin for all the com- 
ponents of his "blutgewebe" but 
comprises them under a common head- 
ing on purely physiological grounds, as 
he expressly states. They are blood- 
tissue to the extent u dass sie alle von 
dem sie umgebenden medium gewisse 
stoffe aufnehmen, zeitweise aufspeich- 

1 Ueber das blutgewebe der insecten. Z eitsc hr. f. 
wiss. zool., 43. bd. p. 512-536. iS86. 

2 Ueber die embryonale anlage des blut- und fett- 
gewebes der insekten. Biol, centralbl., ;ii bd. nos. 

7 u. S. p. 212-224. 1S91. 



era resp. verarbeiten und irgend 
welche umsatzprodukte an dasselbe 
zuriickgeben und dadurch auf die in 
den hauptgeweben des organismus 
vor sich gehenden assimilations und 
desassimilationsprocesse einen einfluss 
ausiiben." 

Graber is less cautious and does not 
hesitate to conclude that the different 
tissues constituting Wielowiejski's blut- 
gewebe are genetically related. Stated 
very briefly these are the conclusions at 
which he arrives. 

1. The oenocytes are derived 

from the ectoderm ; 

2. They are metamorphosed into 

the fat-body ; 

3. The blood-corpuscles arise 

from the fat-body (and also 
from the oenocytes?). 

Ergo the fat-body and the blood are 
ectodermal structures ! Certainly a re- 
markable conclusion and one which an 
even more intrepid investigator might 
hesitate to advance in these days when 
we are so accustomed to derive the 
blood-corpuscles and connective tissue 
from the middle germ-layer. While 
my own conclusions differ radically 
from Graber's, so far as the origin of 
the fat-body is concerned, I cheerfully 
confess that his interesting paper was 
the means of calling my attention to this 
much neglected subject. 

Even the earlier entomotomists were 
familiar with certain huge cells associ- 
ated with the fat-body. By some they 
were supposed to assist in respiration 
since they were often found attached to 
the fine tracheal ramifications. Graber 



218 



PSYCHE. 



[February 1S92. 



called them 1 "eingesprengte zellen" and 
regarded them as unicellular glands. It 
was Wielowiejski who first fully de- 
scribed them and named them oenocy- 
tes from their wine-yellow color. He 
pointed out that these oenocytes are not 
infrequently the largest cells in the 
body, excepting the ova, that they are 
arranged in metameric clusters in the 
trachigerous abdominal segments and 
that they are more or less intimately 
associated with the blood and fat-body. 
In some cases they occur in the poste- 
rior thoracic region. Most frequently 
pleural in position they may occasion- 
ally extend over the sternal region. 
The separate cells of the clusters are 
usually distinctly isolated and inde- 
pendent of one another, but in rare 
instances they may fuse in pairs or to 
form smaller clusters. The tough and 
resistent cytoplasmic wall is round or 
oval and often drawn out into a few 
pseudopodia-like outgrowths by means 
of which the cells are suspended to the 
tracheal ramifications or to one another. 
The cytoplasm, which is very abun- 
dant, is full of yellowish granules and is 
sometimes radially striated towards its 
periphery. The large spherical or oval 
nucleus contains a densely wound and 
delicate chromatic filament. An idea 
of the appearance of these cells may be 
obtained from Fig. i , which represents 
a cluster of oenocytes from a nearly 
mature Phryganeid larva. This speci- 
men does not show the pseudopodia- 
like outgrowths. 

1 Ueber den propulsatorischen apparat der insecten. 
Archiv f. mikr. anat., 9. bd. p. 129-196. 1S73. 



To Graber is due the credit of first 
pointing out the identity of the oeno- 
cyte-clusters with certain metameric 
cell-masses mentioned by embryolo- 
gists. Tichomiroft 2 and Korotnefl 8 de- 
scribed segmental masses of cells origi- 
nating from the ectoderm near the stig- 
mata and just pleurad to the nerve-cord. 
Tichomiroff at first regarded these cells 
as a kind of fat-body but finally con- 
cluded that they represented an organ 
stii generis which he called the "gland- 
like body." Korotneff regarded the 
migrant ectoderm-cells in Gryllotalpa 
as mesenchymatous, and if I understand 
him correctly, as giving rise to the fat- 
body. 

I fully agree with Graber that the 
embryonic cells described by the two 
Russian embryologists are identical 
with the oenocytes of Wielowiejski. 
Graber is also correct in referring to the 
same category certain huge cells de- 
scribed by me in Doryphora. 4 They 
originate from the ectoderm as I have 
since been able to ascertain. 

Graber describes the oenacyte clus- 
ters in Stenobothrus as delaminated 
from the ectoderm. In Hydrophilus he 
claims that they originate in connection 
with a distinct pair of metastigmatic 
invaginations. It appears to have es- 
caped his notice that these invaginations 

2 The embryonic development of the silk-worm- 
(Bombyxmori). Publ. labor, zool. mus. Moscow., vol. 
1. 1SS2. (Russian.) 

3 Die embryologie der Gryllotalpa. Zeitschr. f. 
wiss. zool., 41- bd. 1SS5. 

4 The embryology of Blatta germanica and Dory- 
phora decemlineata. Journ. morph., vol. 3, no. 2. p. 
291-374. 1SS9. 



February 1892. J 



PSYCHE. 



219 



were first seen by Patten in Acilius. 1 
They are also present, as I have been 
able to make out, in Blatta, Xiphidium 
and Dytiscus. With the proper methods 
Graber would also probably have found 
them in Stenobothrus. This second 
pair of segmental invaginations, which 
Patten took to represent a second pair 
of tracheal ingrowths, are supposed by 
Graber to be the formative centers of 
the oenocyte clusters. He admits, how- 
ever, that a delamination of the area 
surrounding each pit contributes largely 
to their formation. My own observa- 
tions lead me to believe that the invagi- 
nations are very weak and transient and 
that they contribute very few, if any 
elements to the clusters ; most of the 
oenocytes originating by delamination 
and immigration from a considerable 
area just caudad to the stigmata. In 
Lepidoptera this area is more extensive 
than it is in the Orthoptera. 

In nearly mature Xiphidium embryos 
the oenocyte clusters may be seen shin- 
ing through the hypodermis much as I 
have represented them in Fig. 2. Thev 
form eight bands running along the 
pleural wall just back of and alternating 
with the stigmata. 

Now Graber maintains that the fat- 
body, at least in part, arises from these 
oenocyte clusters. But a section through 
a young Blatta embryo (Fig. 3) shows 
most conclusively that this is not the 
case. At may be seen the oenocytes, 
still forming a part of the ectoderm v 
from which they have differentiated, 

1 On the origin of Vertebrates from Arachnids. 
Quart, journ. micr. sci., vol.31, pt. iii, new ser. p. 317- 
37S. 1890. 



while the fat-body e is simply a thick- 
ened portion of the inner coelomic wall. 
The thickening is largely due to an ac- 
cumulation of fat-vacuoles in the cvto- 
plasm of the mesoderm-cells. Were 
Graber correct in his assumption we 
ought either to find no adipose tissue in 
the embryo outside of the eight trachiger- 
ous abdominal segments or be able 
to show that the oenocytes migrate into 
the head, thorax and terminal abdom- 
inal segments and there form the fat- 
body — since fat-tissue is developed in 
all these regions of the bodv. But al- 
though some of the oenocytes do later 
on migrate into the metathorax and 
perhaps even into the mesothorax, they 
never occur in the head. Moreover, 
long before any migration takes place, 
thickenings of the coelomic wall, sim- 
ilar to that in the figure, are found giv- 
ing rise to the fat-body in the thorax, 
gnathitic segments and also in the ter- 
minal segments of the abdomen. Fur- 
thermore, the oenocytes, so far as I have 
been able to observe, are always per- 
fectly distinct from the fat-body, never 
contain fat-vacuoles, and never divide 
after they are once differentiated from 
the ectoderm during embryonic life. 
Their number is therefore subject to no 
increase during the growth of the ani- 
mal. They are, as TichomirofF claimed, 
a series of organs sui generis. Although 
they certainly resemble the blood-cor- 
puscles in some insects, they are always 
much larger and seem not to be amoe- 
boid. They are never seen constricting, 
or exhibiting any appearance of giving 
rise to the blood-cells. It follows then 



220 



PSYCHE. 



;jf February 1S92. 



that the fat-body is not derived from the 
oenocytes, that it is not of ectodermal 
bvit of mesodermal origin as claimed by 
the majority of authors, and that there 
is no evidence for the origin of the blood 
from the oenocytes. 

It is interesting to note that only the 
winged orders of Hexapoda, the Ptery- 
gota, seem to possess oenocytes. I could 
find no traces of these peculiar cells in 
Lepisma saccharina, Campodea fra- 
gilis (young and adult) and Anurida 
7naritima, insects which may be taken 



to represent the three families of the 
Apterygota. If oenocytes exist at all 
in this subdivision of the Hexapoda, 
they are probably confined to the 
embryo or to the forms most closely 
allied to the Orthoptera — like Machilis. 
I believe that oenocytes do not occur 
in the Myriopoda. In the just-born 
young of Scolopendra complanata from 
the Galapagos I find no traces of them 
and so far as I am aware they have not 
been described by any of the investi- 
gators of Myriopod anatomy. 



DESCRIPTION OF A SARCOPHAGA BRED FROM HELIX. 



BY C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, LAS CRUCES, N. MEX. 



I have recently received from Mr. H. 
A. Surface, of the Ohio experiment 
station, a small Sarcophagid which he 
bred from Helix thyroides Say, while 
engaged on his catalogue of shells of 
Franklin County, published in Bulletin 
2, volume 1, technical series, of that 
station. 

Mr. Surface accompanies the speci- 
men with the following note : "The 
snail w r as placed in a tight bottle Au- 
gust 25, in Warren County, Ohio, and 
during the first part of September the 
pupae were seen. From September 27 
to 30 five or six mature flies came 
forth." 

The fly proves to be a small species 
of Sarcophaga. After considerable 
time spent in looking over descriptions 
of North American species, I feel justi- 
fied in considering it new. 



Sarcophaga helicis n. sp. J . 

Eyes brown, bare; front, sides of face and 
cheeks silvery or cinereous, sometimes with 
a brass}' reflection; frontal vitta dark brown 
or blackish, about one-third width of front, 
the front being about one-third width of 
head ; frontal bristles descending a little be- 
low base of antennae; the two vertical bris- 
tles strongest, directed backward, next three 
bristles also directed backward, rest more or 
less forward ; two orbital bristles directed 
forward ; a strong anterior pair of ocellar 
bristles directed forward and outward ; sides 
of face with a few bristles in a row on lower 
portion next orbital margin ; cheeks about 
one-fourth eve-height, sparsely hairy with a 
row of bristles on lower border; facial de- 
pression more or less silvery, epistoma 
rather prominent; facial ridges bare except 
two or three bristly hairs next vibrissae, the 
latter decussate and inserted on the oral 
margin ; antennae a little shorter than face, 
black, second joint slightly elongate with a 
long bristle on front border, third joint 



February 1892.] 



psyche. 



221 



about twice as long as second, moderately 
wide, rounded at apex ; arista blackish, thick- 
ened on basal fourth, plumose on basal half, 
3-jointed, second joint short; proboscis not 
so long as height of head, fleshy, dark brown 
or blackish, with well developed labella; 
palpi nearly black, moderately long, stout at 
tip, clothed with a few small bristles long- 
est on the underside; occiput cinereous, 
clothed with black hairs and fringed with 
black bristles. Thorax cinereous, with three 
well defined black vittae reaching scutellum, 
and with moderately strong macrochaetae ; 
scutellum cinereous, with an apical decus- 
sate pair of macrochaetae overreaching base 
of third abdominal segment, a shorter lateral 
pair, and a weak sub-discal pair. Abdomen 
black, more or less heavily shaded with sil- 
very or cinereous, in some places with a 
golden shade, first segment not shortened; 
first segment without macrochaetae, second 
segment with a lateral one; third segment 
with a median marginal pair and a lateral 
pair, anal segment with a marginal row of 
six or eight macrochaetae ; anus slightly 
rufous. Legs blackish, femora more or less 
cinereous especially front ones; tibiae more 
or less spiny, especially middle pair; claws 
and pulvilli short. Wings longer than ab- 
domen, grayish hyaline, with very small 
costal spine, first vein spined half its length, 
second spined to small cross-vein ; apical cell 
opening before tip of wing, fourth vein bent 
at right angle, with wrinkle at bend, apical 
cross-vein bowed in ; hind cross-vein oblique, 
nearer to bend of fourth vein ; tegulae nearly 
white, halteres blackish. 

Length of body 5 mm ; of wing 4 mm. 

Described from one specimen. Ohio. 
Sept. 



Edwards's N. A. Butterflies. 

We seem among old friends in the twelfth 
part of Edwards's Butterflies of North Ameri- 
ica, which appeared early in January ; for the 
early stages figured are of species, Papilio 



zolicaon and Cktonobas ukleri, very similar 
to those whose histories have been before il- 
lustrated, while the additional figures of but- 
terflies are of other forms of the same genera, 
P. americus and C. variuia. In both the 
species of which the life-history is told, there 
are interesting features. In P. zolicaon the 
spring butterflies are found to be from win- 
tering chrysalids of all three of the broods of 
the previous season; it would be instruc- 
tive to learn in what proportions the first 
and second broods are represented, and 
whether any of the chrysalids of the first 
brood disclose their inmates at the season of 
the third. In C. tikleri breeding and field 
observations together show the species to be 
in part double, in part single brooded, and 
the exact statistics given are very valuable, 
since the behavior of the species of this 
genus is very irregular and incongruous, and 
every new fact helps toward a solution of 
difficulties elsewhere. It is needless but 
pleasant to add that the same abundance, 
one might almost say luxury, of illustration 
is employed as heretofore, and it is of mar- 
vellous delicacy and truthfulness. 

Mr. Edwards would render his plates sim- 
pler if instead of employing the letters of the 
alphabet for the different illustrations of the 
early stages, without uniformity, he would 
always use some specific and invariable des- 
ignation, as I, II, or P, / 2 , for the different 
larval stages. Any one can tell at a glance 
an egg from a caterpillar or a chrysalis, but 
when the earlier larval stages are magnified, 
it requires much comparison of letters with 
legend to ascertain which stage of the cater- 
pillar is presented in particular cases; 
whereas if figures (1,2, etc.) either by them- 
selves or in connection with the letter / were 
used, no such reference would be needed, 
and comparisons could be more readily 
made. It would also be simpler if in his 
text he would employ the terms "1st stage," 
"2d stage," etc., or some equivalent term in- 
stead of "young larva," "after 1st moult,' 
etc., neither of which is really definite 



222 



PSYCHE. 



[February 1S92 



though in the latter one would of course sup- 
ply in the mind the missing "and before 
2d" needed to make it definite. 

Dryocampa riversii Behr. — The name 
of this species has been omitted from Prof. 
Smith's new list of lepidoptera of boreal 
America, but no harm has been done thereby 
as it must be referred to the synonymy. I 
have seen three specimens by the kindness 
of Prof. Rivers and of Dr. Behr. The fol- 
lowing is the synonymy and bibliography : 

Oedemasia salicis Hy. Edw. 

1876 Hy. Edw,, Proc. Cal. acad. sci., 
v. 7, 121, Heterocampa. 

1882. Grote, Check list Bomb. No. 238 1-2, 
Oedemasia. 

1891. Dyar, Psyche, v. 6, 177. 

1S91. Smith, List lep. No. 1303, riversii 
Behr. 

1889. Behr, Proc. Cal. acad. sci., 2nd ser. , 
v. 2, 94, Dryocampa. 

Dr. Behr adds walnut (Juglans) to the 
already known food plants of this species. 
Harrison G. Dyar. 

Recent Literature. — The eighth part of 
Buckton's British Cicadae has now appeared 
completing the work, which extends to two 
octavo volumes with over four hundred pages 
and eighty-two plates. 239 species are de- 
scribed, referred to 49 genera. The final part 
contains some matters of general interest, 
over fifty concluding pages being given up to 
some special sections : one on the sterilization 
of Tettigidae is based principally on Giard's 
papers on "castration parasitaire" ; another 
on the pygofer, with a plate, treats of the 
male abdominal appendages with special ref- 
erence to Sharp's observations; a third on 
fossil Tettigidae, with two plates, is based 
on the studies of Heer, Westwood, Scudder, 
and Germar and Berendt; and these are fol. 
lowed by a general summary, with sections 
on mounting and preserving and on Tettix 
found on classic coins, illustrated by a plate. 
An index is given to each volume, but if 



there had been added a special table of con- 
tents combined with a systematic list of 
genera, it would have made it more useful 
and the heads of the separate essays now 
scattered through the book would have been 
brought together. 

In a recent paper in the Zoologischer 
anzeiger on the chronological succession of 
wing colors in chrysalids of butterflies, 
Urech claims that the Vanessas must have 
been originally white! White, yellow, red, 
brown, black, he finds to be the order in 
which the colors appear, starting from an 
originally completely white area. His 
studies, however, have been too limited to 
draw such sweeping conclusions, though 
their interest and perhaps their importance 
cannot be denied. 

Dittrich reports in the Zeitschrift. fur en- 
tomologie of Breslau for 1891, p. 21, a Cyclo- 
pean honey-bee sent him by a school-master 
in St. Petersburg, one of whose pupils 
brought it to him saying: "the rascal al- 
ways flew head downwards !" The only part 
misshapen was the head whose length ex- 
ceeded its breadth by one-third. Viewed 
from the front, a single crescentic compound 
eye was situated at the upper margin of the 
head, reaching on either side nearly to the 
mandibles, without trace of any emargina- 
tion at the middle line of the head, as one 
would expect, to indicate the fusion of two 
eyes. The ocelli were absent. 

On further inquiry of the school-master, 
Herr Hans, the latter stated that he once 
found a number of such examples in young 
bees which fell to the ground and repeatedly 
tried to rise without being able to mount 
more than half a metre ; he had found as 
many as a hundred in a day; all were born 
of one mother. The same thing began to be 
repeated the following year in the brood of 
the same parent, so that he killed the ex- 
traordinary mother. He adds "the daugh- 
ter of this mother has so far given birth to 
very few such monsters." Here, surely, is a 
chance for some Weismannian experiments. 






X^ 'VAT 



PSYCH 




A. JOTJTZ1STJ±Lj OF 1 ENTOMOLOGY. 
[Established in 1874.] 

Vol. 6. No. 191. 

March, 1S92. 



CONTENTS: 

Experiments for the destruction of chinch bugs by infection. — Francis 

H. Snoiv .............. 225 

Concerning the Blood-tissue of the Insecta. — II. — W. M. Wheeler . . 233 

A new genus and species of Tabanidae (Illustrated) — J. M. Aldrich . . 236 
Miscellaneous Notes (Pieris rapae engaged in a new kind of sport; the gypsy 

moth ; the amber museum of Stantien and Becker) ...... 237 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club 238 



Published by the 

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224 



PSYCHE. 



March 1S92. 



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PSYCHE. 



EXPERIMENTS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF CHINCH BUGS 

BY INFECTION. 

BY FRANCIS H. SNOW, LAWRENCE, KANSAS. 

[Annual address of the retiring president of the Cambridge Entomological Club, 12 February, 1892.] 



I regret my inability to be present at 
the annual meeting of the Club on the 
8th inst.* I, however, forward the fol- 
lowing account of my experiments for 
the destruction of chinch bugs in the 
field by the artificial introduction of 
contagious diseases. This may serve 
as my annual address as president of 
the Club. One of your former presi- 
dents, Prof. S. A. Forbes of Illinois, 
adopted a similar subject for his annual 
address. 

At the outset, I desire to call your 
attention to the difference between my 
own experiments and those of Prof. 
Forbes. The latter has been working 
for several years in the line of commun- 
icating contagious diseases to chinch 
bugs by means of artificial cultures of 
the microscopic plants which produce 
disease. He has not, however, thus 
far, been successful in communicating 
disease to chinch bugs in the fields by 
means of artificial cultures. In my 
own experiments, continued now for 
three years, I have proceeded upon a 
different basis. Recognizing the failure 
of previous attempts to destroy chinch 

*The address reached the Club too late for the meet- 
ing of S January. 



bugs by the application of artificial cul- 
tures of disease germs, I conceived a 
very simple idea of making the chinch 
bug himself the vehicle for the commu- 
nication of disease in the field. 

Dr. Otto Lugger of the Minnesota 
Agricultural Experiment Station in the 
autumn of 1SS8 distributed in certain 
fields infested with chinch bugs the 
dead bodies of bugs that had died in 
other fields from disease which was 
naturally present. Dr. Lugger, how- 
ever, was in doubt as to whether disease 
was actually communicated in the field 
by these dead bugs, thinking that per- 
haps the disease after all might have 
reached the fields in which he distrib- 
uted his material by the natural progress 
of the disease from field to field. So 
far as I know, Dr. Lugger did not fur- 
ther continue these experiments, and 
made no investigations in the labora- 
tory with reference to preserving the 
infection through the winter and exper- 
imenting in the following season with 
infection thus preserved. 

In June, 1SS9, I obtained the first 
material for my experiments from a 
farm in Morris County, Kansas. This 
material consisted of Empusa, deter- 



226 



PSYCHE 



[March 1893. 



mined as Empusa aphidis by Ur. 
Thaxter, and doubtless identical with 
the Entomophthora of Prof. Forbes's 
presidential address. 

With this material I was able to test 
my theory that chinch bugs from the field 
having been made sick by contact with 
the dead bodies of bugs killed by dis- 
ease in the laboratory, if turned loose in 
the field would communicate the disease 
to the field bugs. I found that in the lab- 
oratory exposure of healthy bugs to bugs 
dead from disease, was invariably fol- 
lowed by the death of the exposed bugs 
in from eight to twelve days. A simi- 
lar operation in the field led to the same 
result. 

I have thus experimented with all 
three diseases now known as fatal to 
chinch bugs : — the Sporotrichum 
globtdiferum of Spegazzini which I 
have called the ' ; white fungus" dis- 
ease : the Empusa aphidis of Hoffman 
which I have called the "gray fungus" 
disease ; and the Micrococcus i?zsecto- 
rutn of Burrill, which is abacterial dis- 
ease. The Sporotrichum globuliferum 
(thus determined by Dr. Thaxter) is 
identical with Botrytis referred to by 
Prof. Forbes in his address. 

I have been able to keep two of these 
diseases alive through two successive 
winters in my laboratory, and have been 
able to supply farmers with infection 
upon demand in the following season. 
My experiments have shown that the 
two fungus diseases, Sporotrichum and 
Empusa, are more destructive in damp 
weather than in dry, while the bacterial 
disease (Micrococcus) is most destruc- 



tive in hot, dry weather ; thus in 1S90, 
which was a very dry year in Kansas, 
the crops being seriously injured by 
drouth in all parts of the State, the 
fungus diseases had very little effect in 
the destruction of the chinch bug, while 
the bacterial disease was exceedingly 
destructive. During the year 1S91, 
which was a wet year in Kansas up to 
the end of July, the fungus diseases 
sent out from my laboratory again re" 
sumed their destructive effect in the 
fields ; the bacterial disease becoming 
most destructive after the close of the 
wet weather in July. 

Considerable prominence having 
been given to the subject of my experi- 
ments during the year 1890, the legisla- 
ture of Kansas in February, 1S91, made 
a special appropriation of $3,500 to 
enable me to continue my investigations 
upon a larger scale than had previously 
been possible. By means of this ap- 
propriation I have been able to equip a 
bacteriological laboratory and obtain 
the apparatus necessary, for thorough 
study of the subject. I have also been 
able to propagate infection upon a large 
scale, in order to meet the large de- 
mand from the farmers of Kansas and 
other States for infected chinch bugs. 

During the year 1S91 infection has 
been furnished to about 2,000 farmers, 
chiefly in Kansas, but also including all 
the western States exposed to the rav- 
ages of the chinch bug. I have re- 
ceived 1 ,390 reports from farmers stat- 
ing the results of their experiments. Of 
these field experiments 1 ,050 have been 
successful, 1S7 unsuccessful, and 153 



March 1S92. 



PSYCHE. 



227 



doubtful. Stated in another form 75.6 
per cent of the experiments have been 
successful ; 13.4 per cent unsuccessful ; 
and 1 1 per cent doubtful. These 
field experiments have been dis- 
tributed among the various States as 
follows: Kansas, 1,222, (successful, 
953, unsuccessful, 140, doubtful, 129) ; 
Illinois, 40, (successful, 17, unsuccess- 
ful, 15, doubtful, S) ; Texas, 26, (suc- 
cessful, 13, unsuccessful, 6, doubtful, 
7) ; Wisconsin, 29, (successful, 13, un- 
successful, 13, doubtful, 3) ; Oklahoma 
Territory, 26, (successful, 20, unsuc- 
cessful, 4, doubtful, 2) ; Missouri, 13, 
(successful, 11, unsuccessful, 2) ; Iowa, 
15, (successful, 9, unsuccessful, 5, 
doubtful, 1) ; Minnesota, 8, (successful, 
3, unsuccessful, 2, doubtful, 3) ; Indian 
Territory, 2, (successful, 2) ; Nebraska, 
6, (successful, 6) ; Indiana, 1, (success- 
ful) ; Arkansas, 1, (successful); Miss- 
issippi, 1, (successful). 

In order to assure myself of the actual 
condition of the experiments in the field, 
I have personally visited a large num- 
ber of fields during the past season 
while the experiments were being pei'- 
formed, and have kept a field agent con- 
stantly in the field during a large part 
of the time. He has made a thorough 
examination of eighteen Kansas coun- 
ties and has assisted me materially 
in determining the true character of the 
field experiments, corroborating in a 
great majority of instances the reports 
of the farmers as to the working of the 
infection in their fields. 

In this address I cannot enter exten- 
sively into the subject of these experi- 



ments, but will give a brief statement 
of the principal points connected with 
the laboratory work with each of the 
two fungus diseases. 

On May 23d we began our experi- 
ments with Sporotrichum. We dis- 
tributed some fungus-covered bugs from 
the field of Mr. Mattocks in six infec- 
tion jars. Into the jars had been put 
soil taken from the yard, and green 
wheat. Fresh chinch bugs sent by the 
farmers were put into the jars — enough 
to thickly cover the bottom. The jars 
were covered with cheese cloth and set 
into a glass case containing moist sand. 
The soil in the infection jars was not 
watered, so that the bugs were in a 
humid atmosphere but not in contact 
with water. We were in this way able 
to secure the best conditions for the de- 
velopment of the fungus. When the 
bugs died in the jars new bugs from the 
field were put in — the date of restock- 
ing being also a record of the time 
when the bugs in the jars had nearly all 
died. The following is the memoran- 
dum for the six jars started May 23d : 

May 23, June 4, June 20. 

May 23, May 27, June 4, June 15. 

May 23, June 4, June 15. 

May 23, May 27, June 4, June 15, 
June 20. 

May 23, May 27, June 4, June 15, 
June 20. 

Seven jars were started May 25th. 
Their record is as follows : 

May 25, June 4, June 19. 

Ma y 2 5> J une 4' J une *5- 
May 25, June 4, June 15. 
May 25, June 4, June 15. 



228 



PSYCHE. 



[March 1S92. 



May 25, June 2, June 11, June 20. 

May 25, June 4, June 15. 

May 25, June 2, June 11, June 19. 

Four jars started May 27 have the 
following record : 

May 27, June 6, June 15. 

May 27, June 11, June 15, June 20. 

May 27, June 6, June 15. 

May 27, June 6, June 15, June 21. 

Thirteen jars started June 2nd, each 
jar being infected with four fungus- 
covered bugs from the preceding jars, 
are recorded as follows : 

June 2, June il, June 20. 

June 2, June 11, June 19. 

June 2, June 11, June 19. 

June 2, June 7, June 15. 

June 2, June 11, June 15, June 20. 

June 2, June 11, June 19. 

June 2, June 11, June 19. 

June 2, June 1 1, June 20. 

June 2, June 15. 

June 2, June 11, June 19. 

June 2, June n, June 19. 

June 2, June 11, June 15, June 20. 

June 2, June 11, June 15, June 20. 

One jar started June 4 ran : 

June 4, June n, June 20. 

One jar started June 5 ran : 

June 5, June 15, June 20. 

Four jars started June 6 are recorded : 

June 6, June 15, June 20. 

June 6, June 15, June 19. 

June 6, June 15. 

June 6, June 19. 

The bugs put into the jars on the sev- 
eral dates were from all parts of the 
chinch bug district of the State of Kan- 
sas. They were for the most part just 
received from the mail and were in vig- 



orous condition. They were kept sup- 
plied with green wheat. While the bugs 
in the infected jars were dying at inter- 
vals of five to ten days, bugs from the 
same lots in isolated check jars remained 
alive and vigorous. 

By June 20th the demand for infected 
bugs was so large that the jar method of 
infection required more attention than 
we were able to give it. The results of 
our separate lots were so uniform and 
the Sporotrichum so vigorous and ever- 
present that the further watching of sep- 
arate lots seemed useless. Accordingly 
June 20th a large glass case was ar- 
ranged with damp sand three inches 
deep over the bottom. About ten dead 
bugs covered with Sporotrichum were 
scattered over the sand and large quan- 
tities of live bugs from the field were 
put in, with plenty of green wheat. In 
nine days the bottom of the case was 
thickly sprinkled with white fungus- 
covered bugs and in thirteen days only 
a few live bugs remained and the case 
was restocked. The infection continued 
to work so rapidly in this case that we 
found no trouble in filling from it 
twenty-five to one hundred orders daily. 
Vast numbers of young red chinch bugs 
were put into the case together with the 
adults and they too were an easy prey 
to the disease. Minute points of white 
made their bodies conspicuous among 
the larger flecks of white where the 
adult bugs lay covered with Sporotri- 
chum. 

On June 28th Emfiusa aphidis was 
first noticed in the infecting case. Up 
to this date it had not made its ap- 



March 1S92. 



PSYCHE. 



229 



pearance in our laboratory in 1891. 
From this time till the middle of August 
it multiplied its victims in the infecting 
cases. For a short time it became 
more conspicuous than Sporotrichum 
and then subsided. 

On July 4th we began experimenting 
with common shallow dry goods boxes 
for infecting cases. The inside of the 
boxes was sprinkled and the bottoms 
thickly covered with green wheat. A 
few fungus-covered bugs were sprinkled 
over the wheat and new bugs from the 
field were put in in large numbers. 
Within a week the white fungus-cov- 
ered bugs were thickly spread over the 
bottoms and in places the white bugs 
were literally in heaps. Continued ex- 
periments showed that damp wooden 
boxes offered the best conditions for the 
development of the fungus and the glass 
cases were no longer used. . Sporo- 
trichum, like most fungi, thrives best 
in a moist atmosphere, but an excess 
of water, such as occurs in a wet soil 
or along the sides of a glass case where 
the vapor often becomes condensed, is 
detrimental to its development. In the 
wooden boxes the atmosphere was abun- 
dantly humid ; but water that was 
sprinkled in from time to time or that 
became condensed on the sides of the 
boxes was at once absorbed by the 
wood. 

During July and August Sporotrichum 
continued to spread through successive 
lots of fresh bugs from the fields. Em- 
pusa was always present but was not 
so conspicuous in its ravages as Sporo- 
trichum. In the first weeks of Sep- 



tember the diseases began to subside 
and by the middle of October neither 
Sporotrichum nor Empusa appeared to 
be spreading further. Nor is it at all 
probable that the diseases are lost. The 
observations on the life history of these 
fungi which follow show that provision 
is made for a period of rest. 

June 28th the spores of Sporotrichum 
were transferred by means of a sterilized 
needle from the dead body of a chinch 
bug to fifteen culture plates. The cul- 
ture medium was a mixture of beef 
broth and Irish moss ; enough of the 
mucilaginous decoction of the moss 
being added to the beef broth to give 
a solid medium at So° F. Within forty- 
eight hours the spores had germinated 
and branching mycelia could be seen 
spreading through the medium. With- 
in three days spores were produced in 
abundance, but only one spot on one of 
the fifteen plates was found to be a pure 
culture, Aspergillus mucor and bacteria 
being mixed with all the other growths 
of Sporotrichum. From the one pure 
spot spores were transferred to three 
new plates, and the resulting growths 
were all pure. 

The germinating spore puts forth a 
mycelium which branches as it grows. 
At intervals mycelial branches shoot 
upwards and grow over the surface of 
the culture medium. Conidiophores 
arise from these ; the conidiophore 
sends oft' branches and the spores or 
conidia are abscissed from these branches 
in clusters. The average diameter of 
twenty spores thus produced was 2.3 
micromillimeters. It is by means of 



230 



PSYCHE. 



[March 1892. 



these minute spores that the fungus is 
so rapidly disseminated throughout a 
field infested with chinch bugs. These 
spores, however, soon lose their vitality 
(spores one month old would no longer 
germinate in our laboratory) and the 
fungus must make provision for its self- 
preservation during protracted periods 
of weather unfavorable to the develop- 
ment of conidial spores. 

Culture plates in our laboratory, cov- 
ered with pure cultures of Sporotrichum 
planted July 9, show the mycelial 
branches within the culture medium to 
be swollen at intervals to a diameter of 
3.9 to S.S micromillimeters ; the aver- 
age diameter of the unswollen mycelial 
branches being about 2.5 micromilli- 
meters. It seems more than probable 
that the function of these hyphal bodies 
is to carry the fungus through the cold 
of winter or the drought of summer. 
Experiments have been started in our 
laboratory to test the germinating power 
of these bodies, but too late to give the 
results in this paper. 

Resting spores are also found on the 
culture plates having a diameter of 20 
micromillimeters, and a thickness of cell 
wall of i.S micromillimeters. Similar 
spores are found in the crushed bodies of 
chinch bugs covered with Sporotrichum. 
While it was found that pure cultures 
of Sporotrichum could easily be ob- 
tained, repeated attempts to inoculate 
chinch bugs from these pure cultures 
were unsuccessful. 

As heretofore stated Empusa aphidis 
was first noticed in our infection case 
June 28. Eight or ten bugs were found 



covered with a vigorous growth of this 
fungus. This disease had probably 
been sent in from some field where it 
naturally existed. Empusa continued 
to multiply in the infection cases and by 
July j 2th it rivalled Sporotrichum in 
the number of its victims. Active bugs 
without external signs of disease in the 
afternoon would be found hanging to 
the wheat blades the following morning 
covered with a vigorous growth of Em- 
pusa. If the fungus were left undis- 
turbed it would keep on growing at 
the expense of the tissues of the bug 
until nothing were left save bits of the 
chitinous integument. 

Attempts were made to obtain pure 
fruiting cultures of Empusa, but without 
success. At first bugs covered with 
Empusa were placed on the surface of 
the culture medium in the hope that the 
spores would be thrown, as is the habit 
with this fungus, and the growth of these 
spores would give a pure culture. The 
spores were thrown in a ring about the 
bug to a distance of a quarter of an 
inch, but a rapid growth of bacteria 
from the bug broke down the culture 
medium and the Empusa spores did 
not develop. 

To keep the bacteria from reaching 
the medium a cover glass was heated 
over a Bunsen burner until it became 
very much convexed. This was then 
placed on the culture medium, convex 
side up, and upon this were placed 
three bugs covered with Empusa. A 
mycelial growth was obtained in this 
way uncontaminated with bacteria ; but 
no spores were produced. We have 



March 1892. J 



PS r CHE. 



231 



been unable, then, to attempt the in- 
oculation of chinch bugs with pure cul- 
tures of Empusa. That the fungus has 
power to rapidly spread from one bug 
to another the experiments in our infec- 
tion cases have clearly shown. 

A chinch bug covered with Empusa 
seems to be studded with minute gray 
beads. A thin section cut through the 
body of a bug in this condition shows 
the body cavity to be crowded with the 
mycelial growth and protruding through 
the integument are vast numbers of 
broad conidiophores each bearing a 
single conidium. 

It is by the sudden rupture of the 
conidiophore due to turgescence that 
the conidia are thrown to some distance. 

Where the fungus continues its growth 
to the complete destruction of the chinch 
bug the whole mycelial mass breaks up 
into bodies varying from 16 X 29 mi- 
cromillimeters to 23.5 X 27.4 micro- 
millimeters. 

In one instance resting spores, appar- 
ently, were found. These were round 
bodies with granular contents and thick 
walls and varying in diameter from 21 
to 25 micromillimeters. 

A chinch bug that died of Empusa 
about the middle of July was confined 
in a moist atmosphere on a sterilized 
plate October 10 and on Oct. 13 the 
entire body was thickly covered with a 
new growth of Empusa. It seems then 
that the entire mass of this fungus may 
break up into a resting condition and 
be capable, whenever the atmospheric 
conditions will permit, of springing in 
to new growth. 



Careful experiments will be made in 
our laboratory this winter to test the 
capabilities of germination and duration 
of vitality of the spores and hyphal 
bodies of Sporotrichum and Empusa. 

I append the following as samples of 
the reports received from the farm- 
ers. 



ALFRED DOIDGE, SOLOMON CITY, DICKINSON 
CO., KANSAS. 

Infection sent May 8. Experiment suc- 
cessful as reported July 27. 

"I experimented with the infected chinch 
bugs you sent me last May. They were the 
first bugs you sent out, and it was very wet 
weather. After I infected them I turned 
them out in a twenty acre field of wheat. 
The bugs were very numerous at that time, 
ard hatching. The old ones soon began to 
die and the ground was white with them. 
Very shortly after there were no old bugs 
left in the field, but the wheat was red with 
young ones. It did not seem to take hold 
upon them. After cutting the wheat they 
went into five acres of oats. I concluded 
that it would not pay to harvest the oats. 
They were black and red from top to bottom. 
I never saw the like before. About one 
week from then I went into the oats and to- 
my surprise the ground was white with dead' 
bugs and the others were sluggish. In eight 
inches square I believe I could have picked 
up 1000 dead bugs. They were all in 
bunches. My five acres of oats were saved 
by using the infection. I do not think I lost 
two bushels in the whole crop. I find that 
the infection is a success in all that you 
claim for it." 

Under November date reported as follows : 

"The infected bugs saved me fifty bushels 
of wheat, four hundred bushels of corn, and 
two hundred bushels of oats." 



232 



PSYCHE. 



March 1S92. 



C. B. MCALLISTER, BELLE PLAINE, SUMNER 
CO., KANSAS. 

Applied for aid June 20. "The bugs are 
passing from the wheat into the corn by the 
million." 

Infection sent June 22. Experiment suc- 
cessful as reported October 17. 

"It was a success in my case. I followed 
your advice, putting diseased bugs in the 
corn. On the fifth day I could find no dead 
bugs. On the sixth day we found some dead 
ones, and the live ones were very lonely. 
The tenth day I could shake a handful of 
dead bugs off one hill of corn. In fifteen 
days they were all dead in the corn where 
I placed the infected bugs. I am very 
thankful we received the diseased bugs, as 
I believe it saved us 1600 bushels of corn. If 
I had sent sooner I would have saved 200 
bushels of wheat." 

W. W. CORM1CK, ANTHONY, HARPER CO., 
KANSAS. 

Applied for aid June 21st. "My corn is 
run over with bugs." 

Infection sent June 24th. Experiment 
successful as reported October 19th. 

"I followed directions closely, and on the 
seventh day I found dead bugs just the color 
of the first lot you sent me which were of 
a white furry appearance. The ground in a 
few days became pretty well covered with 
dead bugs. I then received a second lot, 
the dead bodies of which were black. Where 
I put black infected bugs the ground was 
covered with black bugs, and where white 
infected bugs were put I found the dead bugs 
to be white. I divided with my neighbors 
and they reported to me that it was a suc- 
cess. One man said that he could scoop up 
the dead bugs in great quantities after eight 
or ten days ; he is convinced that the infec- 
tion did the work. I am convinced that the 
two varieties carry death with them and 
.each marks its victim peculiar to itself, and 



in conclusion I will say : should I ever be 
troubled again, I would lose no time in writ- 
ing for bugs." 

Reported in November : 

"The infected bugs saved 900 bushels of 
corn in my field." 

H. H. COLLINS, BELLEVILLE, REPUBLIC CO. 
KANSAS. 

Applied for aid July 9th. " Bugs are leav- 
ing the wheat and are going into my cane, 
millet and corn. Please send infected bugs 
by return mail." 

Infection sent July nth. Experiment suc- 
cessful as reported December 25th. 

" The observations that I made were as 
follows: 1st, — There were no dead bugs in 
field when I placed infected bugs in; 2d, — 
I found the first dead bugs on the fourth 
day — just a few — and on the seventh day 
I found that the bugs were all piling up in 
piles on the ground, and another thing I 
noticed was a white fungus on the ground 
where the bugs were dying; 3d, — The bugs 
did not seem to do any harm to the growing 
grain after they began to pile up on the 
ground; 4th, — I found that the disease 
spread one-fourth of a mile in about ten 
days. It was late in the season when I 
received infected bugs. The people up this 
way think that the infected bug is the great- 
est discovery of the age." 

M. MONSON, KACKLEY, REPUBLIC CO., KAN. 

Infection sent June 23. Experiment suc- 
cessful as reported October 23d. 

" The diseased bugs were scattered in an 
eight acre field of wheat three days before 
the wheat was harvested. After ten days I 
found dead bugs in piles so that I could heap 
my hand full from a spot not larger than my 
hand. At the same time I found dead bugs 
in a field where no diseased bugs had been 
placed one half mile from mine. Bugs were 
now travelling from wheat to an adjoining 



March 1S92.J 



PSYCHE. 



233 



corn field. Six days after the bugs com- 
menced travelling to the corn, the bugs 
covered three feet of every stalk about ten 
rods into the field. On the seventh day I 
noticed there were not so many bugs on the 
stalks. I then noticed that the bugs got less 
in numbers every day until the tenth day 
when I could scarcely find a bug on the 
stalks. As the bugs were not more than 
half grown, it seemed to me a strange act 
that they left the corn entirely without kill- 
ing it. 

I wondered what became of the bugs and 
T turned over some lumps of dirt and out 
flowed piles of dead bugs and live ones also. 
By taking close notice I found that the bugs 
had not left the field but had crawled down 
in the dirt to die. Half of the bugs were at 
that time dead. In a few days there came a 
heavy rain which baked the ground. I have 
not seen a bug there since." 



In making their reports as to the 
benefit received from the use of the in- 
fection, 495 of the 1050 successful ex- 
perimenters gave their own estimates of 
the number of bushels of grain saved by 
the experiment. The sum of these es- 
timates amounts in cash value to $89, 
1 76-65 or an average of $180.00 for each 
farmer. It is fair to presume that this 
average may be safely applied to the re- 
mainder of the 1050 successful experi- 
ments. This gives an aggregate saving 
of $189,000. This amount saved by the 
farmers means additional profit for the 
railroads and the millers, so that $200, 
000 is a very conservative estimate of 
the actual value of the experiments in 
1891. 



CONCERNING THE -'BLOOD-TISSUE OF THE INSECTA.— II. 



BY WILLIAM MORTON WHEELER, WORCESTER, MASS. 



Among the Pterygota oenocytes are 
of very general, perhaps universal oc- 
currence. Wielowiejski found them in 
Rhynchota, Aphaniptera, Coleoptera, 
Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera. 
They had previously been noticed by 
Graber in Orthoptera, Coleoptera and 
Trichoptera. I have found them in a 
number of orders in which they have 
not hitherto been observed and here 
subjoin a brief account of my observa- 
tions together with a few notes on oeno- 
cytes in some of the orders in which 
thev have been studied by others. 



Orthoptera. The oenocytes of 
Blatta and Xiphidium are very similar 
and may be regarded as typical for this- 
order. Arising, as above described, by 
immigration from the ectoderm just 
caudad to the abdominal stigmata, they 
remain at their place of origin through-, 
out embryonic life, but later some of the 
anterior cells wander into the thoracic 
cavity. In the adult the metameric ar- 
rangement seems to be lost and the 
oenocytes lie irregularly scattered along 
the pleural and sternal walls. The 
separate elements never show any ten- 



234 



PSYCHE. 



[March 1S92. 



dency to fuse with one another. 

The size of the oenocytes in a given 
species appears to vary directly as the 
age of the insect. This is shown by the 
following measurements : 

cytoplasm. nucleus. 

Xiph. ensiferum \ 

embryo-revolution I iija 7-9 fj. 

£ completed. J 

Xiph. ensiferum "I ->fi - 

hatching J - ••!> r 

Xifh. fasciatum \ 

larva 10 mm. long J 

Xiph. ensiferum \ 

adult. J 



33-51* 
37 V- 



nji 



iiji 



12-13H 



Not only do these measurements 
show a gradual increase in both cyto- 
plasm and nucleus, but they also show 
that the cytoplasm grows relatively 
somewhat more rapidly than the 
nucleus. 

Ephemeridea. Fig. 4 represents 
the pleural portion of a section through 
one of the abdominal segments of a 
nearly mature Blasturus nymph. Nearly 
the whole of that portion of the pleural 
hypodermis which is included between 
the insertions of the tergosternal, or res- 
piratory muscles, is seen to consist of 
oenocytes. The hypodermal cells proper 
are reduced to small chromophilous 
elements filling the interstices between 
the large clear adenoid cells and cover- 
ing them with a thin layer externally. 
That the oenocytes are really still com- 
pletely imbedded in the hypodermis and 
do not protrude freely into the body- 
cavity is apparent from an examination 
of their inner surfaces, where traces of 
the inner ends of the hypodermal cells 
still persist as plates of protoplasm. 



When the abdomen is slit sagittally and 
spread out, the pale oenocytes are seen 
to line the pleural angles of the segments 
as an even pavement-like layer. The 
area covered by these cells is so large that 
the metameric masses are interrupted 
only by the constrictions separating the 
segments. In the first abdominal seg- 
ment the oenocytes are heaped up into 
a mass instead of forming a single layer. 
It may be further noted that the stig- 
matic trunks of the abdominal tracheae 
pass into the gills at the posterior edges 
of their respective segments, so that the 
oenocyte clusters lie in front of the stig- 
mata. This is the reverse of their posi- 
tion in the embryos of Orthoptera, Col- 
eoptera and Lepidoptera and were it 
not that the insect under consideration 
was nearly mature, we might doubt 
whether the position of the oenocyte 
clusters with respect to the tracheae was 
of much morphological significance. 
On the other hand the oenocytes of 
Blasturus certainly show a very embry- 
onic condition in that they are still im- 
bedded when the insect is practically 
mature in the hypodermis from which 
they differentiated. 

The separate oenocytes measure 15 
— 23H in diameter ; their nuclei 7 n. 
They are perfectly distinct on the one 
hand from the blood corpuscles which 
measure only 3.5 (* and on the other 
from the fat-body. 

In the nearly adult nymph of a very 
different species (an Ecdyurus-like 
form, probably the same as the one fig- 
ured in Eaton's monograph PI. 59) the 



March 1S92.] 



PSYCHE. 



235 



oenocytes are very similar to those of 
the Blasturus nymph. They measure 
13-14. 5K- — their nuclei I2H. In this 
species also the difference in size be- 
tween the oenocytes and the blood-cor- 
puscles is very great. There is nothing 
whatever to indicate that the latter 
originate from the former. 

Very different is the condition of the 
oenocytes in the mature nymph of 
Hexagenia. Here they maybe detected 
only with considerable difficulty in the 
pleural fold between the insertions of 
the respiratory muscles as a few scat- 
tered cells, differing only in size and 
clearness from the hypodermal cells in 
which they are imbedded. 

Odonata. In the nymph of an Agri- 
onine species of this group oenocytes 
were detected after considerable search. 
They are present in clusters consisting 
of a very few small elements (cytoplasm 
12-14 n ; nucleus 4.5 p.) imbedded, as 
usual, in that portion of the pleural 
hypodermis which is included between 
the insertions of the tergo-sternal mus- 
cles. They seem not to be completely 
covered over by the hypodermis but to 
project into the body cavity. Their 
greater size and pale color distinguish 
them from the hypodermal cells. 

Plecoptera. In a beautiful black 
and yellow Perlid larva (perhaps an 
Acroneura) the oenocytes are quite as 
inconspicuous as they are in the Odo- 
nata. The specimens studied in section 
were young, measuring only 6 mm, 
whereas the mature larva of this same 
species measures fully 25 mm. Each of 
the metameric clusters consists of from 



5-6 cells and these are imbedded in the 
hypodermis surrounding the occluded 
stigmata. They measure 1S.5 k- ; their 
oval nuclei up. In their affinity for 
stains they differ but slightly from the 
hypodermal cells. 

The imago of a small unidentified 
Perlid presented very different condi- 
tions, oenocyte sbeing present in great 
numbers and distributed through the 
abdomen and thorax. They lie in 
niche-like excavations in the hypo- 
dermal wall, either singly or in groups. 
Sometimes they appear to form syncy- 
tia. They vary considerably in size 
(cytoplasm 14-55H; nucleus 5-30^). 
The nucleus contains a nucleolus — 
the only case in which I have found 
nucleoli in the oenocytes. Compared 
with their homologues in other forms 
these cells stain very deeply in borax 
carmine. 

Corrodentia. The bright yellow 
oenocytes of Psocus venosus (imago) 
are massed in metameric clusters about 
the stigmata. The cytoplasm measures 
about 1S.5 h- in diameter; the nucleus 
6 ja. They are not imbedded in the 
hypodermis, though they lie in contact 
with it. 

The fat-body which stains very in- 
tensely in Delafield's haematoxylin and 
is loaded down with minute urate con- 
cretions, extends with hardly any in- 
terruption through the whole body — 
from the cavity in front of the brain to 
the terminal abdominal segments. The 
pericardial fat-body is well developed 
and very distinct from the fat-body 
proper. 



236 



PS 7 CHE. 



[March 1S92. 



I11 the workers of Termes Jiavipes 
the oenocytes are much more difficult to 
detect. They are flattened cells im- 
bedded in the pleural hypodermis near 
the stigmata. It is their size which 
mainly distinguishes them from the hy- 
podermal cells ; the latter measuring 
only S k- while the former measure 37 n. 

Thysanoptera. Oenocytes occur in 
compact metameric clusters in a species 
of Phloeothrips very common on the 
blossoms of Chrysanthemum le?ican- 
ihemum during July and August. 



These clusters occur in at least six of the 
abdominal segments, possibly in eight, 
but as they diminish in size very rapidly 
from before backwards, I am not sure 
that I have found them in the 7th and 
8th metameres. The clusters lie in the 
pleural region well out in the body cav- 
ity and each consists of some 8 or 10 
cells which from mutual pressure are 
often very irregular. The cells measure 
18.5-26 (a in diameter — their nuclei 
3-6 (a. They are perfectly distinct 
from the fat-body and blood corpuscles. 



A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF TABANIDAE. 

BY J. M. AI.DRICH, BROOKINGS, SOUTH DAKOTA. 



The general appearance of the fly is 
that of a particularly fine large silvery 
Hippoboscid, with brown wings. Nev- 
ertheless, an examination shows it to be 
truly Tabanid in every respect ; in fact, 
I was at some loss for a while to fix 
upon a set of generic characters which 
-would clearly separate it from all the 
present genera of Tabanidae. The vena- 
tion is normal ; the antennae resemble 
Pangonia in shape and number of an- 
nulations ; the face is that of Chrysops. 
The upper corner of the eye, making 
an angle of about 70 degrees, and not 
in the least rounded off at the tip, but 
rather produced a little in a very fine 
point, beyond which is an impressed 
line, running to the occiput, is one of 
the best .characters. The general pro- 
portions of the body, also, are different 
from those of any other members of the 
family known to me. 



Its habits are unknown, but from its 
appearance the conclusion looks prob- 
able that it lives like a Hippoboscid 
upon some bird or mammal. Still, 
there are no modifications of structure 
that give strong support to this theory. 
Its claws are distinctly larger than those 
of Tabani of its size, and the large pits 
at the bases of the hairs on the first and 
second antennal joints seem to indicate 
an unusual development of the sense of 
touch in this region ; both of which 
peculiarities are not without weight. 

Goniops n. gen. 
Spurs present on hind tibiae, absent from 
front ones. Eyes narrow, terminating above 
in an acute angle. Ocelli present. Front 
broad in female, the callosity longitudinal. 
Proboscis in repose directed forward. Tho- 
rax strongly arched, subglobular. Abdomen 
(from tip of scutellum) not longer than, 
and head but about half as wide as, the 
thorax. 



March 1S92.] 



PSYCHE. 



237 



G. kippoboscoides, n. sp. $. Head almost 
uniform light yellow, between the ocelli 
tinged with brown. Eves black, bare, not 
approximated to each other. Front broad, 
wider anteriorly, with yellow pollen on the 
sides, a longitudinal callosity more whitish, 
extending from the ocelli to the beginning 
of the antennal prominence; in dried speci- 
mens a variable impressed line on each side 
of this callosity. Antennae situated on a 
distinct transverse prominence, yellow, the 
third joint more reddish; second joint al- 
most annular, third tapering quite symmet- 
rically, composed of eight annuli. Face 
yellow, strongly protuberant, shining. Pro- 
boscis reddish, directed forward, reaching 
but little beyond the antennae. Palpi slen- 
der, long, yellow, with yellow pollen and 
abundant blackish hairs. Posterior orbits 
wide, conspicuous, with yellow pollen. 

Thorax whitish yellow below, more brown- 
ish above, with minute, appressed, silvery 
yellow pile; on the anterior border just a 
trace of a slender, median, reddish line; on 
each side a broad, indistinct reddish stripe, 
interrupted along the transverse suture. 
Scutellum short, as wide as the head, 
yellow. 

Abdomen short, broad, covered with ap- 
pressed shining silvery-yellow pile; seven 
visible segments, the last narrow, but little 
protruded, showing a distinct emargination. 

Legs uniformly light yellow, the claws 
black except at base. Spurs of moderate size 
on middle and hind tibiae. 

Wings hyaline, with a deep brown cloud 
extending across them, including the follow- 
ing parts : the stigma, all of the marginal 
cell except the proximal end, all of first sub- 
marginal, all of the second except tip, all of 
the first posterior except posterior half of 
the distal end, the proximal half of the discal, 
all of second basal, and middle of anal. 
There is a characteristic small clear spot in 
the second basal, at the anterior distal angle. 
The cloud is clearly defined behind, but fades 
more gradually in front. The branch of the 



third longitudinal vein shows a tendency to 
emit a stump of a vein. In one of my speci- 
mens the vein separating the thffd and fourth 
posterior cells is obsolete for the greater part 
of its course. 

Length 12 to 13 mm. Width across ex- 
panded wings, 28 mm. 

Described from two female speci- 
mens, received from Mr. Henry G. 
Klages, Jeannette, Northumberland 
Co., Penn. 




Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

Fig. i shows the insect from abovey 
the wings being diagrammatic. Fig. 2 
is a side view of the head. Fig. 3 an 
antenna. 



Miscellaneous notes. — Klemensiewicz, 
at the last December meeting of the zoo- 
logical and botanical society of Vienna, 
stated that in the preceding summer he had' 
observed hundreds of Pieris rapae flying; 



238 



PSYCHE. 



'March 1S92. 



over an alpine lake in the Tetragebirge, en- 
gaged in a new kind of sport, for they occa- 
sionally settled down upon the surface and 
after remaining there a few moments, per- 
haps half a minute, again took flight, repeat- 
ing the performance many times ; on settling 
they apparently attempted to rest on the 
wings of one side only, but the other soon 
became involved, and after repeated experi- 
ments at this play, the moisture-laden wings 
refused their duty and the butterfly came to 
grief, as the numerous corpses floating about 
testified. 

The report of the gypsy moth committee to 
the legislature of Massachusetts, just issued, 
shows that the insect is now found in about 
thirty cities and towns, including about two 
hundred square miles of territory; its limits 
at last appear to be pretty well defined, but 
it was found in excessive abundance at places 
fifteen miles apart; over three quarters of a 
million of egg-clusters were removed and 
destroyed during the year; excellent illustra- 
tions accompany the report. 

Dr. Klebs, of Konigsberg, has published a 
list of the specimens in the amber-museum 
of Stantien and Becker of that city, covering 
more than 13000 numbers of which a very 
large number are insects. He here records 
for the first time the presence in amber of 
the coleopterous families Trichopterygidae 
and Bruchidae ; but in a summary list of 
families, indicating the general arrangement 
of the museum and where all families known 
to be represented in amber are marked with 
a special sign, one half of the twenty-eight 
families of Coleoptera not so marked have 
certainly been credited by one author or 
another as occurring in amber. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

13 November, 1S91. — The 165th meeting 
■of the Club was held at 156 Brattle Street. 
Mr. Samuel Henshaw was chosen chairman. 

A letter was read from the secretary of the 



Royal Society of South Australia, of Ade- 
laide, offering to exchange publications. It 
was voted to accept the offer. 

The librarian announced that there was a 
duplicate copy of "Illustrations of Insects 
(Heteroptera)", by Townend Glover, and 
moved that the same be offered for sale by 
the treasurer, and the proceeds added to the 
publication fund of Psyche. This motion 
was carried. 

Dr. George H. Horn stated that he had re- 
cently been studying the subgenus Celia of 
Amara, and remarked at some length on the 
characters heretofore made use of in the sep- 
aration of the species. One character which 
had been proposed for the separation into 
groups was found in the prosternum, this 
being punctured in the males of some spe- 
cies and in others not. Dr. Horn, however, 
regarded this division as likely to confuse 
the student, as in some species the proster- 
num may be either punctured or not in the 
male. 

Some discussion followed with regard to 
the construction of synoptic tables. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder read a letter from Mr. 
Edward Doubleday Harris, reporting the 
finding of a bright green chrysalis of Laer- 
tias philenor in New York, one of several 
raised. Of this color it has never before been 
reported from the Atlantic slope. 

Mr. R. Hayward stated that he had recently 
been studying the Cicindelidae, and had 
found in his collection an Amblychila which 
he presumed should be referred to the form 
A. piccolominii of Reiche. The specimen 
was smaller than the typical A. cylitidrifor- 
tnis, smoother, and the carina of the elytra 
nearest the suture was absent and represented 
by a row of large punctures. The specimen 
was from Arizona. 

Dr. Horn thought it might belong to a 
species recently described by Rivers from 
that locality. 

Mr. Hayward showed specimens of the 
larvae and pupae of Boletotherus bifurcus 
from Underhill, Vt. 






PSYCHE, 

A. JOXJK^IST^lL of entomology. 

[Established in 1874.] 

Vol. 6. No. 192. 

April, 1S92. 

CONTENTS: 

American Phytoptocecidii (Plate 6). — H. Garman 241 

Notes (The gypsy moth ; biology of the Chalcididae ; Goniops, — a correction) . 246 

A new genus of Tachinidae. — C. H. Tyler Townsend 247 

The larva OF Nola minuscula. — Harrison G. Dyar 248 

A Dipterous Parasite of the Toad 249 

Henry Walter Bates 249 

Experiments with Chinch-bugs. — 5. A. Forbes 250 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club 250 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS. 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



240 



PSYCHE. 



April 1S92. 



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The regular meetings of the Club are now held at 
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Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
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Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
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PHALANGIDAE. 
1 am preparing a monograph of the Phalan- 
gidae of North America and will be glad to get 
specimens from any locality. Will identify and re- 
turn any sent. Specimens from the Northwest, 
Southwest, and the Pacific coast especially desired. 
CLARENCE M. WEED, 
Hanover, N. H. 



TACHINIDAE WANTED. 
Named or unnamed Tachinidae wanted in ex- 
change, or for study, from any part of North America 
including Mexico and the West Indies. 

C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, 

Las Cruces, New Mexico. 



PSYCHE, 



AMERICAN PHYTOPTOCECIDII. 



BY H. GARMAN, LEXINGTON, KY. 



i . On the leaves of Nyssa multiflora. 
A nodular growth of the leaf substance, 
forming small, rounded prominences on 
both upper and under surfaces. Above, 
the cecidii are often lobed and with 
linear impressions. A three-lobed form 
with triradiate impression is common. 
On the under side, the surface of the 
galls is not impressed, and the shape is 
more conical, the round or slightly 
elongated opening being at the apex. 
They are scattered irregularly over the 
leaf, and may be very thickly placed. 
On fully grown leaves cecidii measure 
from i mm. to 2 mm. in diameter, and 
are about 1 mm. in height on both sides 
of the leaf, the projection above and 
below being about equal. On younger 
leaves cecidii often measure as little as 
0.5 mm. in diameter. The walls are 
thickened, and send into the cavity large 
processes and ridges which occupy 
much of the space. There are no hairs 
inside or out. 

This deformation was first collected 
in Virginia in the spring of 1882. Sub- 
sequently it was found in various locali- 
ties in southern Illinois, and has recently 
been observed in Kentucky. It some- 
times occurs on the same leaves as the 
next, but thus far has proved most 
abundant when not so associated. 



2. On the leaves of Nyssa multiflora. 
This is a narrow upward and inward fold 
of the margin of the leaf, and measures 
from 0.5 mm. to 1 mm. in diameter. In 
dried specimens the color is dark brown. 
The leaf where folded is thickened, but 
is not otherwise greatly changed. The 
length of folds varies greatly, sometimes 
being only a few millimeters long, and 
again including the whole of the leaf 
margin. The fold ultimately causes the 
leaf to become scalloped, the scallops 
measuring from about 2.5 mm. to 3 
mm. in length. 

This cecidium has been collected in 
Virginia, Illinois, and Kentucky. Phy- 
topti from both of the preceding growths 
have been examined. As far as I know 
neither form of cecidium has been 
hitherto described. 

3. On the leaves and petioles of 
PoteJitilla canadensis. This consists 
of whitish tufts of unicellular hairs, the 
tufts measuring when isolated and well 
grown about o.=; mm. in diameter. 
The hairs themselves measure about 
0.5 mm. in length, and large ones have 
a diameter at the base of about 0.02 mm. 
They taper regularly to a point, and 
under the microscope have the appear- 
ance of a tuft of grass blades. The 
tufts are often so numerous and so closelv 



242 



PSYCHE. 



[April 1S92. 



placed as to cover much of the leaf sur- 
face. They develop on both surfaces 
but in the specimens examined are 
rather more common on the upper side. 
This was collected at Blue Ridge, 
Virginia, July 22, 1891, by Professor 
A. B. Seymour. 

4. On the leaves of Acer spicatum. 
Small felt-like patches of a whitish or 
pale yellow color scattered over the 
under side of the leaf. Growths on 
leaves before me measure from 1.5 mm. 
to 3 mm. in diameter. The growths 
consist of rather long, tangled and dis- 
torted hairs, being quite different from 
anything else described in this paper. 
The examples examined are probably 
all young. Some of the older ones are 
slightly brown rather than yellow, and 
probably when aged would have been 
decidedly brown in color. 

Temple, N. H., June iS, 18SS, 
(from Prof. A. B. Seymour). 

5. On the leaves of Acer glabrnm. 
An Erineum forming large patches 
chiefly at the tips of the lobes and on 
the upper side of the leaf. Growing 
upon the veins as well as elsewhere. 
On some young leaves before me, thickly 
sprinkled also over the under surface. 
This is the handsomest Erineum exam- 
ined by me. The younger parts of 
growths are bright purple in color; 
older parts of growths become of a very 
dark purple. The deformed hairs are 
rather large, and are provided with long 
stalks. The color, manner of growth, 
and character of the deformed hairs will 
serve to distinguish this Erineum from 
the livid growth (No. S) which appears 



on the upper surface of leaves of A. 
saccharimim. 

Glenwood Springs, Col., (collected 
by R. E. Blount; communicated by 
Prof. A. B. Seymour). 

6. On the leaves of Acer sacchari- 
mim. A slender fusiform gall which 
projects from the upper surface of the 
leaf. Walls thin, and smooth inside 
and out. Length about 4.5 mm. ; 
greatest diameter 1 mm. Opening as 
usual on the under side of the leaf. 

Central Illinois, common ; Temple, 
N. H., (from Prof. A. B. Seymour). 

7. On the leaves of Acer sacchari- 
mim. An Erineum forming patches 
along veins on the under side of the 
leaf. The patches are made up of great 
numbers of minute mushroom-shaped 
hairs with very short pedicels ; some- 
times nearly sessile. The hairs and the 
patches which they form resemble those 
occurring on the under side of the leaves 
of A. dasycarpum, but the hairs on the 
latter, as far as examined, were pro- 
vided with longer stalks, and were not 
so much inflated at the extremity. The 
patches in A. saccharimim, too, show 
a tendency to develop along the main 
ribs, whereas in A. dasycarpum they 
are more scattered, often occurring 
singly at the tips of lobes. They may 
notwithstanding these differences prove 
to be caused by the attacks of one and 
the same mite. All of the examples 
which I have seen were rather old and 
were of a deep brown color, in one case 
almost black. Individual patches meas- 
ure as much as 10 mm. in diame- 
ter. 



April 1S92.] 



PS 2 CUE. 



243 



Urbana, 111., common ; Lexington, 
Ky., (received from Prof. W. B. Stark 
and also collected by myself) . 

8. On the leaves of Acer sacchari- 
num. A fine Erineum forming patches 
of a livid color between the veins on 
the upper surface. The growths show 
a tendency to avoid the veins. They 
may be isolated in patches 2.5 mm. to 
4 mm. in diameter and of very irregular 
shape, or they may where common 
combine and then occasionally occupy 
much of the surface. On badly infested 
trees scant growths sometimes appear 
on the under side of the leaves. The 
color of most of the dried specimens 
seen is livid. In very young growths 
but little of this color is apparent, these 
being mainly pale brown when dried, 
probably whitish when fresh ; but some 
trace of the livid color can be made out 
in most young growths. A few of the 
growths seen were more nearly flesh 
color than livid. 

A variety of this Erineum occurs in 
which the livid color is almost absent, 
the dried specimens being of a pale 
brown color in the largest and oldest 
growths. Even in this variety, how- 
ever, close examination with a magnifier 
shows faint traces of the blue color. 
In manner of growth the two are alike. 

The hairs are capitate, with short 
stalks, and excepting for their manner 
of growth and color, are not very differ- 
ent from those forming the brown 
patches on the under side of leaves. 

Fort Mackinac, Mich., (from Prof. 
Wm. Trelease) ; Temple, N. H., (from 
Prof. A. B. Seymour). 



9. On the leaves of Acer dasycar- 
putn. This cecidium is a pouch-shaped 
gall which develops on the upper side 
of the leaves. The mite which inhabits 
it was many years ago described under 
the name Vasates quadripes, but is a 
true Phytoptus. The deformations were 
described by the present writer in the 
1 2th Report of the Illinois State Ento- 
mologist (p. 135) as follows: "The 
form varies to some extent, some of the 
galls being discoid, or more or less 
spherical, while occasionally two galls 
have a common neck and opening. At 
first the color of the galls is like that of 
the unfolding leaf, dull purple or green ; 
later they assume the light green color 
of the veins and veinlets ; and still later 
change in many cases to purplish. 
Toward the end of summer they dry up 
and become black. The outer surface 
is smooth, but the walls are broadly and 
irregularly impressed making a very 
uneven outline. On the under side of 
the leaf the position of the gall is usually 
indicated by an impression with a tuft 
of white hairs in the center, which tuft 
covers the opening into the gall. Occa- 
sionally the opening and tuft are borne 
upon a slight elevation. The height of 
one of the largest galls seen, measured 
from the upper surface of the leaf, was 
0.1 inch ; its diameter was 0.13 inch." 

This is one of the most abundant of 
the mite galls in the Middle states. I 
have received from both Professors Sey- 
mour and Trelease specimens collected 
at Madison, Wisconsin. It is abundant 
throughout Illinois and Kentucky. 

10. On the leaves of Acer dasycar- 



244 



PSYCHE. 



[April 1892. 



puni. An Erineum consisting of large 
patches of closely matted capitate hairs 
growing on the under side of the leaf. 
Patches generally elongated, from a ten- 
dency of the growths not to cross vein- 
lets. Well defined, and varying from 
about 5 mm. to 10 mm. in diameter. 
When abundant several patches may 
unite, thus forming more extended ones. 
Leaves often bear a single patch. Some- 
times occurring on leaves bearing also 
the pouch-shaped galls. Color pale 
yellowish at first, gradually changing to 
brown with age, at the last deep brown 
in color. This is probably the same as 
No. 26 of Dr. H. Hagen's list (Cana- 
dian entomologist, v. 17, p. 24), col- 
lected at Shelburne, N. H., by Prof. 
W. G. Farlow. 

Urbana, 111., not common; Cam- 
bridge, Mass. and Ithaca, Wis., (from 
Prof. Wm. Trelease) ; Madison, Wis., 
(from Prof. A. B. Seymour). 

11. On the leaves of Acer rtibr?im. 
An Erineum forming elongated whitish 
or brown patches on the veins of the up- 
per side of the leaf. This peculiarity of 
growing on the veins distinguishes this 
from any growth of the kind I have 
seen. Several others appear to avoid the 
veins even when covering most of the 
surface. The largest growths on leaves 
before me measure 11 mm. in length by 
about 4 mm. in diameter. The color va- 
ries from whitish in the younger growths 
through shades of pale yellow to brown. 
The hairs are mushroom-shaped, as in 
other similar growths. The only ex- 
amples seen are from Temple, N. H., 
and were sent me by Prof. Seymour. 



12. On the leaves of Acer rubrum* 
An Erineum growing in large patches 
scattered on the under side of the leaf. 
In color, manner of growth and char- 
acter of the hairs it appears to be the 
same as No. 9 described as occurring 
on Acer dasyccirpum. I have exam- 
ined a single leaf bearing this deforma- 
tion received from Prof. Wm. Trelease 
and collected at Wood's Holl, Mass. 

13. On the leaves of Acer rubrum. 
This is a gall which does not differ in 
any important degree from the galls 
described as growing on the upper sur- 
face of the leaves of A. dasycarpum. 
I assume that it is made by the same 
Phytoptus, but have had no opportunity 
to make comparisons. It is moderately 
common in western Kentucky, and ap- 
pears to be also common in the New 
England and other Eastern states. I 
take it that Dr. Hagen's Numbers 21 , 
22 and 23 (loc. cit.) are the same 
growth. 

14. On the leaves of Betula papy- 
rifera. A profusely growing Erineum 
forming extensive patches between the 
large veins diverging from the midrib 
on the under side of the leaf. The 
growths sometimes occupy the whole 
of the space between two veins. The 
color varies from whitish in the younger 
growths to pale brown in the older ones. 
The stalks of the capitate hairs are 
rather long. 

Temple, N. H., (from Prof. A. B. 
Seymour). 

15. On the leaves of Betula papy- 
rifera. A small nodular gall which 
projects from both upper and under sur- 



April 1S92.J 



PSYCHE. 



245 



faces of the leaf. Clothed with a fine 
whitish, silken pubescence. Scattered 
somewhat irregularly, but with a ten- 
dency to be most abundant near the 
margin. The diameter of large exam- 
ples is about 1 mm. ; the depth is some- 
what less in the dried and pressed 
examples. It is sometimes associated 
with the Erineum just described. The 
color of the upper part of the gall is in 
the dried specimens dull purple. Be- 
neath, the color appears to have been 
like that of the under side of the leaf. 

Temple, N. H., (from Prof. A. B. 
Seymour) . 

16. On the leaves of Betula populi- 
folia. This consists of bright, rust- 
colored growths of deformed hairs in 
hollows on the under side of the leaf. 
The corresponding convexity showing 
on the upper side is devoid of hairs, but 
is often of a yellowish color. The 
growths when isolated frequently have 
a circular outline and are from 2 mm. 
to 3 mm. in diameter. Large growths 
become elongated and may measure as 
much as 10 mm. in length, then occu- 
pying much of the space between two 
of the veins which diverge from the 
midrib. The number of growths on a 
single leaf varies in seventeen leaves 
before me from one to fourteen. In 
three of the seventeen there are imper- 
fect growths on the upper side of the 
leaf. The hairs of the growth are capi- 
tate. 

Temple, N. H., (from Prof. A. B. 
Seymour). 

17- On the leaves of Betula (lenta?). 
A profusely growing Erineum at first 



forming straggling patches and lines on 
and along the veins on the upper sur- 
face of the leaf. Where abundant 
eventually forming continuous bands 
upon the veins which diverge from the 
midrib. The growths very rarely origi- 
nate away from the veins on the upper 
surface, but imperfect growths appear 
sometimes on the under side, here be- 
tween the veins, suggesting that it is 
the structure of the surface, which in- 
fluences the disposition of the growths. 
The color of very young growths is 
whitish ; on older leaves it is brown, 
while on several of the largest leaves 
examined there is an indication of purple 
on some parts of the bands. Hairs capi- 
tate, stalks rather long. 

Described from specimens sent me 
from Temple, N. H., by Prof. A. B. 
Seymour. From the character of the 
leaves and the bark accompanying them 

1 judge the species to be B. loita. 

iS. On the leaves of Juglans cin- 
ereo. A button-shaped gall on the 
upper side of the leaf. The galls are 
green in color, sometimes a trifle lighter 
in shade than the leaf. They vary from 

2 mm. to 3 mm. in diameter, and are 
about 2 mm. in height ; the base is 
sometimes a trifle constricted. Beneath, 
the galls are open for almost the entire 
width, but the opening is occupied by 
a dense growth of whitish or brownish 
contorted hairs. On fifty-one leaves 
before me the number of galls on a 
single leaf varies from one to eighteen. 
Occasional galls occur with the opening 
on the upper side. The Phytopti are 
abundant in examples collected Aug. 1 5. 



246 



PSYCHE. 



[April 1S92. 



Jessamine Co., Ky., frequent. 

19. On the leaves of Fagus ferru- 
ginea. An Erineum which grows on 
the upper side of the leaf where it fol- 
lows the veins, forming bands or elon- 
gated patches of a brown color. When 
young, apparently of a whitish color. 
When abundant, causing the leaf to turn 
brown so that the position of growths 
can be recognized by examining the 
under side. Sometimes forming a close 
velvety covering on the upper surface. 
Never, as far as examined, very dark in 
color. Sometimes associated with the 
next, of which it may be a variety. 
Hairs capitate. 

Temple, N. H., (from Prof. A. B. 
Seymour) ; Ft. Mackinac, Mich., (from 
Prof. Wm. Trelease). 

20. On the leaves of Fagus ferru- 
ginea. An Erineum forming very dark 
brown patches on the under side of the 
leaf, between the veins. Patches vary- 
ing in shape and extent, frequently elon- 
gated, sometimes forming a continuous 
band between veins. Color of all the 
specimens seen dark brown, but prob- 
ably lighter when young. When occur- 
ring on the same leaf as the preceding, 



Notes. — The Massachusetts legislature 
has granted another $75,000 to stamp out 
the gypsy moth. 

The attention of entomologists should be 
drawn to an interesting paper by Mr. L. O. 
Howard on the biology of the Chalcididae 
which appears in the current Proceedings of 
the U. S. national museum. A mass of details 
concerning insect-parasitism is there brought 
together in a highly instructive manner 
which merits at least the perusal of every 



and so presumably of the same age, 
always the darker in color. Hairs cap- 
itate, with rather long stalks, not notice- 
ably different from hairs on the upper 
surface of a leaf received from Prof. 
Trelease, but with longer stalks than 
those from the upper side of leaves from 
Temple, N. H. 

The growth is extremely common in 
western Kentucky, where most of the 
leaves of a tree may often be seen bear- 
ing it. 

Western Kentucky; Ft. Mackinac, 
Mich., and Wood's Holl, Mass.. (from 
Prof. Wm. Trelease). 

Explanation of Plate 6. 

Fig. 1 . Leaf of Nyssa multijlora, 
showing cecidii described as No. r ; 
a, section of cecidium. 

Fig. 2. Leaf of Nyssa multiflora, 
showing cecidii described as No. 2 ; 
a, section of folded leaf margin. 

Fig. 3. Tuft of hairs from leaf of 
Potentilla canadensis. 

Fig. 4. Capitate hairs from Erineum 
on under side of leaves of Betula popu- 
lifolia . 

Fig. 5. Capitate hairs from No. 19. 



person engaged in any field work ; problems 
requiring solution are suggested by the 
wholesale, and clews are given to others 
which are well worth following. The bio- 
logical side of entomology is in no danger of 
suffocation at the national capital with such 
men as Riley, Howard, and Schwarz at the 
front. 

In the last number of Psyche, fig. 3 on p. 
237, showing the antenna of Goniops en- 
larged, is accidentally printed upside down. 



Pysche, 1892, Vol 6. 



- 



/ x , 
""XT'" 




Plate 6. 




<^ 







April 1S92.J 



PSYCHE. 



247 



A NEW GENUS OF TACHINIDAE. 

BY C.'ll. TYLER TOWNSEND, LAS CRUCES, N. MEXICO. 



I am indebted to Professor Brauer, of 
Vienna, for a note to the effect that the 
species which I described under the name 
of Meigenia hyphantriac (Psyche, vi. 
176) is not a Meigenia, but a new 
genus. I have always recognized the 
fact that this, and one or two other spe- 
cies which I have referred to Meigenia, 
did not belong there strictly. They 
seemed to come closest to that genus, 
and therefore I referred them there pro- 
visionally, until some better place could 
be found for them. I must, however, 
confess to a misconception of the genus, 
as originally understood by me. 

The present seems a good opportu- 
nity to present a characterization of the 
new genus. 

Hyphantrophaga, n. gen. 

Ashj gray species of rather less than me- 
dium size ; belongs in Tackininae s. str. Head 
rather semicircular in profile; front hardly 
prominent, one-third to three-sevenths width 
of head in $ , and about one-fourth to three- 
elevenths in (J ; frontal bristles descending 
about to base of third antennal joint, two 
orbital bristles in $ (three on right side in 
one 5), none in $ . Face receding, epis- 
toma not prominent; facial depression three- 
fifths width of face in $ , relatively narrower 
in $ , moderately deep ; facial ridges with a 
few fine bristles which extend less than half 
way up, slightly constricted just above oral 
margin where the decussate vibrissae are in- 
serted ; sides of face and cheeks bare, the 
cheeks about one-fifth eye-height in °- , less 
in $. Eyes faintly and rather sparsely short 



hairy in $ , more distinctly so in J. An- 
tennae somewhat shorter than face, second 
joint hardly elongate, third about two and 
a half times as long as second in 5 and three 
times in J, narrow, not widened ; arista thin, 
minutely pubescent, apparently 2-jointed, 
slightly thickened at base. Proboscis short, 
fleshy, labella large; palpi rather slender, 
slightly thickened apically. Thorax nearly 
as wide as head; scutellum with a weak de- 
cussate apical pair of bristles, a weak discal 
pair, and two strong lateral pairs. Abdomen 
of $ fully as wide as thorax, short oval, 
rather narrower than thorax in $ , ovo-coni- 
cal, first segment shortened ; macrochaetae 
marginal, except on last segment which bears 
both discal and marginal in both sexes; hy- 
popygium of $ hardly exserted. Legs rather 
short, not strong, bristly ; claws and pulvilli 
elongate in $ , much less so in $. Wings 
longer than abdomen, without costal spine, 
third vein bristly at base; apical cell open, 
sometimes very narrowly, a little before tip 
of wing ; fourth vein bent at an obtuse angle, 
without stump or wrinkle, apical cross-vein 
slightly concave; hind cross-vein rather sin- 
uate in J, usually less so in $. ending 
nearer to bend of fourth vein. Tvpe, Hy- 
phatitrophaga hypkantriae Twns., Psyche, 
vi. 176-177, there referred to Meigenia. 

The above-referred to description in 
Psyche, of the species, was drawn from 
? specimens only, and not from both 
sexes as there indicated ; the whole de- 
scription should be applied only to fe- 
males. From a $ which issued August 
31, and another a little later, are drawn 
the characteristic differences given in 
the above generic description, distinct- 
ive of that sex. 



248 



PSYCHE. 



[April iS92. 



THE LARVA OF NOLA MINUSCULA. 



BY HARRISON G. DYAR, YOSEMITE, CAL. 



Nola minuscula Zeller. 

1872. Zeller, Verhandl. d. k. k. zool.-bot. 
gesellsch., v. 22, 455. 

Var. fuscula Grote. 

1881. Grote, Papilio, v. 1,76. 

1887. Butler, Ent. atner., v. 3, 120. fr. 
var. 

1887. Grote, Ent. amer., v. 3, 147. pr. 
var. 

The larva of this species probably has six 
stages, five of which I have observed. 

Egg. The eggs as taken from the body of 
a $ moth are spheroidal, much flattened at 
base, apparently covered with large contigu- 
ous depressions; color uniform pale green; 
diameter about 0.33 mm. 

First larval stage. Not observed. 

Second stage. Head, cervical shield and 
anal plate black; width of the first 0.25 mm. 
Body thick and plump, not different in 
structure from that of the mature larva, the 
warts small, dark brown, bearing three or 
four rather short blackish hairs. Color pale 
whitish, with a broad diffuse brown sub- 
dorsal shade. 

Third stage. The head is now pale brown 
with black ocelli ; width 0.3 mm. The body 
is as before but the brown subdorsal band is 
more distinct. 

Fourth stage. Head brown, the ocelli and 
mouth darker brown ; width 0.5 mm. Other- 
wise much as in the next stage but the mark- 
ings less distinct. 

Fifth stage. Head small, round, pale 
brown; width 0.7 mm. Body thick, some- 
what flattened, tapering a little each way 
from the middle, with three rows of large, 
smooth, shining dark brown warts, the third 
row pale, bearing spreading, long, thin, 
white and blackish hairs. Row 1 is sub- 
dorsal, two on each segment on joints 2-4, 
2 lateral and 3 subventral with some very 



minute warts, 4 below. Cervical shield 
large, deep brown with a whitish dorsal 
line bisecting it. Color of bodj sordid 
white, a pair of broad deep brown subdorsal 
bands, somewhat irregular, narrow on joints 
3 and 4 and connected b}' a transverse bar 
over the dorsum on joint 7 and sometimes 
also on joint 5. Length of larva 5 mm. 

Sixth stage. Head as before ; width 1 mm- 
Body wider than high, rounded, hardly 
tapering at all, feet as in Nola with only four 
pair of abdominal ones. Warts 1 very 
large, oblong as if of two coalesced, 2 and 
3 also large, 4 very small, subventral. The 
color varies much in different examples but 
the ground color is nearly white or tinged 
with reddish, the body shaded with blackish 
brown more or less, having a double dorsal, 
two waved lateral and a straight substigmatal 
line of the ground color, or the black may be 
reduced to a few reddish streaks, but always 
on joints 3 and 4 is a patch of the ground 
color bordered by a waved subdorsal black 
line. Warts pale, except rows 1 and 2 on 
joints 5-12 which are cinnamon brown or 
partly blackish. Cervical shield deep shiny 
brown, bisected. In one the warts of row 
3 are yellowish. Spiracles black. Hair of 
irregular length, but longest at the extrem- 
ities, blackish. 

Cocoon. Elliptical, opaque, sordid white, 
composed of white silk, quite tough and in- 
termingled sparsely with the larval hairs. 
Dimensions 8X4 mm. 

Pupa. Cylindrical, tapering each way 
from the middle but most posteriorly; abdo" 
men rounded, no cremaster. Body, except 
the cases, covered with long, rather dense 
pile; color pale brown, paler on the cases. 
Length 6 mm. ; width 1.7 mm. Duration of 
this stage 18 days. 

Food plant. Willow (Salix). The larvae 



April 1892.] 



PSYCHE. 



249 



live singly, eat only the parenchyma of the 
leaf from the under side and hide by dav in 
dry curled leaves that adhere to the twigs or 
in some other place of concealment on the 
branch. In this habit they differ from other 
Nola larvae that I have met with, which do 
not hide and eat the leaf from the top side 
only. 

Habitat. Texas (Zeller), Colorado 
(Grote), Santa Barbara and Ventura Coun- 
ties, California. It will probably also be 
found in the intermediate territorv in the 
canons and arrovos where willows sn- w. 



A Dipterous Parasite of the Toad. 

In the Zoologischer anzeiger, jahrg. 14, 
no. 379, Dec. 14, '91, p. 453-455, Duncker 
describes an interesting case of parasitism. 
A number of common toads were found in 
the neighborhood of Kiel with their nares 
eaten out and their heads swollen in the 
buccal region. The animals moved about 
languidly holding their heads down and 
when kept in confinement rubbed their 
nares against the walls and floor of the 
terrarium "as if to relieve themselves of 
an itching sensation." One of the animals 
thus confined died and was soon afterwards 
found completely skeletonized. The moss 
in which it was buried contained many 
white fly larvae (8 mm. long, 2 mm. broad). 
These soon pupated and in about 4 weeks 
gave rise to more than 50 flies which proved 
to be Lucilia sylvarum. Duncker claims 
that the eggs or very young larvae are de- 
posited in the nares of the toad. The larvae 
first eat their way backwards to the buccal re- 
gion and finally devour all the soft parts of 
the animal, even the ligaments of the bones. 
He expressly states that it is not the weak 
and sickly toads which are selected by the 
flies, since he has found infected specimens 
that had just sloughed their skins and were 
to all appearances in good health. Further- 
more none of the infected toads appeared 
to have been wounded. 



HENRY WALTER BATES. 

It is not in London alone that the death of 
Henry Walter Bates will be deplored. He 
was one of the four entomologists — Wallace, 
Weismann, and Fritz Miiller being the others 
— who have most distinguished themselves 
in support of the derivative theory of organic 
life, and who have gained for it independent 
evidence from new fields of research with 
which their names will be indissolubly asso- 
ciated. With the ex.ception of Weismann all 
are Europeans who gained their inspiration 
in Brazil, and it was there that Bates was 
first brought face to face with the most 
patent facts of mimicry. 

The world has admired the unassuming 
attitude of Darwin and of Wallace, as well as 
their genius, and the same attitude may be 
claimed for Bates, whose striking contribu- 
tion to the philosophy of mimicry was mod- 
estly hidden in a systematic essav on the 
butterflies of the Amazons, the title of which 
made no reference to the fact. Had it not 
been accompanied by colored plates specially 
illustrative of the theory there broached, and 
had it not appeared in the heat of the Dar- 
winian uprise, it would have lain dormant 
for many a year. Yet he was the first in ex- 
planation of the facts to offer a theory worth 
a moment's consideration; it has since re" ■ 
ceived no correction and no noteworthy 
modification, and stands today as clear and 
satisfactory a statement of the whole matter 
as has ever since been made. 

Bates was born Feb. 8, 1825: at twenty- 
three he left for Brazil where he spent eleven 
years in collecting. On his return he pub- 
lished his Naturalist on the Amazons, which 
gained him the post of assistant secretary to 
the Geographical society, which he held until 
his death, Feb. 16, 1892. His systematic work 
was mainly in diurnal Lepidoptera and Cole- 
optera, especially the Carabidae, and, ac- 
cording to McLachlan. he left behind him an 
incomplete work on the classification of this 
family besides copious biological notes and 



250 



PSYCHE. 



sketches taken in Brazil. He was a man of 
rugged appearance who had plainly struggled 
with physical ills, but whose face was lighted 
by sincerity and geniality, as every American 
who had the good fortune to meet him will 
recall. 

Experiments with chinch bugs. — I no- 
tice in the second paragraph of the very in- 
teresting and important address of Professor 
Snow published in your last, a slight inaccu- 
racy, to which I should not think it worth 
while to call attention if it did not seem that 
his statement as it stands might have the 
effect to discourage investigation of a subject 
scarcely touched as yet, by any one. I have 
never made any attempt to communicate 
disease to chinch bugs in the field by artificial 
-cultures or in any other way, and hence can- 
not be said to have failed in this experiment. 
My experimental work with diseases of this 
insect has been hitherto limited to the lab- 
oratory, where the results have been various, 
ibut on the whole very interesting and sugges- 
tive. Professor Snow is certainly entitled to 
great credit for his systematic and persistent 
experiments with the transfer of the chinch- 
bug diseases by the method of contagion. 
The other field is as yet practically un- 
worked. 5. A. Forbes; 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

ii December 1891. — The 166th meeting 
of the club was held at 156 Brattle St. Mr. 
S. Henshaw was chosen chairman. 

Mr. A. P. Morse recorded the capture of 
Melanoplus minor at Sherburne and Welles- 
ley in this State and at North Conway, 
N. H. According to Mr. Scudder this spe- 
cies has not been previously recorded from 
New England. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder showed some plates he 
had recently received from Mr. W. II. Ed- 
wards of the larvae of Papilio zolicaon and of 
the various stages of Oeneis uJileri. This 
led to some discusssion of the distribution of 



the species of Oeneis and of some other 
boreal and alpine insects. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder remarked that in con- 
sequence of the statement in his Butterflies 
of New England (p. 724-725) of the possi- 
bility of the occurrence of fleshy filaments in 
the earliest stages of the larva of A/iosia 
ftlexippus on the second abdominal segment 
comparable to those occurring on this seg- 
ment in Tasitia berenice or on the eighth ab- 
dominal segment in both species, he had made 
a very careful examination of living specimens 
in the first and second larval stages and found 
that neither on the second abdominal nor on 
the third thoracic segment (where filaments 
occur in other genera of the subfamily) could 
any trace of them be found. 

Mr. Scudder also called attention to a new 
illustration of the effect of climate on the 
development of butterflies in some experi- 
ments made with Oeneis semidea. Out of a 
lot of eggs laid July 20-25, an ^ widely dis- 
tributed, the first young caterpillars moulted 
in West Virginia on August 15; by August 
27 two more had changed, together with one 
in Philadelphia, and on September 5, one 
had moulted in West Virginia for the second 
time. In Cambridge, however, the single sur- 
viving larva was still in the first stage on 
Sept. 11, and the same was true at Ottawa as 
late as Sept. 4, at about which time one passed 
the first moult, and another early in October. 

He then exhibited some interesting new 
species of Orthoptera lately received from 
Mr. Blatchley, from Vigo County, Indiana. 

Some discussion followed with regard to 
the gypsy moth (Ocneria dispar). Mr. S. 
Henshaw stated that the larvae of this spe- 
cies are gregarious in Europe, while in this 
country they scatter soon after hatching. 

Mr. Scudder showed a monograph of the 
trees which furnished the amber of the Bal- 
tic, by Conwentz, which contained notes on 
the diseases of these trees as caused by in- 
sects. The work is illustrated by excellent 
plates, and the borings of a beetle referred 
to Anthaxia and of a fly supposed to belong 
to Sciara are figured. 















WATIO'N 



PSYCHE. 

A. JOXJR,3SrA.L OP 1 EKTTO:M:OI-.Oa-Y. 

[Established in 1S74.] 

Vol. 6. No. 193. 

May, 1892. 

CONTENTS: 

Concerning the Blood-tissue of the Insecta. — III (Concluded) (Plate 7). — 

W. M. Wheeler 253 

Tachinid Parasite of Eucaterva variaria Grote, and other Notes. — C. H. 

Tyler Toivnsend ......... ... 258 

The larva of Sarrothripa reveyana. — Harrison G. Dyar .... 259 

Note (A study of California butterflies) 260 

Synonymy of Butterfly Parasites. — Win. Hampton Patton. . . , . 261 

Entomological Notes (Henry Edwards's Entomological collection; coleopterous 
fauna of the Ecuadorian Andes; formation of new colonies and nests by New 
Zealand ants.) .............. 261 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club . . . . . 261 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS. 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



252 



PSYCHE. 



May 1892. 



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CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meetings of the Club are now held at 
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The following books and pamphlets are for sale 

by the CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB: 

Burgess, E. Contribution"; to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . -5° 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... i-S^ 

Illinois. Trans. Dept. Agric. for 1876 (con- 
taining first report of Thomas, State Entomo- 
logist). Springfield. 111., 1878 . . .1.00 

Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged in- 
sects of America. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875 IO ° 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col. pi. Boston, 1883. .25 

Scudder, S. H. The fossil butterflies of 
Florissant, Col., Washington, 1889 . • 1°° 

Stettiner entomologische Zeituug. Jahrg. 
42-46. Stettin, 1881-1885. • • • 5-°° 

U. S. Entomological Commission. Bulletins, 
Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 I -°° 

—Fourth Report, Washington, 1885 . . 2.00 
Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 



PHALANGIDAE. 
I am preparing a monograph of the Phalan- 
gidae of North America and will be glad to get 
specimens from any locality. Will identify and re- 
turn any sent. Specimens from the Northwest, 
Southwest, and the Pacific coast especially desired, 
CLARENCE M. WEED, 
Hanover, N. H. 

TACHINIDAE WANTED. 
Named or unnamed Tachinidae wanted in ex- 
change, or for study, from any part of North America 
including Mexico and the West Indies. 

C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, 

Las Cruces, New Mexico. 



Pysche, 1892, Vol 6. 



Plate 7. 



O 

a 



o 




PSYCHE, 



CONCERNING THE "BLOOD-TISSUE" OF THE INSECTA.— III. 



BY WILLIAM MORTON WHEELER, WORCESTER, MASS. 



Rhynchota. As representative of 
the Phytophthires the just-born young 
of a wax-secreting Aphid, which in- 
fests the alder, were studied. In sec- 
tions the whole body-cavity was found 
to be filled with a reticulate fat-body, 
the nuclei of which measure only 3.5 |*. 
The oenocytes are scattered here and 
there throughout the reticulum appar- 
ently without any definite arrangement. 
They are large, brownish, opaque cells 
with sharp contour. The cytoplasm 
measures 1 2-1 8 k-; the nucleus 5- 
55 H-. Thev seem to have no morpho- 
logical connection with the fat-body but 
to be merely slung in its meshes. The 
nuclei stain deeply and present the typi- 
cal finely wound chromatin skein. Some 
of the scattered cells were found in the 
three thoracic segments, whither they 
had probably migrated during embry- 
onic life from the pleural walls of the 
abdomen. In the prothorax only two 
oenocytes were found and these were 
placed symmetrically one on either 
side in the pleurae. 

In the mature embryo of Ranatra 
fusca oenocvte-clusters occur in five of 
the abdominal segments. They are 
huge yellow cells with nuclei rich in 
chromatin and are lodged in niche-like 
depressions of the pleural hypodermis. 



My observations on the oenocytes of 
Zaitha Jlitminea are limited to a stage 
of the embryo immediately preceding 
revolution. I find in the abdomen, just 
outside the appendages and stigmata, a 
series of thickenings which foreshadow 
the compressed pleural rim of the larva 
and imago. The pair of these thicken- 
ings in the first abdominal segment 
develop excessively, bulging out con- 
spicuously beyond the niveau of the 
other thickenings, so that, had I not 
observed that the pleuropodia are 
invaginate in this form and did not their 
tufted secretion show clearly in the very 
same segment, I should have supposed 
that I had found a pair of evaginate 
knob-like appendages. Sections show 
that the greater development of the 
first pair of abdominal thickenings is 
due to excessive proliferation of the 
hypodermal cells to form a solid succu- 
lent mass — the oenocytes. So many of 
the hypodermal elements are here con- 
verted into oenocytes, that only a few 
flattened and attenuated cells remain to 
cover the mass externally. From the 
surface the oenocytes may be seen shin- 
ing through this thin covering and this 
heightens the resemblance of the two 
swellings to the pleuropodia of such 
forms as Blatta and Xiphidium. The 



254 



PSYCHE. 



[April 189a. 



pleural thickenings of the second ab- 
dominal segment are also more pro- 
nounced than those of the succeeding 
segments but much smaller than the 
first pair. I could not make out that 
they gave rise to oenocytes. As I had 
no material of the later stages I was 
prevented from following the develop- 
ment of these organs further. It is pos- 
sible that there are in the adult several 
pairs of oenocyte clusters as in other 
insects and that they develop from be- 
fore backwards so that the stage which 
I studied may have shown only the 
formation of the first pair of anlagen. 
It seems to me more probable, how- 
ever, that Zaitha develops only one 
pair of clusters and that the others have 
atrophied to such an extent as no longer 
to appear during ontogeny. 

Neuroptera. In the just-hatched 
larvae of Sialis infumata a few oeno- 
cytes were found as large clear cells 
sticking in the pleural hypodermis be- 
tween the insertions of the tergo-sternal 
muscles. 

Trichoptera. Specimens of the 
larvae of an unidentified Phryganeid 
were torn open in normal salt-solution 
and examined fresh or after treatment 
with methyl-green osmo-acetic mix- 
ture. In fresh preparations the gigantic 
oenocytes (Fig. 1.) are yellow, more or 
less rounded, and often provided with 
delicate processes which are attached to 
the tracheal hypodermis. The cyto- 
plasm is usually finely granular ; the 
chromatic skein of the nucleus is dis- 
tinctly discernible in the unstained cell. 
Methyl green stains both cytoplasm and 



nucleus deeply and of about the same 
hue. This reagent, of course, accentu- 
ates the chromatic skein. There are no 
nucleoli. 

In some of the larvae all the oeno- 
cytes contain vacuoles. These are ar- 
ranged in a broad band surrounding the 
nucleus midway between the nuclear 
and cytoplasmic walls. These vacuoles 
are but slightly refractive and are not 
fat-globules. This condition of the 
oenocytes was found in a number of 
larvae and, I believe, represents a nor- 
mal physiological state. Wielowiejski 
has made a similar observation. One is 
reminded of certain gland-cells which 
store up vacuoles of a specific substance 
in their cytoplasm, preparatory to se- 
cretion. 

One of the facts brought out by 
measurements of Xiphidium, viz : the 
gradual growth of the oenocytes with 
the growth of the insect, was again 
clearly shown in the larvae of this 
Phryganeid. Different stages gave the 
following measurements. 

Cytoplasm. Nik lens. 

1. Larva just hatched, 12.0 |x 4.6 p 

2. Larva 13 mm. long, 40.S |x 15.6 (*. 

3. Larva 17 mm. long, 62.8 |a 20.3 p. 

4. Larva 25 mm. long, 103.7(1 29 5 u. 

c. Larva 30 mm. long, \ iV > < 5 > 

3 J ° I 166. 8 |a J ( 74. ji J 

Here the cytoplasm increases from 
1 2. - 166.8 n, while the nucleus grows 
from 4.6 - 74 n, so that the latter 
undergoes a slightly greater relative 
increase in size. In Xiphidium we 
found the converse to hold good. 

Coleoptera. The oenocytes of 
Photuris pennsylvanica (imago) are 



April 1S92.] 



PSYCHE. 



255 



of huge dimensions like those of the 
Trichopteran described above ; their cy- 
toplasm measuring 1 1 S. 5 — 1 S5 . n across, 
while their nuclei range from 33.5 — 
60. I*. The cells are disposed in loose 
clusters in the pleural region of the ab- 
domen and resemble their homologues 
in European Lampyrids. 

In some Malacodermata Wielowiejski 
distinguished three different varieties of 
oenocytes according to size. In the 
Lampyrids he found only those of me- 
dium size — corresponding to the sec- 
ond variety of other Malacodermata, and 
suggests that in the fire-flies the "kleine 
oenocyten" (third variety) may be 
converted into the photogenetic organ. 
It is clear that if the "kleine oenocy- 
ten" are true oenocytes and if, more- 
over, Wielowiejski's suggestion is well 
founded, the photogenetic organs of the 
Lampyridae must be ectodermal struct- 
ures. If on the other hand these inter- 
esting structures originate from the fat- 
body, as is usually maintained, they 
must be mesodermal. 

In Photuris pennsylvanica the two 
layers of the light-organ consist of cells 
which closely resemble the elements of 
the fat-body proper. The cells consti- 
tuting the inner layer have the same size 
and much the same appearance ; their 
nuclei do not differ from those of the 
fat-body ; in the outer layer, which is 
more especially concerned with the 
photogenetic function, the cytoplasm is, 
of course, considerably altered, but the 
nuclei are indistinguishable in every 
particular from those of the fat-cells. 
The resemblance between the fat-body 



and the light-organ is so great that I do 
not doubt their genetic lelationship 
though I have not studied the devel- 
opment. 

Lepidoptera. Few insects appear 
to be better adapted for tracing out the 
origin of the oenocytes than the Lepi- 
doptera. This is especially true of the 
larger Bombycid moths. That the seg- 
mental cell-clusters arise by delamina- 
tion from the ectoderm was conclu- 
sively made out in the embrvos of 
Platysa?nia cecropia and Telea poly- 
phemus. Each cluster is several cell- 
layers in thickness and lies just behind 
and a little ventrad to an abdominal 
stigma. The succulent cells constituting 
the cluster are at first polygonal from 
mutual pressure, but as the time for 
hatching approaches, they become 
rounder and more loosely united. I 
have not traced them through the larval 
stages and merely record these frag- 
mentary observations because they com- 
pletely confirm Tichomiroff's and 
Graber's observations on the origin of 
the oenocytes from the ectoderm. 

Diptera. Oenocytes probably occur 
throughout this order. To the families 
in which they were found by Wielo- 
wiejski (Chironomidae, Tipulidae, Culi- 
cidae, Tabanidae, Syrphidae, Muscidae, 
Pupipara) I would add two others 
(Cecidomyidae and Simulidae). 

In the larvae of Cecidomyia anten- 
nariae beautiful large oenocytes occur 
in metameric clusters, each of which 
consists of about five cells. These 
seem not to be so regularly arranged as 
the oenocytes of Chironomus (Wielo- 



256 



PSYCHE. 



I April 1S92. 



wiejski) . One cell of each cluster is situ- 
ated at some distance from the others 
but dorsad and not cephalad as in Chir- 
onomus. The cells measure 45.- 7$- v- 5 
their nuclei 15. p.. They are round or 
slightly oval, and flattened in the same 
direction as the hypodermis, in niche- 
like excavations of which they lie. 

In the young pupa they lose their 
connection with the hypodermis, be- 
come spheroidal and vacuolated and 
their nuclei decrease in size. 1 have 
failed to find any traces of oenocytes in 
the mature pupa and imago. 

In the larva of Simulia the oenocytes 
resemble those of Cecidomyia. 

The above insects belonging to many 
of the natural orders were also studied 
with a view to establishing the origin of 
the blood-corpuscles but my results were 
purely negative. I saw nothing to sup- 
port Schaefler's view* that the corpus- 
cles arise from the fat-body. Such an 
origin is improbable ct priori inasmuch 
as the cells composing the corpus ad- 
iposum are specialized for storing up 
fat and urates. That fat-globules and 
urates in the blood-corpuscles do not 
prove a genetic but only a physiological 
relationship between the fat-body and 
the blood is obvious if we stop to ask the 
question : How do the fat and urate in- 
clusions reach the fat-body ? It is most 
natural to suppose that they are trans- 
ported thither by the blood-corpuscles. 
That the reverse may frequently be the 
case, viz : that the blood-phagocytes may 

*Beitrage zur histologic der insekten. II. Ueber blut- 
bildungsheerde bei insectenlarven. Sprengel's Zool. 
Jahrb.,3 bd. heft 4. 1SS9. 



receive their fat-globules from the fat- 
body and carry them to other parts of 
the organism to be utilized in the meta- 
bolic processes which are continually 
taking place, is, I admit, quite as 
probable. But neither of these pro- 
cesses throws any light on the origin of 
the blood-corpuscles themselves. 

In the embryo the blood-corpuscles 
probably arise from undifferentiated 
mesodermic tissue. They are often 
found in different stages of caryokinesis 
and I can see nothing improbable in the 
supposition that they may continue to 
multiply throughout postembryonic life. 
It is also probable that mesodermic cell- 
masses of an undifferentiated nature, 
associated for obvious physiological 
reasons with the fat-body, may function 
as haematogenic centres during the 
larval stages. For all his figures and 
descriptions prove to the contrary, 
Schaefler's "blutbildungsheerde" may 
be such undifferentiated mesoderm- 
masses and not portions of the true fat- 
body at all. 

In this connection I may mention a 
very interesting organ which I have re- 
cently found in embryos of Blatta and 
Xiphidium and which appears to have 
some physiological connection with the 
other members of the " blutgewebe." 
This is a large v-shaped mass of cells 
situated just beneath and attached to 
the inner end of the oesophagus (stom- 
odaeum) where the two entodermic 
strands diverge. This cell mass lies 
almost wholly in the trito-cerebral 
(second antennary?) segment and, I be- 
lieve, represents a modification of the 



April 1S9?.] 



PSYCHE. 



257 



greater portion of the mesoderm of 
the segment, though this is difficult to 
decide. It is apparently the earliest 
organ to differentiate from the walls of 
the coelomic sacs. Its cells, at first 
wedge-shaped, gradually increase in 
size, become rounded and highly vac- 
uolated and resemble the fat-bodv ele- 
ments, from which they may, neverthe- 
less, always be distinguished by their 
peculiar yellow tint. I have traced 
the organ, which is a definite circum- 
scribed structure, and which I call, for 
the present, the suboesophageal body, 
through the embryo into the larva, 
where it disintegrates and finally 
disappears. I regard it therefore, a s 
a truly embryonic and early larval 
structure, quite distinct, at least physio- 
logically, from the fat-body. Its func- 
tion is very doubtful. If the trito-cere- 
bral segment is homologous with the 
second antennary segment of the Crus- 
tacea and if, moreover, the suboesopha- 
geal body really develops from the 
mesoderm, it may be the homologue of 
the l ' green-gland " and consequently 
nephridial in its nature. 

Reserving a general consideration of 
the "blood-tissue" for future publi- 
cation, I here conclude with a brief 
summary of the points brought out in 
the foregoing paragraphs : — 

(i) The fat-body of the Insecta is 
derived from the mesoderm — being a dif- 
ferentiation of portions of the coelomic 
walls and therefore metameric in 
origin. 

(2) The oenocytes are derived by 
delamination or immigration from the 



ectoderm, just caudad to the tracheal 
involutions. They are also metameric 
organs. 

(3) They are limited to the eight 
trachigerous abdominal segments. 

(4) They appear to be restricted to 
the Pterygota, in all the members of 
which group they probably occur. 

(5) They give rise neither to the 
fat-body nor to the blood but represent 
o rga n s s u i gen e r is . 

(6) After their differentiation from 
the primitive ectoderm they never di- 
vide but gradually increase in size. 

(7) The blood-corpuscles of these 
insecta appear to arise early in em- 
bryonic life and perhaps also in post- 
embryonic life from undifferentiated 
mesoderm cells. The evidence of the 
derivation of the blood-corpuscles from 
the fat-body as such is unsatisfactory. 

(S) The suboesophageal body 

arises in the trito-cerebral segment ap- 
parently from the mesoderm. Though 
it resembles the fat-bodv it must be re- 
garded as a distinct organ. It disap- 
pears during larval life. 

Clark University, Dec. 22, 1S91.* 



*Since the above article was written and sent to 
"Psvche," I have received two publications bearing 
on the origin of the fat-body in the insect embryo. The 
first is an account published in the second part of Kor- 
schelt and Heider's Lehrbuch der vergleichenden ent- 
wicklungsgeschichte der wirbellosen thiere, of Hey- 
mons' studies on Phyllodromia germanica. Soon after- 
wards Dr. Heymons kindly sent me a copy of his in- 
teresting paper (Die entwickluns: der weiblichen ges- 
chlechtsorgane von Phyllodromia (Blatta) germanica 
L. Zeitschr. f. wiss. zool. LIII. 3. 1S91, p. 434-536) the 
lucid illustrations of which show essentially the same 
method of origin for the fat-body as fig. 3 in my plate. 
He finds, also, that other portions of the coelomic wall 
may contribute to the formation of the corpus adiposum.) 



258 



PSYCHE. 



[April 1S92. 



Explanation of Plate 7. 

Fig. 1. Cluster of oenocytes from a 
nearly mature Phryganeid larva. o, 
oenocytes ; /, large tracheal branch ; tt, 
smaller tracheal ramifications; h, tra- 
cheal hypodermis. 

Fig. 2. A nearly mature embryo of 
Xiphidium ensiferum. 00, oenocyte 
clusters seen from the surface through 
the integument; a, pleuropodium of the 
right side (appendage of the first ab- 
dominal segment) ; s, styli (belonging 
to the ninth abdominal segment ; the 
specimen being a male) ; c, cerci. 

Fig. 3. Part of a transverse section 
throusfh the first abdominal segment of 



a young embryo of Blatta ( Phyllodro- 
mia) germanica. v, pleural ectoderm ; 
o, oenocytes ; a, pleuropodium ; 1, coel- 
omic cavity ; «, entoderm ; w, nerve- 
cord ; e, fat-body; b, blood-corpuscle; 
d, diverticulum of the coelomic wall, 
which in appendage-bearing segments 
becomes converted into the limb-muscu- 
lature but in this segment atrophies. 

Fig. 4. Part of a transverse section 
throusfh one of the abdominal segments 
of a Blasturus nymph ; o, oenocytes ; 
hh, hypodermal cells ; r, chitinous cu- 
ticle ; ee, fat-body ; bb, blood-corpus- 
cles ; w, tergo-sternal muscles; n, 
muscles in cross-section. 



TACHINID PARASITE OF EUCATERVA VARIARIA GROTE, AND 

OTHER NOTES. 



Along the arroyos on the mesa-lands, 
and near the bases of mountain ranges, 
in southern New Mexico, may be found 
growing large tree-like shrubs, with 
willow-like leaves, and bearing in spring 
numbers of rather large pink flowers, 
which are followed by catalpa-like seed- 
pods. This is known to botanists as 
Chilopsis saligna* In August these 
shrubs are well stocked with the co- 
coons of a moth, Eucaterva variaria 
Grote, the larvae of which feed upon 
the leaves. The identification was made 
by Dr. Henry Skinner, to whom I sent 
a specimen of the moth. The cocoons 
are very lightly spun of silk, binding 



* I am indebted to Professor E. O. Wooton, of the 
New Mexico Agricultural College, for the name. 



TYLER TOWNSEND, LAS CRUCES, N. MEX. 

the leaves together to form a part of 
them, and are formed on the terminal 
shoots. From one of these cocoons, 
there issued, about the 4th or 5th of 
September, a $ specimen of a Tachi- 
nid, which I can in no way distinguish 
from the $ of Hyphantrophaga hy- 
fihantriae Twns. The parasite issued 
without going into earth, as there w r as 
none of the latter in the jar in which 
the cocoons were placed, but came 
directly from the cocoon of the moth, 
in which, if I remember rightly, the 
puparium of the Tachinid was found. 
This is quite a different habit from that 
possessed by those members of the same 
species which parasitize the Fall web- 
worm ; perhaps the latter individuals 



April 1S92.J 



PSYCHE. 



259 



emerge from the earth solely because the 
Hyphantria cocoons are placed therein, 
though I have found the puparium 
separate from the cocoon in the earth. 
Mr. Harrison G. Dyar, to whom 1 
seut one of the Eucaterva cocoons from 
which the moth had emerged, wrote me 
as follows concerning two Tachinid 
eggs which he found within it, and 
which are doubtless those of the above 
species : 

"There were two eggs of Tachina upon the 
cast skin contained in the cocoon, and both 
had hatched but apparently had failed to 
enter the larva. Probably they are eggs of 
the species of Tachina you have bred from 
the cocoons. They are elliptic ovate in out- 
line, flat below and rounded above, smooth 
shining white. Under the microscope, they 
appear very faintly divided into minute hex- 
agonal or circular areas. Length 0.6 mm., 
width 0.3 mm. 

"The larvae had hatched by breaking a 
piece off of the pointed end. The eggs had 
been placed upon the body of the caterpillar, 
not on the head." 

Melgenia webster i Twns., Can. 
entom., xxiii, 206. This species was 
recorded as bred from a chrysalis. 
Professor Webster sent me a portion of 
the chrysalis, and it has since been 
determined, by Dr. Henry Skinner, as 
belonging to Pyrantels cardui. Re- 



garding the generic position of this 
Tachinid, it does not belong in Mei- 
genia. The best place to which I can, 
with my present knowlege, relegate it, 
is in the genus Prospherysa v. d. W. 
Dr. Brauer, in a letter to me, has re- 
ferred it with a query to Achaetoneura. 
Phorocera (A/eigenia) protniscua 
Twns. should perhaps be referred to 
the same genus as the preceding. It is 
indicated by Brauer in litt. as belong- 
ing either to Achaetoneura or Proso- 
paea. If these genera can be used, it 
will be well to recognize them. 

Tachhia clisiocamfae Twns. is re- 
ferred by Brauer in litt. to Eutachina. 
This I do not approve of, as there is no 
necessity for the creation of the new 
genus Eutachina to contain the forms 
referred to Tachina sensu stricto. 

I would like also here to make a note 
of the fact that Dr. Brauer informs me 
by letter, as also in a note of his in the 
Sitzungsber. k. k. zool.-bot. gesellsch. 
Wien,of May, 1S91, that he first called 
attention to the relationship of the Oes- 
tridae with the Muscidae in 1858, in the 
Verh. zool.-bot. gesellsch. I wish, 
therefore, to correct my statement in 
the Proc. ent. soc. Washn. ii, 90, that 
this view was first advanced by Loew. 



THE LARVA OF SARROTHRIPA REVEYANA. 



BY HARRISON G. DYAR, YOSEMITE, CAL. 

The larva of this species occurred season in August and I obtained them 
abundantly on poplar at Yosemite, Cal., at this time in 1S89 and 1S91. When 
in July. The moths emerged the same I first noticed the larvae living grega- 



260 



PSTCHE. 



[Apill 1S93 



riously under their silken web on the 
fresh terminal leaves of new shoots, I 
supposed them to be Tortricid larvae, 
and came near neglecting to rear them. 
A large proportion of the new shoots 
of the poplar (Populus balsatniferd) 
in the valley were infested with these 
larvae. 

I have not seen any record of the 
occurrence of this species in the United 
States, except that the name is given in 
Hy . Edwards's Catalogue of transforma- 
tions of North American Lepidoptera 
with three references to European 
authors. I have been enabled to deter- 
mine these moths to belong to the Eu- 
ropean species from some figures which 
my sister, Mrs. S. Knopf, kindly made 
for me at Paris, France. 

I believe that there are five larval 
stages, but I have not observed them in 
sequence and I have not seen the egg. 

Sarrothripa reveyana S. V. 

Egg. Not observed. 

First larval stage. Head rounded, partly 
retracted under joint 2, furnished with a few- 
hairs ; width 0.4 mm. Body apparently like 
that of the mature larva; a few hairs. 
(Described from a dead discolored speci- 
men.) 

Second stage. Like the mature larva ex- 
cept in size; pale yellowish green, smooth; 
hairs whitish, curling backward. Width of 
head 0.6 mm. 

Third stage. Only the cast head-case was 
observed ; width 0.9 mm. 

Fourth stage. Width of cast head-case, 
1.2 mm. 

Fifth stage. Head round, pale greenish, 



not shiny; ocelli black, mouth white, jaws 
brown; a few hairs; width i.S mm. Body 
cylindrical, folded between the segments, 
tapering slightly from the middle to the ex- 
tremities; feet normal. Hairs few, fine and 
long, white, growing from the skin, there 
being no warts nor tubercles perceptible even 
with a glass, but the single hairs are ar- 
ranged in the same manner as the warts of 
the Arctiidae; row 4 is just below- the stig- 
matal line and the hairs each a little back of 
a spiracle; 5 anteriorly and 6 posteriorly on 
the segments in the subventral space, and 
7 consists of four small hairs on the venter 
of the legless segments. Body velvety yel- 
lowish green, subtranslucent, the dorsal ves- 
sel darker; a very faint yellowish stigmatal 
line ; feet tipped with brown ; spiracles mi- 
nute, ocherous. The larvae live gregari- 
ously or, more rarely, singly under a silken 
web spun on the upper side of a tender leaf 
some distance above the surface. They will 
not eat the old hard leaves. 

Cocoon. Composed entirely of white 
opaque silk and spun between two leaves or in 
some other place that will furnish the nec- 
essary support for the first vertical threads a- 
gainst which the cocoon is built. It recalls in 
shape the cocoon of Nola trinotafa, but con- 
tains no bark and is larger and thicker. The 
base is flat, the sides nearly straight, and one 
end is pointed above, from which the top 
slightly tapers to the other end. The end be- 
low the point opens like a pair of vertical 
doors for the emergence of the moth. 

Pupa. Cylindrical, thorax rounded, ab- 
domen only very slightly tapering, the last 
segments rounded; cremaster none. Smooth, 
pale whitish with a brown tinge and a broad 
dark brown dorsal shade running the whole 
length. Length, 10 mm. ; width, 3 mm. 

Food plants. Poplar (Populus) and wil- 
low (Salix). 

Larvae from Mariposa Co., California. 



Note. — A study of California butterflies 
and especially their comparison with those 
of Eastern America and Europe leads S. H. 



Scudder in the Overland monthly for April 
to claim that the highest type of human civ- 
ilization is to arise on the Pacific coast. 



April 1S92. 



PSYCHE. 



261 



Synonymy of butterfly parasites. — 
A critical study of the American Apanteles 
parasitic upon butterflies convinces me that 
there are but four species instead of the six- 
teen described by Prof. Riley in Mr. Scud- 
der's Butterflies of the eastern U. S. These 
are A. megathymi (ovipositor long, stigma 
white), A. carpatus (ovipositor long, stigma 
dark), A. cassianus (ovipositor concealed, 
two deep diverging grooves forming a tri- 
angle on disk of second segment), and A. 
glomeratus (ovipositor concealed, no triangle 
on disk of second segment). 

A. Edzvardsii, emarginatus {ensiger Say) 
are svnonyms ofvl. carpatus Say; the others 
are svnonyms of A. glomeratus; A. theclae 
is a well marked variety of A. glomeratus 
Linn. Wm. Hampton Pat I on. 

Entomological notes. — It is stated in 
Science that the friends of the late Henry 
Edwards have subscribed $10,000 and the 
American Museum of Natural History 
$5,000 for the purchase of his entomo- 
logical collection, consisting of more 
than 350,000 specimens, and this scientific 
treasure goes to the American Museum. 
This enterprise has been carried through by 
Mr. A. M. Palmer, and other theatrical 
friends of Mr. Edwards. 

More than half of the "Supplementary ap- 
pendix" Mr. Whymper has recently published 
to his travels amongst the Great Andes is 
given up to Coleoptera, and almost the 
whole of it to insects with numerous excellent 
woodcuts engraved by Whymper himself. 
The introduction by the late H. W. Bates 
gives a coup d'oeil of the whole collection 
mostly made over 9000 and even over 11000 
feet above the sea, and shows that there is 
no trace of "any distinct element of a north 
temperate or south temperate coleopterous 
fauna on the Ecuadorian Andes ... A few 
genera belonging to temperate latitudes, 
though not found in the tropical lowlands, 
do indeed occur, but they are forms of almost 
world-wide distribution in similar climates, 
and there is no representative of the numer- 



ous characteristic and common genera of the 
north or south. Even the northern genera 
more or less abundantly found on the Mexi- 
can highlands are absent." So, too, among 
(■he butterflies, "the genera Erebia, Chieno- 
baSj Parnassius, Argynnis, Epinephele, and 
many others, so highly characteristic of the 
faunas of the north temperate zone or Chili, 
or both, and of high vertical ranges, are 
quite absent." It seems to Bates a fair de- 
duction that "no distinct traces of a migra- 
tion during the lifetime of existing species 
from north to south, or vice versa, along the 
Andes, have as yet been discovered or are 
now likely to be discovered." 

The March number of the Entomologists' 
monthly magazine contains an interesting 
account by W. W. Smith of the formation of 
new colonies and nests by two species of New 
Zealand ants of the genus Tetramorium. 
According to him they originate by the 
union of several individuals of both sexes on 
sites beneath stones among the roots of 
plants already instinctively selected and in- 
habited by Aphides and Coccids, which serve 
as an economic basis while founding their 
nests. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

8 Jan., 1892. The 167th regular meeting 
and 16th annual meeting (since incorpora- 
tion) was held at 156 Brattle Street. Mr. 
J. H. Emerton was elected chairman. 

The annual report of the retiring Secre- 
tary, Mr. R. Hayward, was read and ac- 
cepted. Mr. S. Henshaw, the retiring Treas- 
urer, presented his' annual report which was 
accepted subject to the approval of the audi- 
tors. The retiring librarian, Mr. S. H. 
Scudder, presented a verbal report of the 
condition of the Club library which was ac- 
cepted. 

The election of officers for 1892 being next 
in order the Club proceeded to ballot, and 
the following officers were declared elected : 



262 



PSYCHE. 



[April 1S92. 



President, Rev. W.J. Holland, of Pittsburgh, 
Pa. ; Secretary, Roland Havward ; Treasurer, 
Samuel Henshaw; Librarian, Samuel H. 
Scudder; Members at large of Executive 
Committee, J. H. Emerton and S. H. Scudder. 

The Secretary announced that the address 
of the retiring President had not been re- 
ceived. 

Voted to authorize the Treasurer to sell the 
non-entomological works in the Club's library 
and devote the proceeds to the payment of 
debts incurred in the publication of vol. 5 of 
Psyche. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder gave a brief account of 
his studies of the tertiary Rhynchophora of 
North America of which he had just com- 
pleted a monograph for the U. S. geological 
survey. 

Mr. J. H. Emerton showed drawings of 
various Thomisidae and remarked briefly on 
work which he had recently been doing in 
this family. 

Mr. A. P. Morse recorded the capture of 
Melanoplus Junius Dodge at Jackson, N. H., 
Jay, Vt. , Montgomery, Vt., and North Con- 
way, N. H., from July 3-30. He also stated 
that he had taken a specimen of Hespero- 
tettix viridis at Wellesley, Mass. 

12 February 1892. — The i6Sth meeting of 
theclub was held at 156 Brattle St., Mr. S. 
Henshaw in the chair. Mr. A. P. Morse was 
chosen secretary pro tempore. 

A letter from Dr. W.J. Holland was read 
accepting the office of president of the club 
for the ensuing year. It was voted to make 
Mr. B. Pickman Mann a life-member in con- 
sideration of his striking off fifty dollars of 
the indebtedness due him on account of vol. 
iv of Psyche. 

The address of the retiring president, Prof. 
F. H. Snow, of the University of Kansas, on 
"Experiments for the destruction of chinch 
bugs by infection", was read by Mr. Scudder. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited some beetles 
from Sonora, Mexico, of the genus Caryoba- 
rus, family Bruchidae, with the palm-seeds 
from which they emerged. Also, with criti- 
cal remarks, some inflated larvae he had 



recently received of several European and 
Asiatic butterflies. 

11 March, 1892 — The 169th meeting was 
held at 156 Brattle St., Mr. S. H. Scudder in 
the chair. 

In showing the recent additions to the 
library, the librarian called attention to a 
paper by Dr. Urech on the colors of the 
scales of butterflies addressed to the Club by 
the author, the address being written " with 
the decocted wing colors in butterflies of 
Vanessa urticae." 

Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited a series of 
about 500 specimens of the Orthopteran 
genus Hippiscus which had served as the 
base of a study of the group he had recently 
completed. Saussure in 1884 and 1S8S had 
separated two groups which he regarded as 
genera, Hippiscus and Xanthippus, and had 
placed in the former seven species, in the 
latter ten, with one he had not seen in an un- 
certain position, in all eighteen species. In 
this revision they are divided into three 
groups regarded as subgenera, Hippiscu6 
with eleven species, five of them new;Sticht- 
hippus (not seen by Saussure) with two 
species, both of them new; and Xanthippus 
with twenty-five species, fifteen of them 
new; in all thirty-eight species. Two of 
Saussure's species, Hippiscus occlote from 
Mexico and Xanthippus lateritius from 
Nevada, not seen, are included in these, 
some few changes in specific nomenclature 
have been required, and one species provis- 
ionally placed by Saussure in Xanthippus has 
been removed elsewhere ; a different arrange- 
ment of the species is proposed, particularly 
in Hippiscus, and two described species 
not seen by Saussure are definitely placed. 

He also exhibited some blood-red larvae 
about 5 mm. long brought him as having 
been sent from Berkshire Co. by a man who 
thought they had fallen in myriads with the 
last fall of snow. They appeared to be of a 
species of Sciara or allied genus of flies, and 
their occurrence in midwinter, full grown and 
living on the surface of snow, appeared to 
be new. 




PSYCHE, 

A. JOXJK,nSTA.L OF ENTOMOLOGY. 
[Established in 1874.] 

Vol. 6. No. 194. 

June, 1892. 

CONTENTS: 

The Orthopterax Genus Hippiscus. — I — Samuel H. Scudder. .... 265 
Ax Aporia Bred from Limacodes sp. — C. H. Tyler Tozvnsend. .... 275 

The Early Stages of Nerice bidextata. — Caroline G. Soule 276 

Miscellaxeous Notes (Psyche ; protective resemblance; new classification of the 
Acaroidea; Kolbe's introduction to entomology; Schatz and Rdber's families 
and genera of butterflies ; visits of insects to flowers; destroying the chinch bug 
in the field ; cecidomyian galls ; insects of New York.) ..... 277 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS. 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



264 



PSYCHE. 



June 1891. 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

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CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meetings of the Club are now held at 
7.45 P.M. on the second Friday of each month, at 
No. 156 Brattle St. Entomologists temporarily in 
Boston or Cambridge or passing through either city 
on that day are invited to be present. 

A very few complete sets of the first five volume 
of Psyche remain to be sold for $25. 

Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
by the Cambridge Entomological Club : 

Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
omy of the milk-weed butterfly, Danais archip- 
pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Illinois. Trans. Dept. Agric. for 1876 (con- 
taining first report of Thomas, State Entomo- 
logist). Springfield 111., 1878 . . . 1.00 

Scudder, S. H. The earliest winged in- 
sects of America. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875. 1 .00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
tucket, Retinia frustrana. col. pi. Boston, 1883. .25 

Scudder, S. H. The fossil butterflies of 
Florissant, Col., Washington, 1889 . . 1.00 

Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Jahrg. 
42-46. Stettin, 1881-1885. . . . 5.00 

U. S. Entomological Commission. Bulletins, 
Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 1.00 

— Fourth Report, Washington, 1885 . . 2.00 
Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

AD VER TISEMENT. 
Undersigned wishes to obtain either by exchange 
or for cash, Cicindelidae and rare Carabidae from 
all parts of the U. S. Lists please address to 
A. Luetgens, 

307 E. 15 Street, N. Y. City. 



TACHINIDAE WANTED. 
Named or unnamed Tachinidae wanted in ex- 
change, or for study, from any part of North America 
including Mexico and the West Indies. 

C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, 

Las Cruces, New Mexico. 



PSYCHE. 



THE ORTHOPTERAN GENUS HIPPISCUS. 



BY SAMUEL H. SCUDDER, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



Hippiscus was established by Saussure 
in 1 86 1 as a subgenus of Oedipoda on 
a large Mexican grasshopper to which 
he gave the name of ocelote. Only a 
brief diagnosis of the group was given, 
and no attention was paid to it until 
1S73, when Stal, who regarded it as a 
genus, gave much greater precision to 
its definition through the tables in his 
Recensio Orthopterorum and placed 
Serville's well known Oedipoda dis- 
coidea in the group. Subsequently, 
in 1S74, I referred here Oe. rugosa 
Scudd. and, in 1S76, Oe. neglecta 
Thorn., Oe. haldemanii Scudd. and 
Oe. corallipes Hald. Finally, in 
18S4, Saussure in his Prodromus Oedi- 
podiorum described a number of new 
forms and separated them into two 
series, which he termed Hippiscus 
and Xanthippus, regarding each as a 
genus, and further divided the former 
into two subgenera, — Hippiscus proper 
and Pardalophora. 

Although I have been unable to ex- 
amine two of the species described by 
Saussure, so large a number of new forms 
have been found in our country, espec- 
ially in the region west of the Mississippi, 
and so great a confusion exists regarding 
them in our collections and in the writ- 
ings of our entomologists, that I have 



ventured to subject them all to a critical 
study, the result of which is offered in 
the following pages. As will be seen, 
I am inclined to regard Saussure's two 
genera as but subdivisions of one generic 
group, and to discard his subgenus 
Pardalophora altogether; at the same 
time I have applied a third subgeneric 
name, Sticthippus, to forms which are 
closely related to Hippiscus and Leprus. 
My Leprus ingens which Saussure, 
without seeing, put in Xanthippus with 
a query, I am now inclined to regard as 
• the type of an undescribed genus allied 
to Leprus but distinct and remarkable 
for the bulky form of the female. 

Though it seems most reasonable to 
consider these subdivisions as of less 
than generic rank, there would seem to 
be ground for regarding them as of some 
importance, for it will be noted by the 
observant that the subgenus Hippiscus 
is an eastern type, rarely occurring be- 
yond the Sierra Nevadas*, and that 
Sticthippus is confined to the Pacific 
slope, while Xanthippus occurs with 
Sticthippus on the Pacific Coast, and 

♦Exception may possibly be made to this, for Walker 
records H. tuberculatus from the West Coast; but apart 
from the fact that this species forms a group by itself 
within Hippiscus and has an anomalous distribution 
even to within the Arctic Circle, I believe this is either 
an error of determination or of location. 



266 PSYCHE. [June .892. 

with Hippiscus throughout the centre I have had the advantage of seeing al 

of the continent, but is altogether want- those in the collection of Mr. Samuel 

ing on the Atlantic coast, no species Henshaw of Cambridge, and a full series 

occurring nearer than Iowa, Nebraska, of those belonging to Mr. Lawrence 

and Kansas ; none even reach the Mis- Bruner of Lincoln, Neb. to both of 

sissippi River. whom I am indebted for many cour- 

In the preparation of the present paper tesies. Dr. C. V. Riley has also kindly 

I have studied more than five hundred sent for my examination types of two or 

and fifty specimens, the larger part of three of Thomas's species of which I 

which were in my own collection, but was in doubt. 



TABLE OF THE SPECIES OF HIPPISCUS. 

A 1 . Antennae of male not attenuate or arcuate at the extremity ; carina of prono- 
tum intersected only by the typical sulcus, which is obsolete 
or rapidly fades out on the lateral lobes ; posterior femora gen- 
eially more dilated and the inferior border more arcuate. 
B 1 . No distinct sunken biareolate area at the summit of the frontal costa ; if 
vaguely present, separated from the costa below by no carina 
or angle. Lateral walls of normal discal scutellum of prozona 
not cut deeply by an inner fork of its posterior sulcus, which 
indeed often does not exist. Medina carina sharply distinct 
throughout. Markings of the tegmina usually pantherinc 
Mesosternal lobes separated by a piece rather quadrate than 
truncato-cuneate, though the posterior corners of the lobes are 
rounded, but narrowly and abruptly. . .(Hippiscus.) 

c 1 . Anterior extremity of scutellum of vertex not prolonged, narrowing rapidly, 
in front (excl. H. pantherinus) as broad as or broader than half 
the middle width ; hind margin of pronotum usually rectangulate ; 
markings of tegmina distinctly pantherine. 
d 1 . Frontal costa distinctly, often considerably, narrowed at its upper ex- 
tremity, except in some 9 hardly or even less than a fourth the 
width of the space between the eyes, the scutellum of the ver- 
tex rarely furnished with transverse carinae, then generally 
faint, and the longitudinal carina terminating in the centre with 
rare exceptions ; tips of the wings in the J 1 rarely or but slightly 
clouded ; extreme base of the area of the ulnar fork of tegmina 
usually not involved in the darker markings ; calcaria of op- 
posite sides of hind tibiae subequal. 



June.S9i] PSYCHE. 267 

e 1 . The lower third of tegmina free from dark markings, except in the 
anal area ; markings of tegmina hardly pantherine ; tegmina ta- 
pering and basal lobe of costal margin prominent, the width of 
the tegmina at this point being fully a third greater than at the 
tip of the lower ulnar vein ; lateral carinae of pronotum not very 
sharp. ...... (//"•) phoenicopterus. 

e 2 . Not more than the lower fourth of tegmina, if any, free from dark 
markings ; markings of tegmina distinctly pantherine ; tegmina 
subequal and basal lobe of costal margin less pronounced, the 
width of the tegmina at this point being scarcely more than a 
sixth greater than at the tip of the lower ulnar vein ; lateral ca- 
rinae of pronotum sharp. 
f 1 . Vertical scutellum hexagonal or heptagonal, broader than long, 
the sides very rapidly narrowing in front and distinctly angulate 
next the front edge of the eye ; light transverse markings of api- 
cal half of tegmina scarcely more than half as broad as the 
darker markings. ..... (//.) pantherinus 

f 2 . Vertical scutellum longer than broad, pyriform, the sides distinctly 
rounded and less rapidly narrowing ; light markings of apical 
half of tegmina almost or quite as broad as or even broader than 
the darker markings. • 
g l . Granules on dorsum of metazona by their confluence distinctly fol- 
lowing lines forming oblique rugae parallel to the hind margin ; 
lateral canthi of pronotum as distinct and sharp on the hinder 
part of the prozona as on the front part of the metazona. 

( H. ) haldemanii. 
g 2 . Granules on dorsum of metazona rarely confluent and when con- 
fluent showing no marked tendency to follow lines parallel to 
hind margin ; lateral canthi of pronotum much less distinct and 
duller on hinder part of prozona than on front part of metazona. 

(//.) texanus. 
d 2 . Frontal costa not at all or scarcely in the least narrowed at its upper 
extremity, always more than a third, sometimes nearly a half, 
the width of the space between the eyes, the scutellum of the 
vertex divided by longitudinal and transverse carinae into four 
subequal quadrants ; tips of the wings in the $ usually clouded, 
the large central dark spot of the tegmina usually involving the 
extreme base of the area of the ulnar fork of the tegmina ; cal- 
caria of hind tibiae markedly unequal on opposite sides. 
e 1 . Lateral canthi of pronotum not very sharp, interrupted and devious 
between the sulci ; metazona of 9 distinctly longer than prozona. 



268 PSYCHE. [June ,89*. 

y* 1 . Relatively slenderer forms, the tegmina relatively slenderer; last, 

forked branch of the discoidal vein of the hind wings usually 

arising about three fifths the distance from the base to apex of 

the wing, and in $ usually well within the limits of the transverse 

fuscous belt ; closed tegmina of $ surpassing the abdomen by 

at least one fourth their length. . . . {H.)rug~osus. 

p. Relatively stouter bodied forms, the tegmina relatively broader ; 

last, forked branch of the discoidal vein of the hind wings usually 

arising at about two thirds the distance from the base to apex of 

the wing, and in $ at the outer edge of the transverse fuscous 

belt; closed tegmina of $ surpassing the abdomen usually by 

less than one fourth their length. 

g x . Dark markings of outer fourth of tegmina clustered into regular 

connected transverse series. . . . (H.)compactus. 

g 2 . Dark markings of outer fourth of tegmina forming irregularly 

distributed minor maculations. 

h x . Markings of tegmina distinctly pantherine, marginal field 
with numerous small blotches ; wings of $ fully twice as long as 
broad ; hind margin of prothorax rectangulate. {H. ) varlegatus. 

h 2 Markings of tegmina hardly pantherine, resembling many spe- 
cies of Trimerotropis, marginal field mostly occupied by two 
large spots ; wings of <J scarcely twice as long as broad ; hind 
margin of prothorax obtuse angulate. . . (//. ) suturalis, 

e 2 . Lateral canthi of pronotum acute, continuous throughout, arcuate ; 
metazona of 9 scarcely longer than the prozona. {H. ) ocelote. 
c 2 . Anterior extremity of scutellum of vertex prolonged, narrowing gradually, 
in front less than half as wide as in the middle ; hind margin of 
pronotum acutely angled (rarely, by variation, rectangulate) ;. 
markings of tegmina hardly or not at all pantherine. 
d l . Metazona with two pairs of distinct lateral rugae parallel to hind margin ; 
basal discoidal field of tegmina, including the ulnar area, broadly 
maculate ; apical half of tegmina multimaculate ; ulnar taenia of 
hind wings stopping far short of the base of the wing, the inter- 
mediate space filled with closely crowded cross veins ; veins 
at end of humeral field more or less laterally stained with black- 
ish fuscous at the cross veins, rarely absent. {H.) saussurei. 
d 2 . Metazona without lateral oblique rugae ; basal discoidal field of tegmina,. 
and especially the ulnar area, almost or quite immaculate ; apical 
half of tegmina paucimaculate ; ulnar taenia of hind wings 
almost reaching the base of the wing, the cross veins next the 



Juneifca.J PSYCHE. 269 

base not closely crowded ; veins atend of humeral field immacu- 
late. ....... (H. ) tuberculatus. 

B 2 . At the point where the scutellum of the vertex and the frontal costa meet, 
between the apices of the lateral foveolae, a distinct sunken 
transversely biareolate field or frontal fastigium easily distin- 
guished both from the vertical scutellum and the frontal costa. 
Posterior sulcus of the prozona terminating on the typical sulcus 
in two forks, one at the lateral borders of the normal discal 
scutellum, the other, by deeply cutting the lateral walls of that 
scutellum, close to the median line. Median carina of metazona 
posteriorly more or less subobsolete in the 9 • Markings of the 
tegmina not distinctly pantherine. Mesosternal lobes separated 
by a truncate but distinctly wedge-shaped median piece, the pos- 
terior corners of the lobes being very broadly rounded. 

(Sticthippus.) 
c 1 . Axillary vein of tegmina of 9 m no way entangled with the anal vein ; 
maculations of apical third of tegmina obscure; humeral field of 
wings uniformly infuscate apically. . ($■) calif ornicus. 

c 2 . Axillary vein of tegmina of 9 more or less entangled apically with the 
anal ; maculations of tegmina as distinct on apical third as else- 
where ; humeral field of wings apically maculate. 

(S.) marmoratus. 
A 2 . Antennae of male attenuate or arcuate, in dried specimens often partly coiled 
at the extremity; carina of pronotum intersected by two sulci, 
and generally obliterated between them, but sometimes indicat- 
ing the anterior sulcus only by sinuation ; posterior femora gen- 
erally less dilated, the inferior border less arcuate. 

(Xanthippus.) 

6 1 . Antennae of $ usually as long as the hind femora, gradually attenuated 
apically for at least one fifth their length, curled, cochleate, or 
hooked at the tip in drying. Tegmina distinctly pantherine in 
markings, occasionally obscured (in variation) by obsolescence ; 
intercalary vein arcuate, approaching at least twice as close to 
the median at its apex as near its base. Fuscous transverse band 
of wings so far removed from apex as to leave a vitreous area, 
especially in the $ , covering four marginal lobes or even more. 
Pronotal carina with rare exceptions more or less obliterated 
between the principal sulci. Summit of cranium commonly 
carinulate between the eyes. 
c 1 . Male of medium or large size. Tegmina surpassing the abdomen in both 
sexes ; area of the ulnar fork rarely filled with only a single, 



270 PSYCHE. | June 1892. 

usually with a complete double, row of cells. Metazona usu- 
ally tumid centrally to a greater or less extent, and considerably 
depressed or indentate anteriorly on either side the median 
carina. 
d 1 . Intercalary vein of tegmina near its extremity running so close to the 
median as commonly to be hardly separated from it by more 
than its own thickness ; markings of tegmina sharp and well de- 
fined ; transverse band of wings distinctly narrowed, sometimes 
obsolescent, at the anal vein ; process of metazona normally less 
than a right angle. 
e 1 . Bounding walls of the vertical scutellum and other carinae of the 
vertex generally dull and low; metazona about two thirds as 
long again as the prozona, its dorsum variable, its rugosities not 
very prominent, rarely confluent ; transverse fuscous band of 
wings usually very broad, in the second lobe below the anal vein 
often more than twice as broad as the width of the lobe. 
f x . Species of great size ; maculations on apical third of tegmina often 
obscure by lack of depth of color, lessening the contrasts be- 
tween the darker and the lighter spots, but sometimes sharp and 
well defined ; fuscous band of wings generally very dark ; inside 
of hind femora usually blue except the red apical third. 

(X.) corallipes. 

J" 2 . Species of rather small or medium size ; maculations on apical 

third of tegmina generally pure and with distinct contrasts ; 

fuscous band of wings generally fuliginous ; inside of hind 

femora usually wholly red. . . . (-A.) zapotecus. 

e 1 . Bounding walls of the vertical scutellum and other carinae of the 

vertex usually sharp and relatively high ; metazona twice as 

long as prozona, its dorsum centrally tumid, its rugosities prom 

inent and usually more or less confluent ; transverse fuscous 

band of wings usually narrow or moderate, in the second lobe 

below the anal vein rarely so much as twice the width of the lobe. 

f l . Transverse pale band of anterior margin of tegmina opposite the 

middle of intercalary vein but little broader than the others ; 

fuscous band of wings narrow, hardly touching the margin 

anywhere and often widely interrupted between the arcuate 

fascia and the humeral vitta. 

g l . Darker markings occupying one half or more of the tegmina, 

normally and completely continuous in the middle half of the 

tegmina and usually broader than the pale interspaces. 

(A''. ) conspicuus* 



June 1S92.] PSYCHE. 271 

g 2 . Darker markings occupying much less than one half of the teg- 
mina, broken or partially broken by the nervules into macula- 
tions in the middle of the tegmina and usually narrower than 
the pale interspaces. - (X.) fremitus. 

J" 2 . Transverse band of anterior margin opposite middle of intercalary 
vein much, generally twice or more, broader than the others ' t 
fuscous band of hind wings moderately broad, reaching the 
margin over half its course and hardly or but slightly inter- 
rupted at the anal vein. . . . -(-X.) fiardalinus. 

d 2 . Intercalary vein of tegmina separated near extremity from the median 
by a moderately wide space ; markings of tegmina often some- 
what blurred or ill defined, but sometimes perfectly sharp ; 
transverse band of wings generally narrowed somewhat at the 
anal vein, but less noticeably than in the alternative category 
and never obsolescent ; process of metazona normally rec- 
tangulate. 
e 1 . Fuscous markings of the apical half of tegmina hardly occupying so 
much as half the space, arranged in generally transverse, well 
defined blotches rarely so long as half the breadth of the 
tegmina. 
f l . Rugosities of dorsum of pronotum irregularly distributed ; median 
carina of metazona but slightly elevated, scarcely arched ; 
transverse fuscous bars of tegmina with tolerably regular, 
rounded, and sharply limited outlines ; hind femora distinctly 
and very obliquely barred exteriorly. . (A'.) maculatus. 

J' 2 . Rugosities of dorsum of metazona more or less distinctly ranged 
into series parallel to the two sides of the process ; median ca- 
rina of same considerably elevated, distinctly arched ; trans- 
verse fuscous bars of tegmina scarcely rounded, with ill defined 
irregular margins on apical half; hind femora obscurely or not 
at all barred exteriorly. .... (Jf). tigrinus. 

e 2 . Fuscous markings of apical half of tegmina occupying fully three 
fourths its area, arranged in well defined transverse bars nearly 
or quite crossing the tegmina. 
J" 1 . Dorsum of prothorax with very prominent, often sharp, rugosi- 
ties ; fuscous band of wings very broad, not at all narrowed at 
the anal vein. ...... (A.) leprosies. 

f 2 . Dorsum of prothorax with less prominent, though coarse but dull 
rugosities ; fuscous band of wings narrow or if of medium width 
then distinctly and considerably narrowed at the anal vein. 

( J A r .) paradoxtis. 



272 PSYCHE. [>ne l893 . 

e 3 . Fuscous markings of apical half of tegmina irregularly maculate with 
a tendency to a transverse arrangement but with ill defined very 
irregular margins and occupying perhaps half the whole area. 
f x . Dorsum of prothorax more heavily and coarsely rugulose ; tegmina 
relatively long, distinctly surpassing the abdomen in the 9 ; the 
darker tints of the tegmina generally prevail over the lighter, 
particularly in the middle of the tegmina ; fuscous band of wings 
relatively broad. ..... (A^.) aff rictus. 

J" 2 . Dorsum of prothorax less heavily and coarsely rugulose ; tegmina 
relatively short, not exceeding the abdomen in the 9 ; darker 
tints of tegmina subordinate to the lighter, particularly in the 
middle of the tegmina ; fuscous band of wings relatively 
narrow. ....... (A'.) toltecus. 

c 2 . Male of small size. Tegmina of $ shorter than the abdomen ; area of the 
ulnar fork rarely filled with more than a single row of cells and 
then only for a portion of its length. Metazona plane above, 
with obscure or no indentation anteriorly. 
d 1 . Shoulder (or extreme base of front margin) of tegmina as dark as the 
rest of the base ; markings of tegmina more or less ^obscure and 
blurred. ....... {X. ) altivolus. 

d' 2 . Shoulder of tegmina with paler markings contrasting with the rest of 
the dark base ; all markings of tegmina sharp and distinct. 
e 1 . Antennae of 9 almost as long as the pronotum ; pronotum of 9 
nearly half as long again as its extreme dorsal width. 

(A'.) cupidus. 
e 2 . Antennae of 9 considerably shorter than the pronotum ; pronotum 
of 9 but little longer than its extreme dorsal width. 

(A^. ) pumilus. 
b 2 . Antennae of $ distinctly shorter than the hind femora, apically attenuate 
for rarely more than one eighth their length, at most arcuate or 
broadly uncinate in drying. Tegmina rarely though sometimes 
distinctly pantherine, usually irregularly mottled with moder- 
ately large alternate blotches of dark fuscous and gray, and api- 
cally dotted with pale fuscous ; intercalary vein usually straight, 
rarely approaching the median much nearer at its apex thai- 
next its base, never more than twice as close. Fuscous trans- 
verse band of wings so near the apex that even in the 9 rarely 
more than two marginal lobes are covered by the sometimes 
apically infuscated vitreous area. Pronotal carina sometimes 
scarcely subdued between the principal sulci. Summit of cra- 
nium commonly not carinulate between the eyes. 



I 



June ,s 9 2.j PSYCHE. 273 

c 1 . Median carina of pronotum usually almost entirely obliterated between 
the anterior and principal sulci ; markings of the tegmina dis- 
tinctly pantherine ; inferior carina of hind femora high and 
strongly arcuate. 
d 1 . Markings of tegmina mostly confined to the anterior half or three- 
fifths ; apex of axillary field pallid ; fuscous band of wings some- 
what obscure, very narrow, narrowed at the anal vein ; hind 

tibiae yellow (A'.) albulus. 

d~. Markings of tegmina crossing them ; apex of axillary field dark; fus- 
cous band of wings distinct, very broad, not narrowed at the 
anal vein; hind tibiae red. . . . (X.) latefasciatus. 

c 2 . Median carina of pronotum usually distinct between the anterior and prin- 
cipal sulci ; markings of the tegmina not pantherine but more or 
less marmorate, much after the pattern of Trimerotropis ; in- 
ferior carina of hind femora usually normal, rarely high or 
strongly arcuate. 
d 1 . Lateral lobes of pronotum slightly wider below than in the middle by 
the retroarcuate curve of the hind margin ; inferior carina of 
hind femora not prominent. 
e 1 . Band of hind wings broad, leaving not more than two lobes apically 
free. ........ (A". ) obscurus. 

e 2 . Band of hind wings usually less broad, leaving more than two lobes 
apically free. ...... (A'.) neglectus. 

d 2 . Lateral lobes of pronotum equal, the hind margin vertical and not 
retroarcuate ; inferior carina of hind femora more or less promi- 
nent. 
e 1 . Lower intercalary area of tegmina broad, densely filled with anasto- 
mosing nervules. generally more densely than in the area beneath 
it; lateral canthi of thorax almost entirely confined to metazona. 
f l . Vertical fastigium shallow with low lateral walls, the frontal fas- 
tigium (or the front part of the vertical fastigium at its junction 
with the frontal costa) not deeply impressed, widely connected 
with the vertical fastigium. Antennae in both sexes as long as 
the head and pronotum. Hind margins of metazona entire ; 
anal line of tegmina pallid ; axillary vein of tegmina free. 

(A^.) montanus. 
f 2 . Vertical fastigium deep with high walls, the frontal fastigium 
deeply impressed, with a constricted connection with the verti- 
cal fastigium. Antennae of ? shorter than the head and prono- 
tum. Hind margins of metazona crenulate ; anal line of tegmina 
concolorous ; axillary vein of tegmina apically united to the anal. 



274 PSYCHE. [June 1S93. 

g 1 . Frontal costa much more constricted above than below the 
ocellus ; wings bright red or yellow at base. 
IP. Anterior portion of metazona transversely plicato-rugose ; ax- 
illary vein united distally with the anal. . (A".) later itius. 
li 2 . Anterior portion of metazona rugose without sign of transverse 
plications ; axillary vein free or intermediately united distally 
with the anal. ...... (A") calthulus. 

g' 1 . Frontal costa scarcely more constricted above than below the 
ocellus; wings pale lemon yellow at base. . (X.) grisetis. 

e 1 . Lower intercalary area of tegmina not always broad, no more densely 
filled with anastomosing nervules than the area beneath ; lateral 
canthi subcontinuous across thorax and straight. Process of 
metazona rectangulate. 
f 1 . Median carina of pronotum distinct throughout the prozona and 
scarcely less so between the principal sulci than in front ; outer 
border of band at apex of wing distinct. . (X.) vitellinus. 

f' 1 . Median carina of pronotum nearly obliterated between the princi- 
pal sulci ; outer border of band at apex of wings often obscure. 

g x . Markings of tegmina relatively distinct and abundant, the apical 
half distinctly mottled ; the postmedian spot large and no more 
conspicuous than the others ; arcuate band of wings nearly or 
quite reaching the anal angle. . . (X.) aurilegulus. 

g 2 . Markings of tegmina scant and obscure, the apical half dark 
fuliginous with few or no mottlings ; the postmedian spot small 
and more conspicuous than the others ; band of wings hardly 
reaching more than halfway to anal angle. (X.) stigmosus. 

Subgenus HIPPISCUS. 

Hippiscus (H.) phoenicopterus. In the collection at Halle I saw a $ 

of this species labelled Oe. phoenicop- 

Oedifoda phoenicoptera Germ!, Burm., tera - m Burmeister's handwriting and 

Handb. ent., 2, 643. purporting to come from South Caro- 

Hippiscus -phoenicopterus Sauss., Prodr. . r c 

„ ,. T./-VT .,, d u a ^ hna collected by Zimmermann ; though 

Oedip., 87 ; McNeill, Psyche, 6, 63. J ° 

Oedipoda discoidea Serv!, Hist. nat. not marked as a type specimen, there 

Orth., 724; Scudd!, Bost. journ. nat. hist., 7, can be little doubt that it is one of the 

469; Glov., 111. N. A. ent., Orth., pi. 3, figs. types, and I am thus able to correct (as 

3, 7; Thorn., Syn. Acrid. N. A., 133-135- ot hers have already done) the mistake 

Hippiscus ^coideus Stll, Rec. Orth., q{ ^^ reference to this species. 

1,121 ; Thorn., Bull. 111. mus., 1,66; Rep. ent. J x 

111., 9, 95, 116-117; Scudd!, Proc. Bost. soc. l have also seen the Georgia type of 

tan. hist., 19, 90. Serville's Oe. discoidea in the Jardin 



June 1893.] 



PSYCHE. 



27» 



AN A PORTA BRED FROM LIMACODES SP. 



BV C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, LAS CRUCES, N. MEX. 



The Tachinid described below occurs 
in a lot of Tachinidae sent me bv Pro- 
fessor Comstock, from Ithaca, N. Y. 
Aside from the knowledge of its para- 
sitism, it is of peculiar interest as be- 
longing to the genus Aporia, hitherto 
recorded only from South America. 
This genus differs from Exorista, to 
which it is nearly allied, by the frontal 
bristles not descending below base of 
antennae, and the antennae being in- 
serted below a line drawn throvigh the 
middle of the eyes. The third antennal 
joint is also considerably narrowed, and 
the whole body is very bristly. 

Aporia limacodis n. sp. $. Eyes cin- 
namon brown, thickly pubescent; front 
very narrow, about as wide as one of 
the antennal joints on posterior half, grad- 
ually widening before ; frontal vitta nearly 
obsolete behind, wide and triangular in front, 
velvet brown; frontal bristles moderately 
strong and all directed forward, absent just 
before ocelli, ocellar and vertical bristles 
hardly to be distinguished, all directed for- 
ward, no orbital bristles; sides of front, face 
and cheeks silvery white, the cheeks hardlv 
one-third eye-hight and with a few bristles 
on lower portion, sides of face narrow and 
bare ; vibrissae decussate and inserted on 
oral margin, facial ridges bare except several 
bristles next vibrissae; antennae and arista 
black, first two antennal joints and base of 
third rufous; proboscis short, fleshy, brown- 
ish, labella large and tawny ; palpi not large, 
rufous, bristly, a little enlarged apically ; 
occiput silvery, clothed with gray hairs. 
Thorax wider than head or abdomen, shin- 



ing black, rather thinly silvery white polli- 
nose. with four black vittae, the outer ones 
interrupted at suture, humeri and pleurae 
more distinctly silvery white pollinose; scu- 
tellum black, silvery, with an apical decus- 
sate pair of macrochaetae and two lateral 
ones, the posterior lateral ones strongest. 
Abdomen narrower than thorax, long coni- 
cal, very bristly and hairy, shining black, 
basal half or more of segments two to four 
silvery white pollinose, first segment silvery 
beneath and faintly so on sides above: first 
segment with a strong lateral macrochaeta 
and a median marginal pair; second with a 
median discal pair and a marginal row of six 
or eight; third with a median discal pair and 
a marginal row of ten; anal beset with ma- 
crochaetae except at base, second and third 
segments with median anterior and sub- 
marginal pairs of macrochaeta-like bristles. 
Legs rather long, blackish, front femora sil- 
very white pollinose on outside, tibiae pale 
brownish rufous, bristly, claws and pulvilli 
elongate, pulvilli smoky yellowish. Wings 
longer than abdomen, rather hyaline, some- 
what grayish, no stump or wrinkle at bend 
of fourth vein, tegulae nearly white, halteres 
tawny. 

Length of body, 9.5 mm. ; of wing, S mm. 

Described from one specimen ; Ith- 
aca, N. Y. Bred by Professor J. H. 
Comstock from Limacodes sp. Issued 
May 30. 

A female which may belong to this 
species was also sent me by Professor 
Comstock ; it was collected June 28 by 
Mr. S. H. Crossman, and differs as 
follows : 

More generally silvery white pollinose; 



276 



PSYCHE. 



[June 1892. 



front one-fourth width of head, of equal 
width, frontal bristles stronger, two orbital 
bristles directed strongly forward ; third an- 
tennal joint not so narrowed, palpi and labella 
more yellow. Macrochaetae of abdomen 



like bristles, which latter are very much 
weaker; claws and pulvilli only a little elon- 
gate. Abdomen less conical and nearly as 
wide as thorax. 

Length of body, nearly 7 mm.; of wing, 



more differentiated from the macrochaeta- 6 mm. 



THE EARLY STAGES OF NERICE BIDENTATA. 



BY CAROLINE G. SOULE, BROOKLINE, MASS. 



The egg, found on the under side of an 
elm leaf, Aug. 9, 1891, was hemispherical, 
the flat side being attached to the leaf. It 
was greenish yellow with a whitish bloom 
over it, and was very like the egg of Nadata 
gibbosa. It hatched on Aug. 13th. 

The youug larva was £ 6 inch long, of a 
deep green color, and with sparse hairs. 
Head brown, lighter on the median suture. 
The fifth segment had a dorsal and sub- 
stigmatal spot of shining brown, and the 
nth segment had a dorsal spot of the same 
color. The feet and props were shining 
brown in color. Anal props were very 
slender and were raised when the larva 
walked. The body, at rest, was arched 
between the feet and abdominal props, and 
between the abdominal and anal props. 

Aug. 16. 1st moult. Length £ inch. 
Head large, almost round, bilobed, pale 
olive green with dark green face-lines. 
Body pale glassy green, darker on the dor- 
sum. The glassy effect was striking. 5th 
segment had a large brown double tubercle 
on the dorsum, and a substigmatal, smaller 
one on each side. The tenth segment had 
a substigmatal brown patch on each side, 
and the nth a brown single tubercle or 
hump, on the dorsal line. Feet brown. 
Anal props striped with brown ; abdomi- 
nal props brown. Very short, sparse hairs 
all over the body. Head very smooth. 
Body arched when at rest, as before. 

Aug. 20. 2nd moult, § inch long. Head 
much larger than 1st segment, clear green, 
glassy, with brown face-lines. Body glassy 
green, translucent, with very few hairs; a 



faint white lateral line, and a brown, broken 
substigmatal line appeared ; the brown sub- 
stigmatal patches on 5th and 10th segments 
were as before. 5th segment had a large 
double hump, tipped with brown, nth had 
the large single hump as before ; 4th and 
6th had each a double wart on dorsum. 
Feet brown and shining. Props pale brown 
banded with dark brown. Anal props 
slender. Rested arched as before. Ate the 
leaf from the edge to the mid-rib at the tip, 
and rested on the bared mid -rib. Aug. 21. 
The marks had grown clearer and each 
segment from 6th to toth showed a small 
brown-tipped wart on the dorsal line, and 
from each wart a white oblique line ex- 
tended downward and backward, on each 
side. On the first 3 segments a white sub- 
dorsal line appeared. The effect of the dor- 
sal line was that of the edge of a serrate leaf. 
Aug. 23. 3d moult. I in. long. Head 
large, round, bilobed, smooth, green with 
dark face lines. Body green, with a broken, 
brown substigmatal line edged above with 
yellow, and a double yellow stigmatal line. 
First three segments had a double white sub- 
dorsal line. 4th segment had a double dor- 
sal hump, tipped with brown ; 5th, a much 
larger double hump, yellow green, tipped 
with brown, the brown extending down the 
front and back like a dorsal line lifted by 
the hump! 6th to 10th segments had simi- 
lar humps, but smaller, like that on 4th. 
nth segment had a large single hump with 
brown tip. From all these humps extended 
oblique white patches. Feet green with a 
dark, vertical line. Props pale brown 



June 1S92.] 



PSYCHE. 



277 



banded with darker brown. Anal props 
slender, green with a vertical brown stripe. 
Anal shield shining green like the head. 
Spiracles, heretofore unnoticeable, green 
with a brown line on each side, and from 
them spread white lines like veins, distinct 
on the green sides of the larva. 

Aug. 27. 4th moult. 1 inch long. Head 
large, round, smooth, shining green, with 
a white line on each side of the median 
suture, and a black line about halfway be- 
tween this and the edge of head. This 
black line was edged with whiter on the 
outer side. Body green. First three seg- 
ments had, on each side of dorsum, a wide 
white longitudinal line, below that a nar- 
rower one, below that a broken one. The 
humps were as before except that on nth 
segment, which became double. All the 
humps were unevenly double, the first point 
being longer than that behind it, as if the 
second point grew out of the base of the 
first. The white patches extended up the 
sides of the humps, and between these 
patches the green of the body, on the sides, 
made oblique lines. Sides and venter 
green. There was a broken substigmatal 
line of brown edged above with yellow, ex- 
tending from head to tips of anal props. 
Feet green with a vertical dark line. Props, 
green with a brown bar, this bar being 
crossed by two darker brown lines. 

Aug. 30. The brown of the tips of the 
humps had almost disappeared, as had the 
substigmatal line. The principal color was 
semi-opaque white, through which the deep 
blue-green of the body appeared in lines 
here and there, — notably the oblique lines 
on the sides, — and on the venter. 

Sept. 3d. The larva was i| inches in 
length and ^ inch from the venter to the 
tip of the hump on 5th segment. In the 
afternoon it grew dull in color, the humps 
seemed to be retracted, and, the next day, 
were almost level with the dorsal line, and 
the larva looked small and moist. It spun a 
few threads to fasten a leaf to the tin. 



Sept. 8th. The pupa appeared. Pupa 
|| inch long, neither stout nor slender, 
dark brown with much darker head, thorax, 
wing-cases, anal point, and bands between 
the segments. Eye-cases prominent and 
very smooth. Segments distinctly ridged 
on the edges, and pitted between these 
ridges. Anal point long, slender, sharp. 
The pupa was very active, rolling a foot or 
more at a time. 



Miscellaneous Notes. — By accident the 
pages of the last number of Psyche were 
marked April instead of May. 

An interesting sketch of protective resem- 
blance as displayed in the animal world was 
given in February before the Belgian acad- 
emy by Dr. Felix Plateau, and will be found 
in its Bulletins, pp. S9-135. Interesting ex- 
amples among insects are given. 

A new classification of the Acaroidea with 
full details and an enumeration of the genera 
is given by Dr. Trouessart in the Revue des 
sciences naturelles de l'Ouest of Paris for 
January, 1892. Five suborders and ten fami- 
lies are recognized and six of the latter are 
separated into twenty-four subfamilies. 

The eighth part of the leisurely Introduc- 
tion to entomology by Kolbe has appeared 
and contains some interesting summaries. 
The consideration of the muscles is con- 
cluded, and the mechanism and physiology 
of flight and other movements considered 
with interesting topical bibliographies. The 
nervous system is then taken up and its main 
features and especially the brain discussed, 
followed again by bibliographies. 

The extensive but in no way expensive 
work upon the families and genera of butter- 
flies begun in 1885 by Schatz and continued 
after his death in 1887 by Rober has just been 
completed by the publication of the sixth 
part. The neuration of nearly five hundred 
different butterflies, representing almost as 
many genera and accompanied by some rude 
details of the structure of the legs, palpi, and 



278 



PSYCHE. 



[June 1S92. 



antennae, are depicted on the fifty folio 
plates, while the text (284 pp.) describes the 
families, lower groups and genera with a 
statement of the number of species in each. 
On the plan laid down the work is well and 
symmetrically done and will prove exceed- 
ingly useful; but the classification is bad, 
the nomenclature of the parts unfortunate, 
and in the meagre use made of the early 
stages the hand of the closet naturalist is 
seen. Furthermore, the work comes to a stop 
without considering the Hesperidae, except 
in a single column in the introductory por- 
tion on geographical distribution. Schatz 
evidently intended to include them but 
Rober quailed before the task. The work 
can be obtained through Dr. Staudinger of 
Dresden. A Genera of Butterflies fairly up 
to the times is still a desideratum. 

An interesting summary of his observa- 
tions on the visits of insects to flowers is 
given by Robertson in a couple of papers in 
the recently issued Transactions of the St. 
Louis academy of science (vol. 5, nos. 3 
and 4). The first treats of the insects ob- 



served on Umbelliferae, the second on the 
other orders from Asclepiadaceae to Scroph- 
ulariaceae inclusive. The insects were de- 
termined by specialists. 

The full details of his experiments on 
destroying chinch-bugs in the field by the in- 
troduction of bugs affected by contagious 
diseases are published by Chancellor Snow 
in the first report of the experiment station 
of the University of Kansas. 

Under the title Beobachtungen uber muc- 
kengallen Dr. Fr. Thomas publishes in the 
Programme of the Ohrdruf Gymnasium ob- 
servations on cecidomyian galls on thirty 
different European plants ; twelve cases of 
wholly new cecidia are given, while of eight 
others the plant host is new. 

Dr. Lintner's seventh report on the insects 
of New York has just been issued ; it forms 
an abundantly illustrated volume of over two 
hundred pages, about one half of which is 
given up to accounts of eleven injurious spe- 
cies of different orders. Two papers read 
before horticultural societies are included in 
the appendix. 



The Butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada. 

With special reference to New England. By Samuel H. Scudder. 
Illustrated with 96 plates of Butterflies, Caterpillars, Chrysalids, etc. (of which 41 are 
colored) which include about 2,000 Figures besides Maps and Portraits. 1958 Pages of Text. 
Vol. 1. Introduction; Nymphalidae. 
Vol. 2. Remaining Families of Butterflies. 
Vol. 3. Appendix, Plates and Index. 

The set, 3 vols., royal 8vo, half levant, $75.00 net. 



HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & CO., 

4 Park St., Boston, Mass- 



PHALANGIDAE. 

I am preparing a monograph of the Phalan- 
gidae of North America and will be glad to get 
specimens from any locality. Will identify and re- 
turn any sent. Specimens from the Northwest, 
Southwest, and the Pacific coast especially desired. 
CLARENCE M. WEED, 
Hanover, N. H. 



G UA TEMALAN B UTTERFLIES. 

A collection of about 400 Guatemalan Butterflies, 
in papers as collected (mostly Nymphalinae and 
Pierinae, and no Hesperidae,) will be sold for ten 
dollars for the benefit of Psyche to the first applicant 
sending cash to 

Samuel Henshaw, Treas, 

Mercer Circle, Cambridge, Mass. 



PSYCH 




A. JOURNAL OF 1 EIDTTODULOLOO-Y. 



[Established in 1S74.] 



Vol. 6. No. 195. 

July, 1892. 



CONTENTS: 

The Bombycixe Genus Lagoa, Type of a new Family. — A. S. Packard. . . 281 

The Leptidae and Bombylidae of the White Mountains. — Lewis E. Hood. . 283 

The Orthopteran gexus Hippiscus. — II. — Samuel H. Scudder. . . . 285 

Three new Pambolids from the United States. — Wtn. H. Ashmead. . . 289 

Notes on Cerura, with Descriptions of new species. — Harrison G. Dyar. . 290 

Personal Notes 292 

Bibliographical Notes. — II. — Samuel Henshazv 293 

Cerura modesta. — Harrison G. Dyar 293 

General Notes (Hudson's New Zealand entomology; Lowne's Blow-fly; Moore's 
Lepidoptera Indica ; a prize in economic entomology; Heraclides cresphontes 

in Massachusetts). ............ 294 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club. ..... 294 



Published by the 

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Cambridge, Mass.. U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS. 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



280 



PSYCHE. 



[July 1S92. 



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CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meetings of the Club are now held at 
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No. 156 Brattle St. Entomologists temporarily in 
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The following books and pamphlets are for sale 
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Burgess, E. Contributions to the anat- 
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pus. Boston, 1880, 16 p., 2 plates. . . 1.00 

Grote, A. R. Revised Check list of the 
North American Noctuidae. Part I. Thya- 
tirinae-Noctuinae. Bremen, 1890. . . .50 

Hitchcock, Edward. Ichnology of New 
England. Boston, 1858 .... 1.50 

Illinois. Trans. Dept. Agric. for 1876 (con- 
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logist). Springfield. 111., 1878 . . . 1.00 

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sects of America. Cambridge, 1885, 8 p., 1 plate .50 

Scudder, S. H. Historical sketch of the 
generic names proposed for Butterflies. Sa- 
lem, 1875. 1. 00 

Scudder, S. H. The pine-moth of Nan- 
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Scudder, S. H. The fossil butterflies of 
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Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Jahrg. 
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U. S. Entomological Commission. Bulletins, 
Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 1 .00 

— Fourth Report, Washington, 1885 . . 2.00 
Samuel Henshaw, Treas., 

Cambridge, Mass. 



PHALANGIDAE. 

I am preparing a monograph of the Phalan- 
gidae of North America and will be glad to get 
specimens from any locality. Will identify and re- 
turn any sent. Specimens from the Northwest f 
Southwest, and the Pacific coast especially desired. 
CLARENCE M. WEED, 
Hanover, N. H. 



PSYCHE. 



THE BOMBYCINE GENUS LAGOA, TYPE OF A NEW FAMILY 



BY A. S. PACKARD, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



In its general appearance the larva 
of Lagoa is in some respects intermedi- 
ate between the Cochliopodiclae and 
the Liparidae. It resembles the former 
group in the short thick body ; in the 
head being concealed by the prothoracic 
hood ; and in the venomous spines. 

On the other hand it resembles the 
Liparidae in the hairy body, the hairs 
being finely plumose, a peculiarity of 
more common occurrence in the Lipa- 
ridae than in the Cochliopodiclae. 

As regards the cocoon this is inter- 
mediate in form and texture between 
that of Orgyia, etc., and the Cochlio- 
podidae, but it more closely approaches 
that of the latter ; it varies somewhat in 
density in different species, being usu- 
ally quite firm and dense, like parch- 
ment, nearly as much so as in those of 
the Cochliopodidae, and also approach- 
ing them in shape, being oblong-cylin- 
drical, oval, contracted at the anterior 
end, and with a separately-spun lid, 
closing the front end. As Dr. Lintner 
has shown with many interesting details, 
"The lid is woven by the caterpillar 
separately from the rest of the cocoon, 
and is not a section cut from it after its 
completion." Ent. contr., ii. p. 142. 

The pupa is much like that of Lima- 
codes, etc. , the integument or cast cuticle 



being remarkably thin, and after the 
exit of the moth the antennae and legs, 
as well as the wings, are free from the 
body ; while the latter is split both 
down the back and along the under side 
to the end of the thorax. Moreover 
when the moth escapes, the pupa-skin 
is left with the head and thorax project- 
ing out of the end of the cocoon. 

As regards its imaginal or adult char- 
acters it is also intermediate between 
the two families mentioned. In the 
short stout body and short broad wings 
it has the habit of a Limacodes rather 
than of such Liparid genera as Por- 
thesia, etc. In the shape of the an- 
tennae and palpi it is about as near the 
Liparidae as the Cochliopodidae. 

In respect to the denuded head, Lagoa 
is much more like Euclea than the 
Liparidae. The clypeus is rather long 
and narrow, similar in shape to that of 
Euclea, though rather narrower, and is 
thus more like that of the Cochliopodids 
than that of the Liparidae, represented 
by Orgyia and the European Porthesia 
chrysorrhaea, whose denuded heads I 
have examined. The epicranium and 
occiput taken together (on the median 
line of the body) are about one third as 
long as the entire clypeus. 

As regards the venation, Lagoa is 



282 



PS TCHE. 



[ July, 1S92. 



decidedly nearer Euclea and other Coch- 
liopodidsthan the Liparidae (I have ex- 
amined the venation of Orgyia and 
Parorgyia). Lagoa has the same wide 
costal region of the fore wings as in 
Euclea, that of the Liparidae being very 
narrow ; the five hranches of the sub- 
costal vein are thrown off in nearly the 
same manner as those of Euclea and 
Limacodes. The discal veins and ori- 
gin of the independent (6th subcostal) 
are almost precisely as in Euclea, and 
the four branches of the median vein 
are also similar in their mode of origin, 
and unlike those of Orgyia and Paror- 
gyia- 

In the hind wings, as in the Cochlio- 

podidae, there are ten veins, in the Lip- 
aridae only nine ; there are but two 
branches of the subcostal vein, the 
third branch being detached, so that 
there are two independent veins, one 
arising from the anterior, and the other 
from the posterior discal vein. In the 
Liparidae mentioned there is no inde- 
pendent vein. The four median vein- 
lets have the same peculiarities in their 
mode of origin as in Cochliopodids and 
the same differences from the Liparidae. 
To sum up : in the superficial char- 
acters of the imago, and in having ab- 
dominal legs in the larva, Lagoa resem- 
bles the flat, scale-like Liparidae, but in 
all its essential characters, those of the 
^gg, of the larva, pupa, and imago, it 
belongs with the Cochliopodidae, except 
in the matter of the presence of abdomi- 
nal legs in the larva. On this account it 
seems fairly entitled to be regarded as 



th^type of an independent group. We 
may regard it as a generalized, ancient 
group of Cochliopodidae, and refer it to 
a subfamily Lagoinae, or we may boldly 
remove it altogether from either of the 
two families mentioned and consider 
the genus as the representative of a dis- 
tinct family and designate the group by 
the name of Lagoidae. This on the 
whole seems to us to be perhaps the 
most judicious course to pursue. At 
all events the insect is plainly enough 
an ancient, ancestral, or generalized 
form. 'It is a Cochliopodid with larval 
abdominal legs. It lays eggs like those 
of Limacodes, etc. ; its head in the larval 
state is concealed from above by the 
prothoracic hood ; its larval armature is 
more of the Cochliopodid type than Li- 
parid ; so are the pupal characters and 
the nature of the cocoon ; and the shape 
of the important parts of the head, and 
the essential features of the venation, are 
overwhelmingly Cochliopodid. Under 
these circumstances we feel justified in 
regarding Lagoa as a most interesting 
ancestral form, and as affording argu- 
ments for considering the Bombyces as 
a whole as a generalized and ancestral 
group, and as epitomizing the other 
higher lepidopterous families. 

The genus is peculiar to North and 
South America, and may rank with 
such forms as the colossal sloths, and 
certain American vertebrate survivors 
of middle Tertiary times. In some re- 
spects it is intermediate between the 
Saturniidae, especially the higher At- 
tacinae and the Cochliopodidae. 



July 1S93. ] 



PSYCHE. 



283 



THE LEPTIDAE AND BOMBYLIDAE OF THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 

BY LEWIS E. HOOD, SOMERVILLE, MASS. 



But few local lists of the Diptera 
have been published and until this or- 
der has been placed upon a higher 
basis by monographic study anything 
seems useful that will contribute to our 
knowledge of the geographical distri- 
bution of this neglected group of in- 
sects. 

I have considerable material from the 
mountains of central New Hampshire 
and a list of the Leptidae and Bomby- 
lidae are given below ; good series of 
several other families are in my posses- 
sion especially in the Tabanidae, Asili- 
dae, Empidae, and Trypetidae which I 
shall work up as time allows. 

What knowledge I have of the dip- 
terous fauna of the White Mt. region 
has been gained by the study of the 
insects collected during two trips be- 
tween the years 1883 and 1887, and 
from several small lots of flies obtained 
from friends by exchange ; supplemen- 
tary to these personal collections I have 
had free access, through the kindness 
of Dr. H. A. Hagen, to the rich collec- 
tions of Dr. H. Loew and Baron C. R. 
Osten Sacken in the Museum of com- 
parative zoology in Cambridge, Mass., 
thereby not only being able to deter- 
mine my species by direct comparison 
but becoming familiar with their series 
of New England Diptera. 

There is a marked similarity be- 
tween the dipterous fauna of the south- 
ern portion of the White Mountains, 



and that of eastern Massachusetts, but 
the species obtained north of Mount 
Washington seem to be more local, 
with many that are common in Canada ; 
the material from the mountain region 
is far too incomplete to warrant any 
definite conclusions as to distribution 
but I add to the list a few notes that 
have some bearing on this subject. 

At no place did I find the Leptidae 
numerous, while certain species of 
Bombylidae were well represented by 
specimens; many are limited in their 
distribution with only one or two that 
could be considered cosmopolitan. 

Most of my specimens were collected 
at North Conway, Bemis, Upper Bart- 
lett, Glen Station, Mt. Washington, and 
the region around Jefferson. 

Family Leptidae. 

Triptotricha riifithorax Say. Up- 
per Bartlett ; before only recorded from 
N. Y. westward. 

Chrysopila fasciata Say. North 
Conway, also at Hollis, N. H. 

Chrysopila quadrata Say. North 
Conway, Bemis, N. H., eastern Massa- 
chusetts and throughout New England. 

Chrysopila thoracica Fab. One 
specimen from near Mt. Lincoln ; I am 
not certain of exact locality, and have 
specimens from Massachusetts and 
Maine. 

Leptls hirta Loew. A specimen 
from the western part of the state 



284 



PSYCHE. 



[July 1S92. 



agrees in every respect with Dr. Loew's 
description but with slight, if it can be 
called any, facial swelling. Osten 
Sacken in his Catalogue gives Illinois 
as .the habitat of this species. The 
present may be a new species but it is 
best to wait until other specimens are 
received before any special description 
is given. 

Leptis mystacea Macq. Bemis and 
Jefferson, N. H., eastern Massachusetts, 
Norwich, Conn. 

Leptis punctipennis Say. North 
Conway, Nashua. Osten Sacken states 
that this is common in the northern 
states, but it has not proved so in my 
collecting grounds. 

Atherix variegata Walk. A single 
specimen from Jefferson collected in 
1883. 

Family Bombylidae. 

This family is better represented than 
the former, especially in the number of 
specimens. In his Catalogue Baron 
Osten Sacken gives the White Moun- 
tains and Maine as the habitat of Exo- 
prosopa dorcadion O. S. in New Eng- 
land ; I place the species in this list but 
as yet I have not received it from New 
Hampshire. 

Exoprosopa dorcadion O. S. 

Exoprosopa fascipennis Say. North 
Conway ; and I have it from Connecti- 
cut. 

Exoprosopa fasciata Macq. Jeffer- 
son, Bemis, Nashua ; rather rare near 
Boston, Mass. 

Anthrax lateralis Say. Single speci- 
men near Bemis. 



Anthrax nigricauda Loew. Jef- 
ferson ; only a single specimen ; have 
never found it before in New England. 

Argyramoeba analis Say. Jefferson, 
N. H., Massachusetts, New Jersey, and 
in the collection of Mr. J. A. Wright a 
specimen labelled " North Carolina " 
received from Mr. Morrison. 

Argyramoeba plato Wied. " W. 
Mt " ? I have a specimen marked "W. 
Mt." lately received with other species 
in exchange ; it is possible this means 
''Western Montana" but I am led to be- 
lieve that it is from the White Mountains. 

Argyramoeba simson Fab. Single 
specimen from the western foothills of 
the White Mountains. 

Bo7nbylius fratellns Wied. North 
Conway. 

Bombylius pygmaeus Fab. Jefferson. 

Bombylius varias Fab. A single 
specimen much damaged, obtained near 
North Conway, I take to be this species, 
but the identification is not positive. 
Another species of this genus collected 
near Jefferson is still unidentified ; it is 
closely allied to B. atriceps Loew, 
but much smaller. 

Systropus macer Loew. Upper Bart- 
lett. 

Epibates fumestus O. S. In his 
Catalogue of American Diptera Osten 
Sacken gives the White Mountains as 
the habitat of this species. I have as 
yet never seen a specimen, and it is 
probably very rare. 

Some species of this family were very 
common but it was quite another thing 
to catch them, they being approached 
with difficulty, seemingly more active 
than their brothers in the Bay state. 



uly, 1S92.] 



PSYCHE. 



285 



(Confirmed from page 274.) 
des plantes at Paris, a 9 , and the 
Philadelphia type of the same at 
the Oxford museum, and from my 
notes and sketches taken at the time 
(1S65-66) I can have no doubt that the 
two species are identical, an opinion 
first advanced by Burmeister (Germ. 
Zeitschr. ent., 2,54) and now generally 
held. Burmeister's description ap- 
peared at least a month before Serville's. 
That the Brazilian specimen mentioned 
by Serville belonged to a different spe- 
cies is probable both from its geographi- 
cal separation and because Serville 
mentions that the inside of the hind 
femora is of a deep blue, which might 
have been taken from the Brazilian 
specimen but is not true of the North 
American species. 

This is a characteristic species of the 
southern United States, where it ex- 
tends everywhere from Florida to 
Texas, and ranges as far north as Mary- 
land, Pennsylvania (Serville), and New 
Jersey in the east, Illinois as far north 
as Union County (Thomas) or Rock 
Island County (McNeill) where it is 
rare, and in the west to Nebraska. 
I have specimens before me from 
various parts of Florida, Dallas, 
Tex., Georgia, North Carolina, Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and 
Nebraska. 

HlPPISCUS (H.) PANTHERIXUS Sp. 110V. 

Pale ochraceous, the head strongly tinged 
with pale yellow, full and well rounded, 
only moderately broad above ; vertex trans- 
versely scabrous behind the scutellum which 



is broader than long, with distinct and some- 
what elevated, though smoothlv rounded 
bounding walls which rapidly converge on 
the sides anteriorly, its front terminated bv a 
transverse and deep foveolate sulcus sepa- 
rating its body from the frontal costa ; pos- 
teriorly the bounding wall is slight and a 
feeble longitudinal carina passes through its 
posterior half, the floor nearly smooth ; lat- 
eral foveolae small, subrhomboid, distinct; 
frontal costa rather deeply sulcate except at 
extremities. Antennae fuscous, paler at 
base. Pronotum not very stout, the posterior 
lobe less expanded than usual, the median 
carina impressed rather than cut by the an- 
terior sulcus, and the effect heightened by its 
partial suppression immediately behind said 
sulcus and the formation of a slight discal 
scutellum; surface rugose but not promi- 
nently nor densely, the lateral canthi moder- 
ately sharp and traversing the principal 
sulcus; color ochraceous with a pale yellow 
oblique stripe on either side of the metazona, 
broad anteriorly and narrow posteriorly, 
giving the metazona the appearance of a 
greater expansion than it has. Tegmina 
dark fuscous with strongly pantherine, trans- 
verse, pallid or yellowish stripes which be- 
come narrower and fainter in the semipel- 
lucid apex ; in all cases they are continuous, 
subequal, and traverse the whole or nearly 
the whole of the tegmina outside the axillary 
area which is fuscous except for one or two 
partial bands adjoining those of the area 
above but separated from them by the clear 
pale yellow sutural stripe; an oblique pallid 
discal stripe follows the descending portion 
of the ulnar vein connecting the transverse 
stripes at either end ; darker spots of the 
marginal field blackish fuscous and conspic- 
uous especially in middle of tegmina. 
Wings pale lemon-yellow at base with a 
rather broad dark fuscous stripe hardly nar- 
rowing in the upper part of the anal field, 
but narrowing with great regularity to the 
anal angle which it reaches, leaving four 
lobes of the margin intact; separated by a 



286 



PSYCHE. 



[ July, 1S92. 



very narrow yellow line from the humeral 
stripe which runs two-thirds of the way to 
the base traversed interiorly by conspicuous 
yellow cross veins ; costal margin more or 
less tinged with orange, the apical portion of 
axillary area with a few cellular fuliginous 
spots clustered along the veins. Hind fe- 
mora uniform coral red within from base to 
apex, testaceous externally with clouded fus- 
cous oblique stripes, above mostly fuscous; 
hind tibiae coral red externally, pallid toward 
base, the spines black tipped. 
Length of body, 39 mm. ; of tegmina, 37 mm. 
Pecos River, Texas, June 18. Capt. 
Pope, one $ . 

This species not only shows a depart- 
ure toward the Xanthippus type of 
structure of the pronotal carina, but it 
strikingly resembles H. (X.) con- 
spicuus Scudd. It differs from the lat- 
ter, however, in the structure of the 
head and pronotum, as well as in the 
width of the arcuate dark band of the 
wing ; and from the Xanthippus type 
generally in the great depth of the infer- 
ior carina of the hind femora. So far 
as can be seen the antennae are of the 
Hippiscus type, but the tip is lost in 
the only specimen known. 

Hippiscus (H.) haldemanii. 

Oedipoda haldema?iii Scudd!, Rep. U. S. 
geol. surv. Nebr., 251 ; Glov., 111. N. A. ent., 
Orth., pi. 13, fig. 3? 

Hippiscus haldemanni Scudd !, Bull. U. S. 
geol. surv. terr. , 2, 264. 

Oedipoda paradoxa Glov. (not Thomas), 
111. N. A. ent., Orth., pi. iS, fig. 14. 

Hippiscus nanus Sauss., Prodr. Oedip., 86- 
87. 

Hippiscus tuberculatus McNeill!, Psyche, 
6,63. 

Oedipoda neglecta Thorn !, Key 111., Orth., 
3; Bull. 111. mus., 1,64; (not Oe. neglecta 



Thorn., Proc acad. nat. sc. Phila., 1870, 
81-S2, etc. 

I have re-examined some of the types 
of this species and base thereupon my 
conclusions about the synonymy of this 
and the allied species. That it is 
the H. namis of Saussure there can, I 
think, be no question. It is not the Oe. 
paradoxa of Thomas, which an exami- 
nation of the type shows to be a Xan- 
thippus, though Glover figures quite 
a different insect. Illinois specimens 
labelled by Thomas show, strange as it 
may seem, that it was this insect which 
he mistook for his Oe. neglecta. 

This species appears to be confined 
to the centre of the continent. Passing 
from east westward, the localities known 
to me are the following : Moline, 111. 
(McNeill), southern Illinois (Thomas), 
the Red River of the North (Kennicott) , 
middle Kansas (Bruner in litt.), all 
eastern and middle Nebraska and the 
Sand Hills of the same state (Bruner in 
litt.), eastern Nebraska (Dodge), Ne- 
braska City and the banks of the Platte 
River (Hayden), Garden of the Gods, 
Colorado (Packard), Colorado (Saus- 
sure) . 

Hippiscus (H.) texanus sp. nov. 

Brownish fuscous, darker above than on 
the sides, inconspicuously dotted with black, 
the head, excepting above, ochraceous more 
or less mottled with brown, the vertex behind 
scutellum lightly corrugate, often in the 
$ transversely disposed ; scutellum large 
with slight and not sharp bounding walls, of 
nearly equal length and breadth ( $ ) or much 
longer than broad {$), its front margin 
deeply V-shaped and connected more or less 
faintly at the point of the V with the longi- 



July, 1S92.] 



PSYCHE. 



287 



tudinal carinae of the vertex; lateral foveolae 
rather small, subtriangular and shallow; 
frontal costa somewhat constricted above, 
gently expanded at the ocellus at and below 
which it is moderately sulcate. Antennae 
ochraceous, becoming blackish fuscous in 
apical half or third, hardly tapering except 
on apical joint*. Pronotum compressed, 
gently expanding on the metazona, the dor- 
sum very faintly tectiform, and the prozona 
posteriorly tumid centrally, the surface with 
distant prominent glistening granulations or 
very brief vermiculations ; median carina 
simple, moderately pronounced with a dis- 
tinct but very slight uniform arcuation ; 
lateral canthi not very pronounced, confined 
to the metazona but for slight indications; 
posterior margin rectangular; lateral lobes 
with sparse, feeble, and very brief vermicula- 
tions, the centre marked with a fuscous 
blotch enclosing a yellowish quadrate mark 
below. Tegmina cinereous and fuscous, the 
former prevailing in the $ , the latter in the 
J where it also becomes blackish and the 
cinereous of a brighter tone: the marginal 
field has a large quadrate fuscous spot just 
beyond the angle of the humeral lobe, and in 
the 5 this is almost the only dark marking 
therein, while in the $ it is preceded by one 
and followed by two similar but a little 
smaller, equally dark spots, and the apical 
portion of the field is much infuscated ; in 
both sexes the axillary area is dark cinereous 
with dark veins and faint fuscous spots; 
sutural stripe of the lighter color and tolera- 
bly conspicuous; the inner discoidal field has 
rather small and roundish fuscous spots, the 
largest and roundest just at or within the 
broadest part, the outermost below the 
sharply triangular fuscous spot at the ex- 
treme base of the outer discoidal field and 
separated from it by only a narrow cinereous 
line at the upper edge of the ulnar inter- 
space; beyond this the outer discoidal field 
has three or four very similar broad trans- 
verse fuscous bands, relatively much broader 
and much darker in the $ than in the $ , 



becoming blurred and indistinct apically. 
Wings coral red at base, the fusco-fuliginous 
arcuate band marginal below the fourth 
lobe, of moderate breadth, narrowing but 
little as it passes to the anal angle, but some- 
what as it passes upward to the faint and 
slender yellowish red line separating it from 
the humeral stripe which reaches toward but 
not to the base, and is separated from the 
margin except apically by the red of the 
base; apex hyaline, slightly infuscated at 
the edge in the $ , the veins and cross veins 
blackish fuscous. Hind femora yellow apic- 
ally and blue basally within, thrice traversed 
by broad black bars; outside fusco-cinereous, 
indistinctly barred with fuscous in the $ ; 
hind tibiae yellow with an orange tinge, the 
spines black tipped. 

Length of body, J, 32 mm., $ , 47 mm. ; 
of elytra, $ , 34 mm., $, 45 mm. 

Dallas, Texas, Boll, May 1, June 6. 
Described from 3 $ , 1 9 . I have 
since received a specimen from San 
Antonio, Texas, collected by Newell 
(Brunei') . 

Hippiscus (H.) rugosus. 

Oedipoda rugosa Scudd!, Bost. journ. nat. 
hist., 7,469; Walk., Cat. Derm. salt. Brit, 
mus., 731; Thorn., Rep. U. S. geol. surv. 
terr., 6, 720-721 ; Syn. Acrid. N. A., 132-133; 
Key 111. Orth., 3; Glov., 111. N. A. ent., 
Orth., pi. 12, fig. 8. 

Hippiscus rugosus Scudd !, Rep. geol. N. 
H., i, 377; Sauss., Prodr. Oedip., 85. 

Hippiscus corallipes far. rugosus Thorn., 
Rep. ent. 111., 9, 95, 115-116. 

This species, originally described 
from specimens found in Massachusetts 
and Maine where it is very rare, has 
since proved to be wide spiead. I 
have myself seen specimens from Nor- 
way, Me. (Smith), eastern Massa- 
chusetts (Scudder), Delaware (Ent. 



288 



PSYCHE. 



[ July, 1S92. 



soc. Philad.), Maryland (Uhler), 
Georgia (Morrison in Henshaw's col- 
lection), Illinois (Strumberg in Hen- 
shaw's coll.), southern Illinois (Ken- 
nicott), Republican Fork, Kansas (Lt. 
Bryant), Lakin, Kans. (Scudder), 
West Point, Nebraska, and Glendive, 
Montana! (Bruner), and from Dallas 
(Boll), San Antonio (Lincecum), and 
Bosque Co., Texas (Belfrage). Saus- 
sure in addition reports it from Mis- 
souri, Thomas from the District of 
Columbia, Nebraska, and Dakota ; and 
Walker (in whose correct determina- 
tion of the species I have no confidence) 
from Nova Scotia, New Jersey, and 
Vancouver Island. It seems to be a 
southern species, rarely occurring in 
the north. Belfrage says that in Texas 
it is a rare species found on prairies in 
October. 

Hippiscus (H.) compactus sp. no v. 

A compact and stout though not very 
large form. Very dark brownish fuscous, 
necked with blackish, the head stout and 
full, very broad above, olivaceo-fuscous ex- 
cepting above, where it is brownish fuscous 
with broad median and lateral longitudinal 
dull olivaceous stripes ;summit of head sparse- 
ly punctate, nearly smooth with very slight 
signs of transverse rugae; vertical scutellum 
indistinct, with slight and low bounding 
walls, broader than long in both sexes, faintly 
quadripartite; lateral foveolae slight, elon- 
gate, triangular; frontal costa broad, flat, 
punctate, slightly depressed at the ocellus, 
subequal, at upper extremity faintly bifoveo- 
late. Antennae pale cinereous at base, dark 
fuscous apically. Pronotum stout, but not 
expanding greatly on the metazona, the dor- 
sal area nearly flat and tolerably uniform 



except for the more or less longitudinal glis- 
tening rugae which are rather sparse and not 
very elevated; median carina very uniform 
and not prominent or arcuate; lateral 
canthi tolerably well pronounced on the 
metazona, distinctly and considerably sur- 
passing the median sulcus; angle of poste- 
rior margin slightly exceeding a right angle ; 
lateral lobes densely punctate on the meta- 
zona. Tegmina cinereous, becoming semi- 
pellucid apically, heavily banded with black- 
ish fuscous in tolerably regular transverse 
subequidistant stripes, with very little ob- 
liquity, broader in the proximal than in the 
distal half of the tegmina; they are subcon- 
tinuous in the marginal and discoidal areas, 
and the axillary area is fuscous with three or 
four small blackish spots seated on the anal 
vein ; sutural stripe distinct and yellowish 
cinereous; the spot at extreme base of the 
outer discoidal area is completely amalga- 
mated with that below and slightly within in 
the inner discoidal area; the outer stripes 
are slender, more or less maculate, and do 
not reach the lower margin of the tegmina. 
Wings pale lemon-yellow at base with a 
pretty broad, blackish fuscous, arcuate band 
scarcely reaching the anal angle and touch- 
ing the margin only at the 5th (£) or 6th 
f $) lobe; it is not narrowed above, is sepa- 
rated from the humeral stripe by a testaceous 
line, the stripe reaching nearly to the base ; 
apex hyaline, or in the $ slightly infuscated 
next the margin above, all the veins blackish. 
Hind femora clay yellow within banded with 
black, dull cinereo-fuscous without, oblique- 
ly banded with blackish fuscous; hind tibiae 
brownish yellow, more or less infuscated ex- 
cept in a broad band just beyond the base, 
spines black tipped. 

Length of body, $, 26 mm., $, 33 mm., 
of tegmina, £, 22 mm., 9 , 29 mm. 

Carolina, from the Schaum collection ; 
Maryland, from the south shore of the 
North Potomac. Described from 1 $ , 



July, 1S92.] 



PSYCHE 



289 



THREE NEW PAMBOLIDS FROM THE UNITED STATES. 



BY WM. H. ASHMEAD, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Arraphis Ruthe. 

No species of this interesting genus 
is yet described from North America 
and nothing is known of the habits of 
the several described European species. 
Two distinct species, captured by 
myself in Florida while sweeping, and 
known to me only in the male sex, may 
be thus distinguished : — 

Metanotum coarsely rugose. 
Black ; head yellowish. 

A. atnericana sp. n. 
Metanotum distinctly areolated. 

Black ; collar yellow ; basal two- 
thirds of abdomen reddish. 

A. minuta sp. n. 

A. atnericana sp. n. £. Length, 3 mm. 
Black, shining, with a short, sparse pube- 
scence; head and collar, reddish-yellow; 
basal three joints of antennae, tegulae, and 
legs, honey-yellow. Head transverse, rounded 
off behind the eyes, smooth, impunctured ; 
ej'es rounded, prominent. Mesonotum tri- 
lobed, the middle lobe somewhat rugulose, 
carinated at sides posteriorly, the lateral 
lobes shagreened. Scutellum convex, 

smooth, shining, with a profound crenate 
furrow at base. Pleurae rugose. Metathorax 
coarsely rugose, the angles produced into a 
long spine ; tips of the spines yellowish ; 
there is also a delicate carina extending from 
the base of each spine forward to the spira- 
cles. Wings hyaline, the stigma and ner- 
vures brownish-yellow, the costal edge black, 
the recurrent nervure interstitial with the 
transverse cubital. Abdomen oblong-oval, 
black, much depressed, highly polished, and 



composed of but three segments, the first 
with a deep channel along the sides, bounded 
by a carina above. 

Hab. — Jacksonville, Florida. 
Type in Coll. Ash mead. 
Described from a single specimen. 

A. minuta sp. n . $. Length 1.4 mm. 
Black, shining; collar yellow; basal two- 
thirds of abdomen reddish, the basal half 
finely longitudinally striated ; rest of the 
abdomen highly polished. Antennae long, 
slender, black, the pedicel and first flagellar 
joint alone yellowish. Thorax faintly sha- 
greened or punctate, the mesonotum trilobed, 
the middle lobe with a slight impression, 
posteriorly just in front of the scutellum but 
without a carina at the sides. Scutellum 
smooth with a faintly crenated fovea at base. 
Pleurae finely rugose. Metathorax regularly 
areolated, the angles produced into long 
yellow spines, the surface of the areas, ex- 
cept the long middle, smooth and shining, 
the middle area transversely wrinkled. Legs 
honey -yellow. Wings hyaline, the stigma 
and nervures pale yellow. 

Hab. — Jacksonville, Florida. 
Type in Coll. Ashmead. 

Pambolus Haliday. 

P. bifasciatus sp. n. $ $ . Length J 3 
mm., ovip. 0.3 mm. ; $ 2.6 mm. Black, sub- 
opaque, minutely shagreened ; metathorax 
finely rugose and indistinctly areolated. 
Mesonotum without furrows. Scutellum 
flat with a crenate furrow across the base. 
Wings hyaline with two transverse, fuscous 
bands. Antenna? in $ 21-, in $ 22- jointed, 
pale yellowish-brown. Legs dark fuscous, 



290 



PSYCHE. 



July, iS92- 



almost black, the tarsi pale. Abdomen a 
little longer than the head and thorax to- 
gether, longitudinally striate, the apical 
margins of segments 2, 3, and 4, apical half 
of 5, and the following segments smooth, 
polished; the second segment has also two 
transverse lines or impressions, the first dis- 
tinct situated a little beyond its basal third, 
the second indistinct. 

Hab. — District of Columbia, Cali- 



fornia, and Morgantown, W. Va. 
Types in Coll. Ashmead and National 
Museum. 

My specimens were taken at large, 
while those in the National Museum 
were reared June 24, 1891, at Morgan- 
town, W. Va., by Prof. A. D. Hop- 
kins, from Anthaxia viridicornis, 
living: in willow twisrs. 



NOTES ON CERURA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES 



BY HARRISON G. DYAR, BOSTON, MASS. 



The species of Cerura have been so badly 
mixed up in Prof. Smith's new list, that I 
will give a catalogue of them, as follows : 

Cerura multiscripta Riley. 

1875 — Riley, Trans. St. Louis acad. sci., 
iii, 241. 

1S90 — Dyar, Psyche, v, 393. 

Habitat — Missouri and Illinois to New 
York. 

Cerura scitiscripta Walker. 

1S65 — Walk., Cat. lep. Brit. mus.,xxxii, 408. 

var. Candida Lintner. 

1877 — Lintn. , 30th rept. N. Y. State mus. , 
199. 

1891 — Dyar, Can^ ent., xxiii, 87. pr. var. 

Habitat — Georgia to Kansas. 

Cerura cinerea Walker. 

1865 — Walk. Cat. lep. Brit, mus, xxxii, 
407. 

1883 — Edwards and Elliot, Papilio, iii, 
130. 

1891 — Dyar, Psyche, vi, 80. 

var. cinereoides Dyar. 

1890 — Dyar, Can. ent., xxii, 253. 

1891 — Dyar, Psyche, vi, 82. 

Habitat — New York to Montana and Cal- 
ifornia. 

Cerura occidentalis Lintner. 

1877 — Lintn., 30th rept. N. Y. State Mus., 
194. 

1881 — French, Can. ent., xiii, 144. 



Habitat — Pennsylvania to Canada and 
Wisconsin. 

Cerura modesta Hudson. 

1891 — Hudson, Can. ent., xxiii, 197. 

Habitat — Northern New York. 

Cerura borealis Boisduval. 

1832 — Boisd., Cuv. an. kingd., (Griffith). 

1841 — Harris, Rept. ins. Mass., 306. 

1864 — Packard, Proc. ent. soc. Phil., iii' 

375- 

1872 — Lintner, 26th rept. N. Y. st. cab. 
nat. hist., 151. 

1877 — Lintner, 30th rept. N. Y. st. mus., 
196. 

1881 — French, Can. ent., xiii, 145. 

1891 — Dyar, Can. ent., xxiii, 85. 

Habitat — Georgia and Missouri to Illi- 
nois and New England states. 

Cerura scolopendrina Boisduval. 

1869 — Boisd., L6p. de la Cal., 86. 

1S91 — Dyar, Can. ent., xxiii, 186. 

aquilonaris Lintner. 

1877 — Lintn., 30th rept. N. Y. state mus., 
197. 

1891 — Thaxter, Can., ent., xxiii, 34. 

189 1 — Dyar, Can. ent., xxiii, 1S6, pr. syn. 

Habitat — New York, Canada, Montana, 
Oregon and California.* 



*This is, doubtless, the species to which Butler re- 
ferred as C. bicuspis Bkh. in Ann. mag. n. h., viii, 317 



|uly, 1892]. 



PSYCHE, 



291 



Ceruka albicoma Strecker. 

1SS4 — Strk., Proc. acad. nat. sci. Phil., 
284. 

Habitat — Colorado. 

Cerura paradoxa Behr. 

1885 — Behr, Bull. Cal. acad. sci., i, 64. 
Head, thorax and legs clothed with dense 
white hairs, slightly tinged with cinereous 
on the collar, and banded on the thorax cen- 
trally with black and orange scales; abdomen 
cinereous, banded with white on the poste- 
rior edges of the segments. Fore wings 
silvery white, the transverse bands usually 
absent, but not diffused as in Cerura tneri- 
dionalis. When present they are faint, 
smoky gray, the inner one excavate on the 
inner side, nearly straight on the outer and 
slightly incised on the median and internal 
veins. (The outer is absent on all the speci- 
mens before me.) A black dot at base on 
median vein; just beyond it, another on the 
subcostal; further out, five more in a curved 
line, the first extending from costa to costal 
vein, second on the subcostal vein, third on 
the median, fourth on internal and fifth on 
the internal margin. The transverse band is 
represented by scattered, small gray scales; 
its margin defined in black on the costa and 
median vein, and strongly marked with 
orange scales on the costa, median and inter- 
nal veins and internal margin. Beyond the 
band, are five black dots, on the costa, sub- 
costal, median and internal veins respectively, 
and on the internal margin, the third just at 
the origin of vein 2. Median space white 
with a smoky gray transverse line, inwardly 
produced on the submedian fold. In some 
specimens this is very faint, but not more so 
than the other markings. Just beyond it, 
are two rows of venular dots, representing 
the outer band and separated by a space of 
from \ to 1 mm. The inner row is black, the 
outer orange, and in one specimen they are 
the only distinct markings. Terminal space 
clear white, except a very few inconspicuous 
small gray scales near costal margin. Ter- 
minal intervenular dots distinct, black, but 
variable in size from small to large. 



Hind wings non-lustrous white, with the 
blackish terminal dots. 

Below white, an extra-mesial gray shade 
line on fore wings and discal spots on both 
pair. Terminal dots as above. 

Expanse, 37-42 mm. 

A decidedly variable species, especially in 
the distinctness of maculation. 

Var. placida, ;/. var. 

This is the form in which the smoky gray 
transverse bands are evident at first glance, 
and the characteristic aspect of the species is 
much modified thereby. The form is rare, 
occurring only in two or three females out ot 
the large number of specimens in Dr. Behr's 
collection. It is a partial reversion to the 
usual type of marking in the genus Cerura. 

Habitat — Nevada Co., California. 

Cerura meridioxalis, n. sp. 

Head, collar, and patagia white, thorax 
centrally mixed with blackish and a few 
orange scales ; abdomen apparently pale gray, 
banded with whitish, but in poor condition 
in my specimens. Fore wings silvery white, 
the usual bands and marks nearly lost, being 
diffused and scattered into numerous black 
scales, which cover nearly the whole surface. 
Basal space white, except for a few dots r 
composed of three or four clustered scales, 
one at base and, further out, three more, on 
costal, median and internal veins respective- 
ly, the one on the median vein much further 
out than the others. The transverse band con- 
sists of black scattered irrorations on the 
white ground, with a few orange scales about 
the median and internal veins. Its shape 
can be made out, being deeply excavate both 
without and within, but not broken. It is 
about 5 mm. wide on internal margin, a 
little narrower on costa and only a little over 
1 mm. wide in its narrowest part below med- 
ian vein. Median space white, with sparse- 
ly, and irregularly distributed black irrora- 
tions. The outer band is represented by 
scattered black irrorations, which extend to 
the outer margin, but become more dense 
near the inner border of the band, which is 
quite sharply defined in one specimen, being 



292 



PSYCHE. 



[July, 1892. 



lined, nearly continuously, with orange 
scales. It starts on the costa, about 4mm. 
from apex, runs slightly obliquely inwards to 
vein 5, then curves sharply outward and 
turns, running parallel to external margin 
to its junction with the internal margin, 
where it becomes obscure. It is outwardly 
produced on veins 3 and 4. In the other 
specimen, this line lacks most of the orange 
scales, and is very obscure, its course being 
hardly discernible. Terminal intervenular 
spots very slight, consisting of four or five 



very small black scales, not contiguous. 

Hind wings white, without silvery luster, 
the intervenular spots larger than on fore 
wings, smoky black. Below, the wings are 
white; terminal dots repeated, enlarged. 

Expanse 46 mm. Two $ ? , El Paso, 
Texas. 

Kindly presented to me by Prof. J. J. 
Rivers of the University of California. 

I have drawn up the following table to 
separate the species of Cerura : — 



§ 1. Primaries crossed by about eight angularly undulate black lines. 
Secondaries black — multiscrifita Riley. 
Secondaries white. 

Lines continuous — scitiscrifta Walker. 
Lines broken — var. Candida Lintner. 
§ 2. Primaries crossed at basal third by abroad gray band, which may be broken or diffuse 
or even entirely obsolete. 

Primaries dark cinereous — cinerea Walker. 
Primaries pale cinereous. 

A row of dots in median space — var. cinereoides Dyar. 
Three dentate lines in median space. 

Band with defined edges and a few orange scales — occidentalis Lintner. 
Band of uniform tint, and without orange scales — modesta Hudson. 
Primaries white. 

Transverse band indistinct, though perhaps broken. 

Six black spots in an ellipse on disk — borealis Boisduval. 
Indistinct dentate lines on disk. 

Band broad — scolofendrina Boisduval. 
Band narrow or broken — albicoma Strecker. 
Transverse band faint or obsolete, rarely distinct. 

Black markings much reduced, often largely absent, but not diffuse. 
Transverse band faint or absent — paradoxa Behr. 
Transverse band distinct — var. flacida Dyar. 
Black markings very diffuse, irrorate, size large — meridionalis Dyar. 



Personal notes : — American entomolo- 
gists will be pleased to hear that the mathe- 
matical physical faculty of Heidelberg 
University has conferred the degree of 
Doctor philosophiae naturalis (honoris 
causa) upon Baron Charles Robert von 
Osten Sacken. 



Prof. C H. Tyler Townsend of the New 
Mexico College of Agriculture at Las Cruces, 
has started on a field trip by wagon from 
there to the Grand Canon of the Colorado, 
via Flagstaff. Prof. Wooton, of the same 
College, and two students accompany him 
and they expect to be away two months. 



July, 1S92.] 



PSYCHE. 



293 



They have arranged to meet Prof. Tourney 
of the University of Arizona, and his party, 
consisting of men from the Agricultural De- 
partment in Washington, who start by wagon 
from Tucson, at Flagstaff about the first of 
July. They will then go on to the Grand 
Canon together, remaining in company three 
or four weeks, and returning by way of the 
eastern boundary of Arizona. The object of 
both parties is the collection of insects and 
plants. 

Dr. W. J. Holland of Pittsburg sailed for 
Europe June 29 and during the summer will 
prosecute some entomological studies in the 
mu-eums of London and Paris. 






BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. — II. 
by samuel henshaw. 
Biologia Centrali-Americana. — Col- 

eopteka. Vol. I. By Henry Walter Bates. 

gen. sp' 

Cicindelidae, 1S81, pt. 13-14, p. 1-18; 
1SS3. pt. 27, p. 256; 1S84, pt. 31, 
p. 257-261. 8 85 

Carabidae, 1SS1, pt. 14, p. 19-40: 18S2, 
pt. 15-19, p. 41-152; 18S3, pt. 21- 
22, 25, 27. p. 153-255 ; 1S84, pt. 31- 
32. 34, p. 261-299. 144 999 

Species of the following genera are fig- 
ured : — 

Cicindelidae. — Cicindela, 1, 13. Ctenos- 
toma, 1. Odontocheila, 1, 13. Oxycheila, 
1. Oxygonia, 1. Pseudoxycheila, 1. Tet- 
racha, 1. 

Carabidae. — Abaris, 4. Adrimus, 4. 
Agra, 12. Allotriopus, 4, Amara, 4. Ana- 
trichis, 3. Anchomenus, 4. Ancistro- 
glossus, 7. Anillus, 6. Anisodactylus, 3. 
Anisotarsus, 3. Apenes, 7, S, 13. Apristus, 
8. Ardistomis, 2. Arthrostictus, 3. Aspasi- 
ola, S. Aspidoglossa, 2. Axinopalpus, 8. 
Barysomus, 3. Bembidium, 6. Brachinus, 
7. Calathus, 4. Calleida, 9, 13. Calo- 
phaena, 6. Calosoma, 2. Carabus, 13. Cas- 
nonia, 6, 13. Catapiesis, 4. Catascopus, 7. 
Celia, 4. Chlaenius, 3, 13. Clivina, 2. 
Clopodes, 5, 13. Coptodera, 7. Cratocera, 
4- Cryptobatis, 8. Curtonotus, 4. *Cyr. 



tolaus, 5. Diaphorus, 6, 13 Diploharpus- 

6. Discoderus, 3. Dromius, 8. Ega, 6. 
*Elliptoleus, 4. Euchroa, 4. Euproctus, 8 
Eurycoleus, 7. Evarthrus, 14. Galerita, 6, 

7. Gallerucidia, 9. Glyptolenus, 5, 13- 
Helluomorpha, 7. Hyboptera, 8. Hypher, 
pes, 4. *Ithytolus. 13. Lachnophorus, 6. 
Lebia, 10. 11. 12. Lelis, 7. Leptotrachelus 
6. Lia, 12. Loricera. 2. Loxandrus, 4. 13 
Loxopeza, 10. Menidius, 8. Micragra, 6 
*Mioptachys, 6. Mizotrechus, 6. Morio, 4 
Moriosomus, 4. Xemotarsus, 7. Notiobia 
3, 13. Notiophilus, 2. *Ochropisus, 7 
Omophron, 2. Onota, 8. 13. Onyptergyia 
v Otoglossa, 8. Pachyteles, 2, 13. Pana- 
gaeus, 3. Pasimachus, 2. Pelecium, 3. 
*Pelmatellus, 3. Pentagonica, 9. *Per. 
colaus, 4. Pericompsus, 6, 13. Perigona, 6. 
Pheropsophus, 7. Philopheuga, 9. Phloe- 
oxena, 7. Physea, 2. Pinacodera, 7, S. 
Platynus, 4. Platysoma, 4. Polpochila 3.' 
Pseudomorpha, 12. Scaphinotus, 13. Schi. 
zogenius, 2. Selenophorus, 3, 13. Steno- 
crepis, 3. Stenoglossa, 7. Stenognathus, 7. 
Stenomorphus, 3. Stenous, 3. Stolonis, 4. 
Tachys, 6. Tachyta, 6. Tetragonoderus, 7, 
Trechus, 6. Xystosomus, 6. 

New genera are marked (*) ; the figure 
following the name of the genus denotes the 
number of the plate. Of the 85 species of 
Cicindelidae found in Central America 18 
species occur in America north of Mexico> 
and of the 999 species of Carabidae from 
Central America. 84 are found in America 
north of Mexico. 

Cerura modesta. — In my list of the 
Bombyces taken at electric light in Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., given not long since in 
Psyche, occurs the name Cerura aquilonaris. 
This I now believe is an error, and the name 
should be Cerura modesta Hudson. This 
species was not then described, and the deter- 
mination was made from a single example in 
very poor condition taken from the lamps 
previous to 1890. C. aquilonaris Lintn. 
{=scolopendrina Boisd.) probably does not 
occur in New York. — Harrison G. Dyar. 






294 



PSYCHE. 



[July 1S92. 



General notes: — Hudson's Elementary 
manual of New Zealand entomology, an oc. 
tavo work of 136 pp. and 21 colored plates, is 
not at all what its title would lead one to 
expect. It is rather an account of a selected 
series of insects of all orders, about 113 spe. 
cies, the life-history or habits of which were 
more or less known to the author. Perhaps 
the most interesting and the fullest are those 
of species of Hepialus and Oeceticus. Its 
value consists in this and the figures of the 
larvae, etc., which are unfortunately rather 
too vague and generalized for special use. 
It is, however, an interesting sketch of in- 
sect-life at the antipodes. 

The third part of Lowne's Anatomy of the 
blowfly, concluding the first of two volumes, 
contains 136 pp. and 10 pi. It discusses the 
topographical anatomy of the muscles and 
viscera of the imago, the embryology, the 
general anatomy and histology of the insect, 
and the development of the nymph in the 
pupa. The next volume will deal with the 
internal organs. Many of the author's views 
are diametrically opposed to those usually 
received, but in such cases both sides are 
presented. 

The tenth part of Moore's Lepidoptera 
Indica deals entirely with the Satyrinae, but 



contains nothing of general interest. 

The Royal Society of New South Wales 
offers its medal and twenty-five pounds for 
the best communication on each of several 
subjects, among which is one "on the in- 
juries occasioned by insect-pests upon intro- 
duced trees" in that country. The offer is 
closed in May, 1893. 

Theodore Shaw of Wellesley, Mass., a boy 
of nine, informs us that on June 14 last he 
caught a specimen of Heraclides crespho?ites 
in that town. It is not known to have been 
seen in Massachusetts since 1883. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

8 April, 1S92. — The 170th meeting was 
held at 156 Brattle street, Mr. S. Henshaw in 
the chair. 

Mr. A. P. Morse showed some larvae of 
Corethra which he had recently collected. 
He also remarked that while collecting 
lately he had found a salamander which had 
been feeding on white ants. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder read letters from Mr. 
W. H. Edwards and Mr. J. Fletcher, both 
noting the poor success they had had in win- 
tering the larvae of several butterflies. 



The Butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada. 

With special reference to New England. By Samuel H. Scudder. 
Illustrated with 96 plates of Butterflies, Caterpillars, Chrysalids, etc. (of which 41 are 
colored) which include about 2,000 Figures besides Maps and Portraits. 1958 Pages of Text. 
Vol. 1. Introduction ; Nymphalidae. 
Vol. 2. Remaining Families of Butterflies. 
Vol. 3. Appendix, Plates and Index. 

The set, 3 vols., royal 8vo, half levant, $75.00 net. 



HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & CO., 

4 Park St., Boston, Mass. 



AD VEK TISEMENT. 
Undersigned wishes to obtain either by exchange 
or for cash, Cicindelidae and rare Carabidae from 
all parts of the U. S. Lists please address to 
A. LUETGENS, 

207 E. 15 Street, N. Y. City. 



TACHINIDAE WANTED. 
Named or unnamed Tachinidae wanted in ex- 
change, or for study, from any part of North America 
including Mexico and the West Indies. 

C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, 

Las Cruces, New Mexico. 




PSYCHE, 

J± JOXJR2STA.L OF ENTOMOLOGY. 
[Established in 1S74.] 

Vol. 6. No. 196. 

August, 1892. 

CONTENTS: 

Some old Correspondence between Harris, Say and Pickering. — VI. . . 297 
Description of Oestrid Larvae taken from the Jack-rabbit and Cotton- 
tail. — C. H. Tyler Townsend 298 

dohrn^and burmeister.2 r ............ 300 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Entomological Club. 300 

The Orthopteran genus Hippiscus. — III. — Samuel H. Scudder 301 

The North American Jassidae allied to Thamnotettix. — E. P. Van Duzee. . 305 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMBERS. 20c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



296 



PSYCHE. 



[August 1892. 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

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Beginning with January, i8qi, the rate of 
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